HUMAN SERVICES WORKERSIN CRISIS:BURNOUT, VICARIOUS TRAUMATIZATION, AND COMPASSION FATIGUE Chapter Sixteen
HELPING PROFESSIONALS: PRIME CANDIDATES Nature of the job is to be intensely involved with people who are in need of assistance. Recipe for burnout: High levels of motivation Idealistic Expectation that their work will give their life a sense of meaning Many helping professions have historically low success rates. Human service field is becoming more difficult .
DEFINING BURNOUT Historical roots from the 1970s “Burned out” physically, emotionally, spiritually, interpersonally, and behaviorally to the point of exhaustion. Herbert Freudenberger (1974, 1975) Described young, idealistic volunteers working in alternative health-care settings who started to look and act worse than many of their clients. Burnout consists of the following: Lost energy to the point of exhaustion Lost enthusiasm to the point of absolute indifference Passion is replaced by cynicism Complete lack of confidence that your work is having any positive impact
DYNAMICS OF BURNOUT Foundation Blocks of Burnout Role ambiguity Role conflict Role overload Inconsequentiality Isolation Autonomy Research on Burnout Dynamics Myths That Engender Burnout Symptoms of Burnout Behavioral Physical Interpersonal Attitudinal
DYNAMICS OF BURNOUT Levels of Burnout Trait State Activity Stages of Burnout Enthusiasm Stagnation Frustration Apathy
THE CULPABILITY OF ORGANIZATIONS Much of the responsibility lies with the employer. Employee’s influence on policy and procedures Employee’s level of autonomy Employee’s feeling of appreciation Employers should provide consultation and supervision. Employers should offer support, social connection, and self-care opportunities.
SELF-RECOGNITION OF BURNOUT NO ONE IS IMMUNE! Everyone has a blind spot. Typical MO is to increase effort (actually increases the problem) rather than attempting to change the situation.
INTERVENTION STRATEGIES Assessment Burnout Compassion Fatigue and Compassion Satisfaction Work Environment Intervention Through Training Intervention With the Organization Burnout-Proofing an Agency Social Support Systems Support Groups The Individual and the Organization Self-Care
PRIVATE PRACTITIONERS AND BURNOUT Isolation Business Concerns Financial Client base Marketing services Maintaining a Public Presence Difficult Work Schedule Evenings Weekends Few vacations
INTERVENTION WITH THE INDIVIDUAL Direct Action Palliative Action BASIC IDS Behavior Affect Sensation Imagery Cognition Interpersonal relationships Drugs/biology Setting
EPILOGUE: CROSS-CULTURAL COMPARISONS Victor Savicki (2002) landmark study using the Maslach Burnout Inventory subscales General environmental work measures Individual conformity measures