13 psych 200 social psychology

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Social Psychology

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13 psych 200 social psychology

  1. 1. Learning Outcomes• Define social psychology.• Define attitude and discuss some factors that shape it.• Define social perception and describe the factors that contribute to it.• Explain why people obey authority figures and conform to social norms.• Describe how and why people behave differently as group members than as individuals. 3
  2. 2. Truth or Fiction? People act in accord with their consciences. We appreciate things more when we have to work for them. 4
  3. 3. Truth or Fiction? Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. Opposites attract. 5
  4. 4. Truth or Fiction? We tend to hold others responsible for their misdeeds but to see ourselves as victims of circumstances when we misbehave. Most people will torture an innocent person if they are ordered to do so. 6
  5. 5. Truth or Fiction? Seeing is believing. Nearly 40 people stood by and did nothing while a woman was being stabbed to death. 7
  6. 6. What is Social Psychology?• Study of the nature and causes of people’s thoughts and behavior in social situations• Situationist perspective Social influence goads people into doing things they would not usually do. 8
  7. 7. Attitudes
  8. 8. The A-B Problem• Factors that affect the link between Attitudes (A) and Behavior (B) – Specificity – Strength of attitudes – Vested interest – Accessibility 10
  9. 9. Attitude Formation• Learned attitudes – Conditioning or learning by observation• Cognitive Appraisal – Form opinion after appraisal and evaluation of situation 11
  10. 10. Changing Attitudes• Elaboration likelihood model – Central route of persuasion Inspires thoughtful consideration of evidence and arguments – Peripheral route of persuasion Associate with positive or negative cues 12
  11. 11. The Persuasive Message• Repeated exposure to things and people enhances their appeal• “Fear” appeal is more persuasive than facts 13
  12. 12. Communicator and Audience• Persuasive communicator – Shows expertise, trustworthiness, attractiveness, or similarity to the audience• Positive context increases likelihood of persuasion• People with high self esteem and low social anxiety are more resistant to social pressure 14
  13. 13. Cognitive Dissonance Theory• When attitudes and behavior are inconsistent, individuals are motivated to reduce that inconsistency• Festinger & Carlsmith (1959) – Attitude-discrepant behavior • People paid less rated the task more interesting – Effort justification 15
  14. 14. Prejudice and Discrimination• Stereotypes – fixed conventional attitudes – May be positive or negative• Prejudice - attitude Cognitive – expectation that members of target group will behave poorly Behavioral – avoidance, aggression and discrimination 16
  15. 15. Prejudice and Discrimination• Sources of Prejudice – Dissimilarity – Social conflict – Social learning – Information processing – Social categorization 17
  16. 16. Interpersonal Attraction• Factors contributing to attraction – Physical appearance • Standards for beauty are cross-cultural – Gender differences in preferences • Males – physical appearance • Females – professional status 18
  17. 17. Interpersonal Attraction• Attraction-Similarity Hypothesis – Our partners tend to be like us• Similarity in Attitudes – We are attracted to people who share our attitudes• Factors that influence our preferences – Propinquity 19
  18. 18. Love• Triangular model of love – Intimacy – Passion – Commitment• Romantic love combines intimacy and passion• Consummate love combines all three 20
  19. 19. SocialPerception
  20. 20. First Impressions• First impressions matter a great deal – We infer traits from behavior• Primacy effect• Recency effect 22
  21. 21. Attribution Theory• Process by which one draws conclusions about the influences on another’s behavior• Dispositional attributions – Internal factors• Situational attributions – External factors 23
  22. 22. Attribution Theory• Actor – observer effect• Fundamental attribution error – Attribute too much of other’s behavior on dispositional – Cultural bias – individualistic cultures• Self-serving bias 24
  23. 23. Body Language• Communication through posture and gestures – Touching – Gazing and Staring 25
  24. 24. Social Influence
  25. 25. The Milgram StudiesWhen the “learner” makes an error, the experimenter prods the “teacher” todeliver a painful electric shock.
  26. 26. Factors Contributing to Obedience to Authority• Socialization• Lack of social comparison• Perception of legitimacy of authority figures• Foot-in-the-door technique• Inaccessibility of values• Buffers between perpetrator and victim 28
  27. 27. Conformity• Conform – when we change our behavior to adhere to social norms• Social norms – widely accepted expectations concerning social behaviors 29
  28. 28. Conformity• Asch Study – Most people will conform, even when they are wrong 30
  29. 29. Ash Study on ConformityWhich line on Card B – 1, 2, or 3 – is the same length as the line oncard A? Line 2, right? But would you say “2” if you were a memberof a group and six people answering ahead of you all said “3”? Areyou sure?
  30. 30. Conformity• Factors contributing to conformity – Collectivist culture – Desire to be liked by group members – Low self-esteem – Social shyness – Lack of familiarity with task – Group size – Social support 32
  31. 31. Group Behavior
  32. 32. Social Facilitation• Presence of others facilitates performance – Increased arousal or motivation – Evaluation apprehension• Presence of others impairs performance – Social loafing – Diffusion of responsibility 34
  33. 33. Group Decision Making• Social decision schemes – Majority-wins – Truth-wins – Two-thirds majority – First-shift rule 35
  34. 34. Polarization and the “Risky Shift” • Polarization – taking an extreme position – Risky shift • Diffusion of responsibility 36
  35. 35. Groupthink• Unrealistic group decision making in which external realities are ignored• Influenced by – Cohesiveness of group – Dynamic group leader – External threat 37
  36. 36. Contributors to Groupthink• Feelings of invulnerability• Group’s belief in its rightness• Discrediting of information contrary to decision• Pressure for group conformity• Stereotyping of members of out-group 38
  37. 37. Mob Behavior and Deindividuation • Highly emotional crowds may induce “mob behavior” • Deindividuation – Reduced self-awareness and lower concern of social evaluation 39
  38. 38. Altruism and the Bystander Effect • Factors that influence decision to help – Good mood – Empathic – Believe an emergency exists – Assume responsibility to act – Know what to do – Know the people who need help – Similarity to people who need help 40

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