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Decimal Numbers Part 1

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Decimal Numbers-Part 1

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Decimal Numbers Part 1

  1. 1. Learning to Solve DECIMAL NUMBERS (Modular Workbook for Grade VI) Student Researchers/ Authors: PAMN FAYE HAZEL M. VALIN RON ANGELO A. DRONA ASST. PROF. BEATRIZ P. RAYMUNDO Module Consultant MR. FOR – IAN V. SANDOVAL Module Adviser 7 8 1 04 3 6 90 5
  2. 2. L aguna u p s tate olytechnic niversity VMGOs
  3. 3. A premier university in CALABARZON, offering academic programs and related services designed to respond to the requirements of the Philippines and the global economy, particularly, Asian countries. Vision
  4. 4. The University shall primarily provide advanced education, professional, technological and vocational instruction in agriculture, fisheries, forestry, science, engineering, industrial technologies, teacher education, medicine, law, arts and sciences, information technology and other related fields. It shall also undertake research and extension services, and provide a progressive leadership in its areas of specialization. Mission
  5. 5. In pursuit of college mission/vision the college of education is committed to develop the full potential of the individuals and equip them with knowledge, skills and attitudes in teacher education allied fields effectively responds to the increasing demands, challenge and opportunities of changing time for global competitiveness. Goals of College of Education
  6. 6. Objectives of Bachelor of Elementary Education 1. Produce graduates who can demonstrate and practice the professional and ethical requirements for the Bachelor of Elementary Education such as: 2. Acquire basic and major trainings in Bachelor of Elementary Education focusing on General Education and Pre - School Education. 3. Produce mentors who are knowledgeable and skilled in teaching pre - school learners and elementary grades and with desirable values and attitudes or efficiency and effectiveness. 4. Conduct research and development in teacher education and other related fields. 5. Extend services and other related activities for the advancement of community life.
  7. 7. Foreword
  8. 8. This Teacher’s Guide Module entitled “Learning to Solve Decimal Numbers (Modular Workbook for Grade VI)” is part of the requirements in Educational Technology 2 under the revised curriculum for Bachelor in Secondary Education based on CHED Memorandum Order (CMO)-30, Series of 2004. Educational Technology 2 is a three (3)-unit course designed to introduce both traditional and innovative technologies to facilitate and foster meaningful and effective learning where students are expected to demonstrate a sound understanding of the nature, application and production of the various types of educational technologies.
  9. 9. The students are provided with guidance and assistance of selected faculty members of the university through the selection, production and utilization of appropriate technology tools in developing technology-based teacher support materials. Through the role and functions of computers especially the Internet, the student researchers and the advisers are able to design and develop various types of alternative delivery systems. These kind of activities offer a remarkable learning experience for the education students as future mentors especially in the preparation of instructional materials.
  10. 10. The output of the group’s effort may serve as an educational research of the institution in providing effective and quality education. The lessons and evaluations presented in this module may also function as a supplementary reference for secondary teachers and students.
  11. 11. FOR-IAN V. SANDOVAL Computer Instructor / Adviser Educational Technology 2 BEATRIZ P. RAYMUNDO Assistant Professor II / Consultant LYDIA R. CHAVEZ Dean College of Education
  12. 12. Preface
  13. 13. This instructional modular workbook entitled “Learning to Solve Decimal Numbers (Modular Workbook for Grade VI)”, which geared toward the objective of making quality education available to all and offers you a very interesting and helpful friend in your journey to the world of decimal numbers. Dear Learners,
  14. 14. This modular workbook offers you many experiences in learning decimal numbers. This time, you will study how to read, write, and name decimal numbers and how to compare order and round off decimal numbers. Of course you will also express the equivalent fractions and decimals.
  15. 15. You will also experience the four (4) fundamental operations (Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division) dealing with decimal numbers. Lastly, you will also solve more difficult problems involving the four (4) fundamental operations using decimal numbers. Learning decimal content is much more skillful in drilling with the application of FUN WITH MATH which designed to achieve with outmost skill and convenience.
  16. 16. The authors feel that you can benefit much from this modular workbook if you follow the direction carefully. Be mindful as you lead yourselves to challenge the situation and circumstances and as you faces in every living as well as for the near future. If you do these, you will realize that indeed this modular workbook can be a very interesting and helpful companion. The Authors
  17. 17. Acknowledgement
  18. 18. We would like to express our sincerest gratitude for the following whom in are ways or another help us making this modular workbook become possible: To Prof. Corazon N. San Agustin , for her kindness and understanding to this modular workbook.
  19. 19. To Mr. For – Ian V. Sandoval , our instructor and adviser in Educational Technology 2, for giving sufficient technical trainings, suggestions, constructive criticism and unending support in our every needs. To Assistant Professor Beatriz P. Raymundo , our Module Consultant, for making her available most of the time for comments, suggestions and revision of the modular workbook.
  20. 20. To Professor Lydia R. Chavez , our Dean, College of Education, for inspiring advises and encouragement. To our classmates and friends for their never ending support.
  21. 21. To our beloved families , for unconditional love, emotional, spiritual and financial support all the way to used and for the filling up our duties in our home. And most importantly to Almighty God , for rendering abilities, wisdom, good health, strength, courage, source of enlightenment and inspiration to pursue doing this piece of material. The Authors
  22. 22. Table of Contents
  23. 23. VMGO’s FOREWORD PREFACE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT TABLE OF CONTENTS
  24. 24. UNIT I Decimal Numbers Lesson 1 What is Decimal? Lesson 2 Reading and Writing Decimal Numbers Lesson 3 Reading and Writing Mixed Decimal Numbers Lesson 4 Reading and Writing Decimal Numbers Used in Technical and Science Work Lesson 5 Place Value Lesson 6 Comparing Decimal Numbers Lesson 7 Ordering Decimal Numbers Lesson 8 How to Round Decimal Numbers? Lesson 9 The Self-Replicating Gene
  25. 25. UNIT II Equivalent Fractions and Decimals Lesson 10 Expressing Fractions to Decimals Lesson 11 Expressing Mixed Fractional Numbers to Mixed Decimals Lesson 12 Expressing Decimals to Fractions Lesson 13 Expressing Mixed Decimals Numbers to Mixed Numbers (Fractions)
  26. 26. UNIT III Addition and Subtraction of Decimal Numbers Lesson 14 Meaning of Addition and Subtraction of Decimal Numbers Lesson 15 Addition and Subtraction of Decimal Numbers without Regrouping Lesson 16 Addition and Subtraction of Decimal Numbers with Regrouping Lesson 17 Adding and Subtracting Mixed Decimals Lesson 18 Estimating Sum and Difference of Whole Numbers and Decimals Lesson 19 Minuend with Two Zeros Lesson 20 Problem Solving Involving Addition and Subtraction of Decimal Numbers
  27. 27. UNIT IV Multiplication of Decimals Lesson 21 Meaning of Multiplication of Decimals Lesson 22 Multiplying Decimals Lesson 23 Multiplying Mixed Decimals by Whole Numbers Lesson 24 Multiplication of Mixed Decimals by Whole Numbers Lesson 25 Multiplying Decimals by 10, 100 and 1000 Lesson 26 Estimating Products of Decimal Numbers Lesson 27 Problem Solving Involving Multiplication of Decimal Numbers
  28. 28. UNIT V Division of Decimal Numbers Lesson 28 Meaning of Division of Decimals Lesson 29 Dividing Decimals by Whole Numbers Lesson 30 Dividing Mixed Decimals by Whole Numbers Lesson 31 Dividing Whole Numbers by Decimals Lesson 32 Dividing Whole Numbers by Mixed Decimals Lesson 33 Dividing Decimals by Decimals Lesson 34 Dividing Mixed Decimals by Mixed Decimals
  29. 29. CURRICULUM VITAE REFERENCES
  30. 30. UNIT I DECIMAL NUMBERS
  31. 31. OVERVIEW OF THE MODULAR WORKBOOK In this modular workbook, you will understand the concept of the language of decimal numbers. This modular workbook, will help you to read, write, and name decimal numbers for a given models, standard, mixed and technical and science work form. It provides the knowledge about place value, with the aid of a place - value chart. It also provides information on how to compare and order decimal numbers and also how to round off decimal numbers. This module will provide you a more difficult work in mathematics. Exercises will help the learners evaluate themselves to understand decimal numbers.
  32. 32. OBJECTIVES OF THE MODULAR WORKBOOK After completing this modular workbook, you expected to: 1. Know the language of decimal numbers. 2. Read, write, and name decimal numbers in different forms. 3. Read and write decimal numbers with the aids of place - value chart. 4. Compare and order decimal numbers. 5. Rounding off decimal numbers by following its rule.
  33. 33. Lesson 1 WHAT IS DECIMAL? <ul><li>Lesson Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>After accomplishing the lesson, the students are expected to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>. Define decimals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. Identify the terms in decimal numbers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. Familiarize the language of decimal numbers. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. One important feature of our number system is the decimal. It involved many computational operations. It is very useful in the measurement of very thin sheets and in the computation involving in exact amount. But what is decimal? Look at the following examples:
  35. 35. <ul><li>.3 = 3 .03 = 3 </li></ul><ul><li> 10 100 </li></ul><ul><li>.003 = 3 .0003 = 3 </li></ul><ul><li> 1000 10000 </li></ul>b. .5 = 5 .05 = 5 10 100 .005 = 5 .0005 = 5 1000 10000
  36. 36. From the example given above, a “ decimal ” may be defined as a fraction whose denominator is in the power of 10.
  37. 37. Numbers in the power of 10 are 10, 100, 1000, 1000, etc. The dot before a digit in a decimal is called “ decimal point ” which is an indicator that the number is a decimal. The place on the position occupied by a digit at the right of the decimal point is called a “ decimal place ”.
  38. 38. I. Give the meaning and explain the use of the following. 1. What are decimals? 2. What is decimal point? 3. What is decimal place? 4. Give some examples of decimal numbers. 1 Worksheet
  39. 39. <ul><li>Decimals ____________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>2. Decimal Point ____________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>3. Decimal Place ____________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>4. Examples </li></ul><ul><li>____________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul>
  40. 40. II. Change the decimal numbers to fractional form. Example: 0.8 = 8 10 1. 0.9 =_______________ 2. 0.1 =_______________ 3. 0.04 =_______________ 4. 0.06 =_______________ 5. 0.09 =_______________ 6. 0.001 =_______________ 7. 0.009 =_______________ 8. 0.0071 =_______________ 9. 0.0009 =_______________ 10. 0.0003 =_______________
  41. 41. 11. 0.0004 =________________ 12. 0.0005 =________________ 13. 0.00008 =________________ 14. 0.00009 =________________ 15. 0.148 =________________ 16. 0.79 =________________ 17. 0.1459 =________________ 18. 0.6 =________________ 19. 0.01 =________________ 20. 0.051 =________________
  42. 42. Lesson 2 READING AND WRITING DECIMAL NUMBERS <ul><li>Lesson Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>After accomplishing the lesson, you are expected to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>. Read and write decimal numbers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. Follow the rules in reading and writing decimal numbers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. Use the place value chart in order to read and write decimal numbers. </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. How to read and write decimals or decimal numbers? A decimal is read and write according to the number of decimal place it has. Here are the rules in reading and writing decimal numbers.
  44. 44. RULE I. A decimal of one decimal place is to be read and to be written as tenth. .4 is read as “4 tenths” and is to be written as “four tenths”; 4/10 .2 is read as “2 tenths” and is to be written as “two tenths”. 2/10
  45. 45. RULE II. A decimal of two decimal places is to be read and to be written as hundredth. .35 is read as “35 hundredths” and is to be written as “thirty – five hundredths”; 35/100 .43 is read as “43 hundredths” and is to be written as “forty – three hundredths”.43/100
  46. 46. RULE III. A decimal of three decimal places is to be read and written as thousandth. .261 is read as “261 thousandths” and is to be written as “two hundred sixty – one thousandths”; 261/1000 .578 is read as “578 thousandths” and is to be written as “five hundred seventy – eight thousandths”.578/1000
  47. 47. RULE IV. A decimal of four decimal places is to be read and to be written as ten thousandth. .4917 is read as “4917 ten thousandths” and is to be written as “four thousand, nine hundred seventeen ten thousandths”; 4917/10,000 .5087 is read as “5087 ten thousandths” and is to be written as “five thousand eighty - seven ten thousandths”.5078/10,000
  48. 48. A decimal is read and written like an integer with the name of the order of the right most digits added. 4 3 5 2 1 6 9 8 7 5 3 4 . 0 trillionths hundred billionths ten billionths billionths hundred millionths ten millionths Millionths hundred thousandths ten thousandths thousandths hundredths tenths
  49. 49. Note: the names of the order of the different decimal places. Quadrillionths Pentillionths Hexillionths Heptillionths Octillionths Nonillionths Decillionths Undecillionths Dodecillionths Tridecillionths… SEQUENCES
  50. 50. <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0.4 Read as four tenths. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0.43 Read as forty-three hundredths. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0.435 Read as four hundred thirty-five thousandths. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>0.4357 Read as four thousand, three hundred fifty-seven ten thousandths. </li></ul>
  51. 51. 0.43578 Read as forty-three thousand, five hundred seventy-eight hundred thousandths. 0.435789 Read as four hundred thirty-five thousand, seven hundred eighty nine millionths. 0.4357896 Read as four million, three hundred fifty-seven thousand, eight hundred ninety-six ten millionths.
  52. 52. 0.43578961 Read as forty three million, five hundred seventy-eight thousand, nine hundred sixty-one hundred millionths. 0.435789612Read as four hundred thirty-five million, seven hundred eighty nine thousand, six hundred twelve billionths. 0.4357896125 Read as four billion, three hundred fifty seven million, eight hundred ninety six thousand, one hundred twenty five ten billionths.
  53. 53. 0.43578961253 Read as forty-three billion, five hundred seventy eight million, nine hundred sixty-one thousand, two hundred fifty three hundred billionths. 0.435789612534 Read as four hundred thirty-five billion, seven hundred eighty-nine million, six hundred twelve thousand, five hundred thirty-four trillionths.
  54. 54. I. Write each decimal numbers in words on the space provided. 1. 0.167213143____________________________ ______________________________________ 2. 0.52541876_____________________________ ______________________________________ 3. 0.263411859____________________________ ______________________________________ 4. 0.984562910____________________________ ______________________________________ 5. 0.439621512____________________________ _______________________________________ 2 Worksheet
  55. 55. II. Write the decimal number in standard form. 1. Nine tenths ______________________________________________ 2. Four hundredths ______________________________________________ 3. Two thousand, two hundred and two hundred thousandths ____________________________________________ 4. Four hundred seventy – six millionths ________________________________________________ 5. Forty thousand, one hundred forty – one millionths ________________________________________________
  56. 56. Lesson 3 READING AND WRITING MIXED DECIMAL NUMBERS <ul><li>Lesson Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of the lesson, the students were expected to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>. Read mixed decimal numbers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. Follow the rules in reading and writing mixed decimal numbers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. Write mixed decimal numbers. </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. Look at the following examples: a. 5.8 is read as “5 and 8 tenths” and is to be written as “five and eight tenths” b. 26.38 is read as “26 and 38 hundredths” and is to be written as “twenty – six and thirty – eight hundredths” c. 49.246 is read as “49 and 246 thousandths” and is to be written as “forty – nine and two hundred forty – six thousandths” d. 348.578 is read as “348 and 578 thousandths” and is to be written as “three hundred forty – eight and five hundred seventy – eight thousandths”
  58. 58. It is seen that the following rule has been followed in the above examples. RULE: In reading a mixed decimal numbers, read the integral part as usual “and” in place of the decimal point, the decimal point is read as usual also.
  59. 59. 1.246.819_____________________________________________________________________________________ 2.65.42387____________________________________________________________________________________ 3.9023.145867_________________________________________________________________________________ 4.87.5843_____________________________________________________________________________________ 5.48.0089_____________________________________________________________________________________ <ul><li>Write the words of decimal number for each of the following: </li></ul>3 Worksheet
  60. 60. II. Write decimal numbers for each of the following sentences: 1. Sixteen and sixteen hundredths _____________________________________________ 2.Two and one ten – thousandths _____________________________________________ 3.Ten thousand four and fourteen ten – thousandths _____________________________________________ 4. Ninety – nine billion and eight tenths _____________________________________________ 5. Twelve hundred two and seven millionths _____________________________________________
  61. 61. 6. Ninety – nine and nine hundred nine thousand, nine millionths_________________________________ 7. Five billion and sixty – five hundredths ______________________________________________ 8. Three billion, six thousand and three thousand six millionths _____________________________________ 9. Seventy – one million, one hundred and fifty – five hundred thousandths ______________________________________________ 10. Two hundred two million, two thousand, two and two hundred two thousand two millionths ______________________________________________
  62. 62. Lesson 4 READING AND WRITING DECIMALS USED IN TECHNICAL AND SCIENCE WORK <ul><li>Lesson Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of the lesson, the pupil should be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>. Read and write decimals used in technical and science work. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. Follow the rules in reading and writing decimals used in technical and science work. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. Know the simple way of reading and writing decimals that can be used in technical and science work. </li></ul></ul>
  63. 63. This method of reading decimals and mixed decimals is often used by people engaged in technical and science work. But this can be used by lay people especially if the part of the number has many digits. Observe the following examples:
  64. 64. <ul><ul><li>a. 5.8 is read as “5 point 8” and is to be written as “five point eight” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. .9 is read as “point 9” and is to be written as “point nine” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. 6.893 is read as “6 point 893” and is to be written as “six point eight nine three” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d. 348.09536 is read as “348 point 09536” and is to be written as “three four eight point zero nine five three six“ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e. 8945.874205 is read as “8945 point 874205” and is to be written as “eight nine four five point eight seven four two zero five” </li></ul></ul>
  65. 65. The rule followed in the above examples is as follows: To read decimals or mixed decimal numbers used in technical and science work or when the numbers of digits in the decimal is too many, just mention the values of the digits and separate the integral part by saying “point” instead of “and”. RULE:
  66. 66. <ul><li>0.009 </li></ul><ul><li>Read:___________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Write:___________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>2. 45.78 </li></ul><ul><li>Read:__________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Write:__________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>3. 3148 </li></ul><ul><li>Read: ___________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Write:___________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>4. 3.456 </li></ul><ul><li>Read:___________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Write:__________________________________________ </li></ul>I. Read and write the following in technical or science way. 4 Worksheet
  67. 67. 4. 3.456 Read:______________________________________ Write:______________________________________ 5. 47.629 Read: ___________________________________________ Write:___________________________________________ 6. 5.78456 Read: ___________________________________________ Write:___________________________________________ 7. 0.491 Read:___________________________________________ Write:__________________________________________
  68. 68. 8. 28.652 Read:__________________________________________ Write:_________________________________________ 9. 4928.95 Read:__________________________________________ Write:_________________________________________ 9. 4928.95 Read:__________________________________________ Write:_________________________________________ 10. 376.732 Read:__________________________________________ Write:_________________________________________
  69. 69. 11. 841.50 Read:__________________________________________ Write:_________________________________________ 12. 3.62 Read:__________________________________________ Write:_________________________________________ 13. 0.03 Read:__________________________________________ Write:_________________________________________ 14. 97.5 Read:__________________________________________ Write:________________________________________ 15. 2.3148 Read:_________________________________________ Write:________________________________________
  70. 70. II. Write the following using decimal numbers. <ul><li>1. one seven point three ___________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>2. point five four two nine ___________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>3. one two point zero nine ___________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>4. four three point one eight nine ___________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>5. two four point seven three two __________________________________________ </li></ul>
  71. 71. 6. three point seven six nine ______________________________________________ 7. two one seven point one five ____________________________________________ 8. point zero eight zero zero zero ___________________________________________ 9. nine point zero four zero ______________________________________________ 10. two point six seven two five ____________________________________________ 11. zero point nine eight nine ______________________________________________
  72. 72. 12. zero point five two six eight two nine ____________________________________________ 13. five six zero point four zero one eight ____________________________________________ 14. one point one nine one eight ____________________________________________ 15. eight point five four three ____________________________________________
  73. 73. Lesson 5 PLACE VALUE <ul><li>Lesson Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>In this lesson, the pupils are expected to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>. Distinguish the relationship of place value in its place. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. Write common fractions in decimal forms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. Give the place value for every digit. </li></ul></ul>
  74. 74. 1/10 6 1/10 5 1/10 4 1/10 3 1/10 2 1/10 1 1/10 0 10 1 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 × × × × × × . × × × × × × × 7 8 5 4 3 1 . 1 4 3 6 4 9 1 Numerals M I L L I O N T H S H T U H N O D U R S E A D N T H S T T E H N O U S A N T H S T H O U S A N T H S H U N D R E D T H S T E N T H S O N E S T E N S H U N D R E D S T H O U S A N D S T T E H N O U S A N D S H T U H N O D U R S E A D N D S M I L L I O N S Place Value Names PLACE VALUE CHART
  75. 75. What relationship exists in the diagram? What does the 1 in the tenths place mean? What does the 3 in the hundreds place represent? How about the 3 in the hundredths place?
  76. 76. Notice that: 0.1 = 1 × 1/10 = 1/10 (one tenth) 0.13 = 13 × 1/102 = 13/100 (thirteen hundredths) 0.134 = 134 × 1/103 = 134/1000 (one hundred thirty – four thousandths) 0.1345 = 1345 × 1/104 = 1345/10000 (one thousand three hundred forty – five ten thousandths) 0.13458 = 13458 × 1/105 = 13458/100000 (thirteen thousand four hundred fifty – eight hundred thousandths) 0.134587 = 134587 × 1/106 = 134587/1000000 (one hundred thirty – four thousand five hundred eighty – seven millionths)
  77. 77. Worksheet I. Complete the equivalent decimals to fractions. 5   10. 685.95   9. 0.000658   8. 16.775 7. 0.1527   6. 2.003   5. 0.041   4. 1.52   3. 0.937   2. 4.165   1. 0.23 Fraction Decimal
  78. 78. II. Answer the following. 1. In 246.819, what number is in each of the following place value? Example: __ 6 __ a. ones _ 246 _ c. hundreds _ 46 __ b. tens _ _.8 __ d. tenths _ .81 __ e. hundredths __ .819 _ f. thousandths 2. In 65.42387, tell what number is in each of the following places. _____a. tenths _____d. ten–thousandths _____b. hundredths _____e. hundred – thousandths _____c. thousandths _____f. ones _____g. tens
  79. 79. 3. In 9023.45867, tell what number is in each of the following places. _____a. ones _____e. hundredths _____b. tens _____f. thousandths _____c. tenths _____g. thousands _____d. hundreds _____h. ten – thousandths _____i. hundred–thousandths _____j. millionths
  80. 80. Lesson 6 COMPARING DECIMAL NUMBERS <ul><li>Lesson Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of the lesson, the pupils are expected to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>. Compare decimal numbers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. Use fractional number to compare decimals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. Know the sign in comparing decimal numbers. </li></ul></ul>
  81. 81. If there are two decimal numbers we can compare them. One number is either greater than (>), less than (<) or equal to (=) the other number.
  82. 82. A decimal number is just a fractional number. Comparing 0.7 and 0.07 is clearer if we compared 7/10 to 7/100. The fraction 7/10 is equivalent to 70/100 which is clearly larger than 7/1000.
  83. 83. Therefore, when decimals are compared start with tenths place and then hundredths place, etc. If one decimal has a higher number in the tenths place then it is larger than a decimal with fewer tenths. If the tenths are equal, compare the hundredths, then the thousandths, etc. Until one decimal is larger or there are no more places to compare. If each decimal place value is the same then the decimals are equal.
  84. 84. Worksheet I. Fill the frame with the correct sign (>) “less than”, (=) “equal to”, or (>) “greater than” between two given numbers. Example: 0.9 = 9/10 0.90 = 10/100 = 6
  85. 85. b. 9.004 0.040 f. 51.6 51.59 c. 20.80533 20.06 g. 50.470 50.469 d. 0.070 0.07 h. 0.90 0.9 e. 0.540 0.054 i. 0.003 0.03 j. 0.8000 0.080
  86. 86. Lesson 7 ORDERING DECIMAL NUMBERS <ul><li>Lesson Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>After accomplishing the lesson, the pupils are expected to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Order decimal numbers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know the terms in arranging decimal numbers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand how to arrange decimal numbers. </li></ul></ul>
  87. 87. Numbers have an order or arrangement. The number two is between one and three. Three or more numbers can be placed in order. A number may come before the other numbers or it may come between them or after them.
  88. 88. <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>If we start with numbers 4.3 and 8.78, the number 5.2764 would come between them, the number 9.1 would come after them and the number 2 would come before them. </li></ul><ul><li>( Descending- 9.1; 8.87; 5.2764; 4.3 ) 9.1> 8.87>5.2764>4.3 </li></ul><ul><li>If we start with the numbers 4.3 and 4.78, the number 4.2764 would come before both of them; the number 4.5232 would come between them. </li></ul><ul><li>( Ascending- 4.2764; 4.3; 4.5232; 4.78) 4.2764< 4.3<4.5232<4.78 </li></ul>
  89. 89. REMEMBER: The order may be ascending (getting larger in value) or descending (becoming smaller in value).
  90. 90. I. Write in order from ascending order and descending order by completing the table. 7 Worksheet 2. 5; 5.012; 5.1; .502 2.3104 2.3042 2.0342 Example: 2.0342 2.3042 2.3104 1. 2.0342; 2.3042; 2.3104 Descending Order Ascending Order 3. 0.6; 0.6065; 0.6059;0.6061
  91. 91. 5. 6.3942; 6.3924; 6.9342; 6.4269 9. 7.635; 7.628; 7.63; 7.625 8. 0.123; 0.112; 0.12; 0.121 7. 3.01; 3.001; 3.1; 3.001 6. 0.0990; 0.0099; 0.999; 0.90 4. 12.9; 12.09; 12.9100; 12.9150; 12 10. 4.349; 4.34; 4. 3600; 4.3560
  92. 92. FUN WITH MATH!!! Arrange the given decimal numbers from the least to greatest and you will find a famous quotation by Shakespeare.
  93. 93. 9.003 miseries 8.901 the 7.352 lawful 8.513 upward 8.43 up 7.33 are 10.5 mankind 7.911 which 9.100 of 7.84 those 8.88 or 7.310 ambitious 7.8 except 8.043 climb (least) 7.301 All Shakespeare
  94. 94. All ___ _______ ________ ________ ________ ________ 7.301 _______ ________ ________ ________ ________ _______ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ _______ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ _______ ________ ________ _______ ________ ________ . - Shakespeare II. Answer the following. a. The list below is the memory recall time of 5 personal computers. Which model has the fastest memory recall?
  95. 95. Answer: ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ 0.019 sec. Sal 970 0.1897 sec. Vision 0.02045 sec. Redi-mate 0.01936 sec. XQR 2000 0.0195 sec. Sterling PC Recall Time Model
  96. 96. b. Arrange the memory recall time of computers in number 1 in ascending order. Answer: __________________________________________________________________________________ c. A carpenter uses different sizes of drill bits in boring holes. The sizes are in fractional form and their equivalent decimals. Arrange the decimal equivalent in descending order. 1/16 = 0.0625 ¼ = 0.25 1/8 = 0.125 5/6 = 0.3125
  97. 97. Answer: ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ d. Which has the smallest decimal equivalent among the drill bits in item C? Answer: ________________________________________ ________________________________________
  98. 98. e. Which has the greatest decimal equivalent the drill bits in item C? Answer: ________________________________________ ________________________________________
  99. 99. Lesson 8 ROUNDING OFF DECIMALS <ul><li>Lesson Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>After accomplishing the lesson, the pupils are expected to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Round decimals. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Tabulate data in the chart. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Show rules in rounding decimal numbers. </li></ul>
  100. 100. To round decimal numbers means to drop off the digits to the right of the place-value indicated and replace them by zeros. The accuracy of the place-value needed must be stated and it depends on the purpose for which rounding is done. We give rounded decimal numbers when we do not need the exact value or number. Instead, we are after an estimated value or measure that will serve our purpose. These are many instances in daily life when rounded numbers are what we need to use.
  101. 101. How well do you remember in rounding whole numbers? Study the example below. Round to the nearest 4935 ten 4940 hundred 4900 thousand 5000
  102. 102. See how the following decimals are rounded. <ul><li>Rounded to the nearest </li></ul><ul><li>0.31659 tenths 0.3 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hundredths 0.32 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>thousandths 0.317 </li></ul><ul><li>ten thousandths 0.3166 </li></ul>
  103. 103. To round decimals, follow these rules: <ul><ul><li>1. Look at the digit immediately to the right of the digit in the rounding place. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. All digits to the right of the place to which the number is rounded are dropped. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. If the first of the digits to be dropped is 0,1,2,3 or 4, the last kept digit is not changed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Increase the last kept digit by 1, when the first digit dropped is: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>a. 6,7,8 or 9;or </li></ul><ul><li>b. 5 followed by non-zero digit(s); or </li></ul><ul><li>c. 5 (alone or followed by zero or zeros) and the last kept digit is odd. </li></ul>
  104. 104. Example: Round off 78.4651 to the nearest hundredths. 7 8 . 4 6 5 1 = 78.47 Dropping digit Decimal number to be rounded off Examples: Round the following. a. 5.767 to the nearest tenths = 5.8 Since the digit to the right of 7 is 6.
  105. 105. b. 65.499 to the nearest hundredths = 65.50 Since the digit to the right of 9 is 9. c. 896.4321 to the nearest thousandths = 896.432 Since the digit to the right of 2 is 1. d. 32.28 to the nearest tenths = 32.3 Since the digit to the right of 2 is 8 e. 1000.756 to the nearest hundredths = 1000.80 Since the digit to the right of 5 is 6 f. 56.58691 to the nearest thousandths = 56.5870 Since the digit to the right of 6 is 9
  106. 106. 1. 29.8492 to the nearest: a. tenths ___________________ b. ones ___________________ c. hundredths ___________________ d. thousandths ___________________ e. tens ___________________ <ul><li>Round off the following decimal numbers. </li></ul>8 Worksheet
  107. 107. 2. 3.097591 to the nearest: a. ones _______________________ b. tenths _______________________ c. hundredths _______________________ d. thousandths _______________________ e. ten-thousandths _______________________ 3. 6.152292 to the nearest: a. ones ______________________ b. tenths ______________________ c. hundredths ______________________ d. thousandths ______________________ e. ten-thousandths ______________________
  108. 108. 4. 10.01856 to the nearest: a. ones ____________________ b. tenths ____________________ c. hundredths ____________________ d. thousandths ____________________ e. ten-thousandths ____________________ 5. 123.831408 to the nearest: a. ones ____________________ b. tenths ____________________ c. hundredths ____________________ d. thousandths ____________________ e. ten-thousandths ____________________
  109. 109. <ul><li>III. Select the best answer. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A. 0.4278 rounded to the nearest thousandths </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>a. 0.462 </li></ul><ul><li>b. 0.46 </li></ul><ul><li>c. 0.430 </li></ul><ul><li>d. 0.464 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>B. 0.0042 rounded to the nearest thousandths </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>a. 0.003 </li></ul><ul><li>b. 0.0031 </li></ul><ul><li>c. 0.004 </li></ul><ul><li>d. 0.04 </li></ul>
  110. 110. <ul><ul><ul><li>C. 0.6354 rounded to the nearest thousandths </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>a. 0.635 </li></ul><ul><li>b. 0.6 </li></ul><ul><li>c. 0.630 </li></ul><ul><li>d. 0.64 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>D. 0.635`4 rounded to the nearest hundredths </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>a. 0.635 </li></ul><ul><li>b. 0.6 </li></ul><ul><li>c. 0.630 </li></ul><ul><li>d. 0.64 </li></ul><ul><li>E. 0.6354 rounded to the nearest tenths </li></ul><ul><li>a. 0.635 </li></ul><ul><li>b. 0.6 </li></ul><ul><li>c. 0.630 </li></ul><ul><li>d. 0.64 </li></ul>
  111. 111. IV. Answer the following with TRUE or FALSE. ________________ 1. 0.32 rounded to the nearest tenths is 0.3. ________________ 2. 0.084 rounded to the nearest hundredths is 0.09. ________________3. 0.483 rounded to the nearest thousandths is 0.048. ________________4. 0.075 rounded to the nearest hundredths is 0.06. ________________5. 0.375 rounded to the nearest tenths is 0.4.
  112. 112. V. Round each of the following by completing the tables. Number 1 serves as an example.         8. 42356       7. 28154         6. 0.86302         5. 5.39485         4. 5.2358         3. 2.96425         2. 5.09998 0.8943 0.894 0.89 0.9 Example: 1. 0.89432 Ten Thousandths Thousandths Hundredths Tenths Round to the nearest Decimals
  113. 113.         15. 1539485         14. 85.42998         13. 29.04347         12. 62.84213         11. 2.9625         10. 0.56893         9. 2.38425
  114. 114. FUN WITH MATH!!! I. Find the answer by rounding off to the nearest place value indicated. Draw a line to the correct rounded number. Each line will pass through a letter. Write the letter next to the rounded number. ONES 1.6 ● ● 1.63 __________ 5.38 ● ● 3.4 __________ 52.52 ● ● 2 __________ TENTHS 0.45 ● ● 3.433 __________ 3.421 ● ● 53 __________ 12.76 ● ● 0.35 __________ 88.55 ● ● 5 __________ HUNDREDTHS 0.345 ● ● 12.8 __________ 1.634 ● ● 0.044 __________ 13.479 ● ● 0.5 __________ 201.045 ● ● 11.68 __________ 11.677 ● ● 16.778 __________ THOUSANDTHS 0.0437 ● ● 88.6 __________ 3.4325 ● ● 105.312 __________ 16.7777 ● ● 13.48 __________ 23.40092 ● ● 23.401 __________ 105.31238 ● ● 201.05 __________ T V E H W G E N T O O L H M S E T What happened to the man who stole the calendar?
  115. 115. Lesson 9 FACTS AND FIGURES (The self-replicating Gene) or centuries, generations of scientists in Numerica had been working relentlessly on what had been dubbed as The Genetic Enterprise. It was founded for the purpose of controlling a runaway gene that had beleaguered the Decimal citizens of Numerica for millennia: the repeating decimal gene. F 4 ___ 44
  116. 116. Their history revealed that it all began when a woman named Four (4) united with a man named Forty-Four (44) positioned as 4/44. Their first offspring, a fraction, came out all right, and they named her Three-Thirty-thirds (3/33). Such a beautiful fraction she was. But their second child came out with the first problematic replicating gene--- the boy looked different and came with a long tail: 0.0909090909… Arbitrarily multiplying both sides of the equation by any power of ten does not change the value of the decimal nor does it destroy the balance of the equation. This is because of the Multiplication Property of Equality of the Real Numbers.
  117. 117. That wasn’t the end of it. Every week, the boy’s tail added a new segment of 09, and it just never ended! It wasn’t so much the unusual appearance of the boy that worried every one, as the difficulty of naming him. Point-Zero-Nine-Zero-Nine-Zero-Nine- Zero -Nine-Zero-Nine, going on forever, was just too long a name! There were many others in the community whose tails also continuously and regularly increased. Despite their peculiar form, though, those trouble with the repeating gene were never shunned, were treated equally with love, respect, and total acceptance. Still, the continually growing tail proved cumbersome for the Decimals, and they prayed to be changed to regular forms.
  118. 118. Arbitrarily multiplying both sides of the equation by any power of ten does not change the value of the decimal nor does it destroy the balance of the equation. This is because of the Multiplication Property of Equality of the Real Numbers. Remember
  119. 119. One fateful day, the newspaper headlines screamed: “The Genetic Enterprise: Finally Success!” All of Numerica was thrilled! At the state conference the next day, every citizen was present, especially those with continuously growing tails. “ And now, I must ask for a volunteer,” said Doctor One Half (½), head scientist of the project, over the microphone. Immediately, 0.33333…, friend of Point-Zero-Nine-Zero-Nine…, was up the stage. “ O-Point-Three-Three-Three…” One Half began, “do not be afraid. Go into that glass capsule to your left, for we must first clone you.”
  120. 120. The crowd was aghast. One Half reassured every one immediately. “Do not worry, it is only temporary.” When 0.33333… came out, his clone came out from the other capsule. The doctor spoke again. “I will run you all through the process as we proceed. First, we shall designate the clone as Ex = 0.33333… “ Now, 0.33333…, go back into the capsule---we will introduce a new gene into you. This gene is called Tenn (10), and this will change your appearance, so that we will temporarily call you Tennexx (10x). Do not be alarmed!” One Half added quickly at every one’s reaction.
  121. 121. When 0.33333… stepped out of the capsule, he had become 3.33333… 10x = 10 x 0.3333… = 3.3333… 10x = 3.3333… The crowd was mesmerized. “ Tennexx, go back into the capsule. Exx, go into the other capsule. This time, we shall remove the repeating gene from Tennexx---by taking out Exx!” 10x – x = 3.3333… - 0.333… 9x = 3 Now, Tennex come out! Let us all see what you have become…” One Half said dramatically.
  122. 122. The purpose of assigning a variable and multiplying both sides of the equation by 10 is to come up with whole numbers on both sides of the equation (on one side, with the variable, and on the other side of the equation, with just an integer). From this form we obtain a fraction equal to the original decimal. Note when finally making a subtraction, the digits in the decimal parts MUST be the same in order for the difference to be an integer. FACT BYTES
  123. 123. When Tennex came out, he had become 1/3. 9x = 3 x = 3/9 or 1/3 The applause was thunderous! 1/3 spoke on the microphone, tears of joy poring down his cheeks. “Once! Was Zero-point-Three- -Three-Three-Three-Three… now I am One-Third. Thank you, Doctor One Half!” he said.
  124. 124. LESSON LEARNED In the article, we see that there is still hope for repeating Decimal genes like Point O Nine O Nine O Nine and O Point Three-Three-Three. It is all about representing them using any variable, say, x, and taking away their never-ending tail. Any repeating decimal represents a geometric series 0.3333… is 0.3 + 0.03+ 0.03 +… The common ratio is 0.1, that is, the next term is obtained by multiplying the previous term by 0.1. The formula S= a1/1-r may be used if (r) < 1. S = a1/1-r S = 0.3/1-0.1 = 0.3/0.9 or 1/3 FACT BYTES 1 __ 3
  125. 125. PROBLEM BUSTER A DIFFERENT GENE May I have another Volunteer? Ah, yes. 0.83333 Do you think we can change 0.833333...in exactly the same way as what we did to 0.33333…? Notice that in this case, the numeral 8 does not repeat. If we introduced 10 like we did to0.33333…, by multip- lying 0.833333…by 10, 0.833333…will become 8.33333… Following the process, we have, 10x –x = 8.33333… - 0.833333… which is the same as 9x =7.5 where the right side of the equation is not an integer! What are we to do? 1 / 2 1 / 2
  126. 126. 1 / What we need to do is keep multiplying by 10, until we get two numbers whose digits or numerals in the decimal parts are exactly the same. Thus, x = 0.833333 – 10x = 10 x 0.833333… -- 10x = 8.33333… -- 10x (10) = 8.33333… x 10 -- 100x = 83.3333… <ul><li>With 0.33333…, it was enough to subtract x from 10x because the digits or numerals in their decimal parts are already exactly the same. Recall that when we subtracted them, we arrived at an integer on either side of the equation. This time, we subtract 10x from 100x, because the decimal parts of these two numbers have exactly the same digits or numerals. So that, </li></ul><ul><li>100x – 10x =83.3333… - 8.3333… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-- 90x =75 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>-- x = 75/90 </li></ul><ul><li>-- x = 5/6 </li></ul><ul><li>-- 0.833333… 5/6 </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, 0.833333… is 5/6! </li></ul>1 / 2
  127. 127. <ul><ul><li>1. 0.88888…as a fraction is: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5/11 b. 7/8 c. 8/9 d. 10/11 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2. 0.22222… in fraction form is: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>a. 3/7 b. 2/11 c. 3/10 d. 2/9 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose the correct answer: </li></ul></ul>9 Worksheet
  128. 128. II. Change the following to fraction in simplest form. 3. 0.77777… 4. 0.9166666… 5. 0.9545454… 6. 0.891891891… 7. 0.153846153846153846… 8. 0.9692307692307692307…
  129. 129. Unit II EQUIVALENT FRACTIONS AND DECIMALS
  130. 130. <ul><li>This modular workbook provides knowledge about different form or ways of computing fractions to decimals and decimals to fraction. This will help you to understand better what equivalent fraction and decimal is and you can use it in your everyday life. </li></ul>OVERVIEW OF THE MODULAR WORKBOOK
  131. 131. After completing this Unit, you are expected to: 1. Transform fraction/mixed fractional numbers to decimals/mixed decimal. 2. Change decimal/mixed decimal to fraction /mixed numbers (fractions). 3. Follow the rules in expressing equivalent fractions and decimals. OBJECTIVES OF THE MODULAR WORKBOOK
  132. 132. Lesson 10 EXPRESSING FRACTIONS TO DECIMALS <ul><li>Lesson Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>After accomplishing the lesson, you are expected to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>. Change fractions to decimals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. Know the rules in changing fractions to decimals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. Understand the equivalent fractions and decimals. </li></ul></ul>
  133. 133. Decimals are a type of fractional number. Let us now study how to write fractions to decimal form.
  134. 134. We will apply the principle of equality of fractions that is, if a/b =c/d then ad = bc .
  135. 135. Example 1: Write the fraction 2/5 as a tenth decimal. In this case we are interested to find the value of x such that 2/5=x/10. Since the two fractions name the same rational number, we can proceed: 5x = 2(10) – applying equality principle 5x = 20 x = 20/5 or 4 Hence, 2/5 = 4/10 = 0.4
  136. 136. Example 2: Write the fraction 3 as a hundredth decimal. We are 4 interested to find the value of x such 3 that = x . 4 100 Applying the principle of equality we have 4x = 3(100) 4x = 300 x = 75 Hence, ¾ = 75/100 = 0.75

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