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The Hundred Years War


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The Hundred Years War

  1. 1. !!!WARNING!!!  Warning:  116 years (1337-1453) of French and English History.  A series of four wars.  (1337-1360), (1369-1375), (1413-1429), (1429-1453).  That’s a lot of material to cover!
  2. 2. Short and Sweet  A series of wars erupted from 1337-1453 between two royal houses after the last Capetian king of France died with no heir.  The House of Valois was a side branch of the House of Capet and were from the Burgundy area. They claimed the French Throne based on the Salic Law, won the Hunred Year’s War, and ruled from 1328-1589.  The House of Plantagenet claimed the right to rule both France and England through direct descent on mother’s side. Geoffrey V of Normandy/Anjou area in France married the daughter of King Henry I and their children and line ruled England 1154-1485.
  3. 3. Background France: Capet Philip III Philip IV Charles of Valois Margaret Louis X Philip V Charles IV Isabelle Philip VI England: Plantagenet Edward I Edward II Edward III Salic Law: Old law saying no daughter could take the throne: it went to Charles of Valois. However, Salic law did not prevent inheritance through daughter, so Edward III had a valid claim.
  4. 4. English Support Engl. & Fren. Support Aquitaine: Engl. Possession Flanders was ally, not possession
  5. 5. Causes  Fight For Flanders: French, but a significant trading partner with England. Became very wealthy, and France decided to attempt to tighten controls on that wealth. Civil War broke out, with French supporting land owners and English supporting merchants.  Alliances: England Allied with Flanders and held southern France, leaving French authority at risk. As a result, France allied to Scottish leaving England in the same mess.  Dynastic struggle—Finally, Philip VI revokes English land ownership in France and conflicts arise on the Aquitaine border. Edward III declares himself King of France 1337.
  6. 6. ENGLISH WIN  1337—Edward III claims French Throne, Holy Roman Empire backs him.  1340—English attacked French ships sent to defeat Flanders and got control of English Channel in Battle of Sluys.  1345—Edward III invaded France.  1346—Battle of Crecy. Significant battle where English Longbows far out won the French Crossbow. Win for Eng.  1356—Battle of Poitiers. King Edward III captured new French King John II, Treaty of London gave Eng. Aquitaine again.  1359—English captured Calais.  1360—Peace of Bretigney ended first war, but English mercenaries continued to devastate France. Edward III gives up claim to the throne, but gets French Territory
  7. 7. Battle of Crezy (1346) Josef Mathauser (1846-1917)
  8. 8. FRENCH WIN  1369—Edward the Black Prince (Eng.) refused a summons from King Charles V (Fr.), France declares war.  England was coming out of war with Spain, not as strong as before. French had advantage.  1372—French gain control of English Channel and Brittany in Battle of La Rochelle.  1375—Truce of Bruges ends war, skirmishes continue.  1376—Black Prince dies & Edward III dies a year later.  Results  French began to push the English back, and the English lost some French lands.
  9. 9. “Battle Of La Rochelle” (1372) By Jean Froissart 15th century Naval Battle where French with 22 ships defeated English with 50 ships. Ended English control of English Channel, which it had held since 1340. England was no longer protected from invasion. The war began to effect them economically. Result was the Peasants Revolt of 1381.
  10. 10. ENGLISH WIN  1413—Henry V, took the English throne in 1413, and again invaded France. England regained ground.  1415—Battle at Agincourt resulted in overwhelming defeat of larger French army. Best known battle of this particular war— gave Henry time to regroup.  1420—Treaty of Troyes: King Charles VI married daughter Princess Katherine to King Henry V and made him heir to the throne, thus disinheriting Charles VII. It was ratified but still against the law. Mainly this is the end of English major success during the war.  1422—England invades France again—battle over throne. France rallies around Joan of Arc.  1428-1429—Siege of Orleans- victory for Joan of Arc. Turning point in war; French gains the upper hand and hold it for the rest of the war.
  11. 11. “King Henry V at the Battle of Agincourt, 1415” By John Gilbert (1817–97)
  12. 12. FRENCH WIN  1429—Charles VII (still of Valois line) is crowned French King in Rheims.  1431—Henry VI crowned King of France in Paris.  1453—Henry VI is mentally ill. Battle of Castillon— Valois win. Throne goes to Charles VII. England loses Hundred Year’s War except for Calais.—official end of war.  1565—French won back Calais. To this day, the English hold the Channel Islands in the English Channel.
  13. 13. “Jeanne d'Arc at the Siege of Orléans” (1429) By Jules Eugène Lenepveu, 1886–1890 “Jeanne D’Arc” Clément de Fauquembergue Drawn 1429-only contemporary picture
  14. 14. IMPORTANCE TO LANGUAGE  United England  United the English against the French, including the nobles, many of whom, like the Plantagenets, originally came from France and owned land in France until this time.  England officially lost practically all of their lands in France and lost one of the last reasons for maintaining the French language.  The English language became part of the English national identity as separate and distinct from France. This contributed to the final end of Norman French dominance.  England’s stronghold in military technology allowed them to also develop navy strength and pushed them ahead in the acquisition of new territory during the Colonial era. This allowed them to spread the English language and grow the number of speakers.  The absence of the nobles, meant that their Norman French influence was also greatly absent, thus English had time to spread through the land and gain power once again.