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12 personal loss


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12 personal loss

  1. 1. Personal Loss:Bereavement and Grief Chapter Twelve
  2. 2. Understanding Loss Bereavement  Uncomplicated bereavement Grief  Complicated grief/prolonged grief  Traumatic grief  Disenfranchised grief Loss  Primary loss  Secondary loss  Ambiguous loss Mourning
  3. 3. Dynamics of Bereavement Cultural Dynamics  Culture 3 patterns of response:  Death accepting  Death defying  Death denying Sociocultural Mores Spirituality and Religion
  4. 4. Conceptual Approaches to Bereavement Stage/Phase Models  Kubler-Ross’s Stages  Bowlby’s Attachment Theory  Schneider’s Growth Model Counterpart to Traditional Models  Dual Process Model  Loss orientation  Restoration orientation  Adaptive Model  Intuitive grieving Instrumental grieving
  5. 5. Assessment Tools Texas Revised Inventory of Grief (TRIG)  Current Grief  Past Disruption Grief Experience Inventory (GEI)  Nine clinical scales Hogan Grief Reaction Checklist (HGRC)  Can discriminate variability in the grieving process as a function of cause of death and time elapsed since death Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG)  Targets symptoms of grief that are distinct from bereavement-related depression and anxiety, and predicts long-term functional impairments
  6. 6. Types of Loss Death of a Spouse  One of the most emotionally stressful and disruptive events in life  More widows than widowers Loss Due to Caregiving Death of a Child  Perhaps the ultimate loss for a person to endure regardless of the age of the child
  7. 7. Types of Loss Bereavement in Childhood  Toddlers  Primary school age  Middle school age  Intervention and treatment Bereavement in Adolescence  Value of connectedness  Intervention and treatment Bereavement in the Elderly  Present more somatic problems than psychological problems  No indication that the intensity of grief varies significantly with age  Grief among older people may be more prolonged than among younger people  Tend to be lonelier and to have far longer periods of loneliness than younger people
  8. 8. Types of Loss HIV/AIDS Job Loss Separation and Divorce Death of a Pet Complicated Grief  Traumatic grief
  9. 9. Being There for Grievers Empathic Presence Gentle Conversation Providing Available Space Eliciting Trust
  10. 10. Fitting Technique to Style of Grief The Dual Process Model  Thegriever sometimes confronts and sometimes avoids the stressors of both orientations Adaptive Model  Affective  Behavioral  Cognitive  Spiritual
  11. 11. Fitting Technique to Style of Grief Cognitive-Behavioral Approaches  Mostcommonly used therapies for those who suffer from complicated grief Narrative Therapy  Reconstructs the relationship with the deceased rather than abandoning it Attachment Theory and Therapy  One of the oldest theories that deals with grief and loss  “Coherent narrative”
  12. 12. Examples for Dealing with Loss Sudden Death of a Spouse  Stuart Traumatic Death of a Child  Helen and Brad Bereavement in Childhood  Makeena Separation and Divorce  Nancy
  13. 13. Examples for Dealing with Loss Death of a Pet  The Thompsons Bereavement in Elderly People  Lenore Bereavement in an HIV-Infected Client  Clint Complicated Grief: Death of a Mother  Ann Marie
  14. 14. The Crisis Workers Own Grief Emotional investment in the client Bereavement overload Countertransference Emotional replenishment Facing one’s own mortality Sense of power Tendency to rescue