The Ferment ofReform & Culture 1790-1860 Partial Lecture Chapter 15The American Pageant, 13th edition
Main Themes Deism & Unitarianism Temperance Movement 2nd Great Awakening Maine Law, 1851 Mormons Women’s Movement Public Education Seneca Falls Convention Lyceum Lecture series Utopian Movements Treatment of debtors, Transcendentalism prisoners & “insane” Literary & artistic trends Hudson River School
Quickwrite2. How did the Second Great Awakening affect existing religion in American life, and how did it reflect the trends leading to the Civil War? OR10. How did social reform movements arise out of the Second Great Awakening, & what were other influences? OR18. How did the Transcendentalist Movement reflect and differ from general American attitudes of the time?
Deism & Unitarianism Deism: religious philosophy influenced by Enlightenment belief in Supreme Being who had created universe and given humans capacity for moral behavior rejected divinity of Christ and original sin Franklin and Jefferson were deists Influenced development of Unitarianism Unitarianism: new denomination believed God existed in one being, not a trinity rejected divinity of Jesus stressed basic goodness of human nature, and belief in free will and salvation thru good works Appealed to intellectuals like Emerson
The Second Great Awakening Mass religious movement began in the early years of the 1800s even bigger than the First Great Awakening of the early 1700s. 100,000s of converted souls, shattered and reorganized churches many new sects, missionary work overseas; also influenced reform movts such as prisons, temperance. women’s movt and abolitionism.
“Camp meetings” especially on the frontier for days at a time; group ecstasy many of the “saved” fell back into old “sinning” waysMethodists and Baptists saw the largestincreases in numbers personal conversion democratic control emotionalism
Education Goes Public5. What led the wealthier classes to favor tax-supported public education after their initial resistance?6. What were some of the weaknesses of the earliest public schools?7. How did Horace Mann and Noah Webster influence public education?
Education continued8. How did the colleges founded by religious reformers differ from the established institutions of the time?9. What were thought to be the negative affects of education on women?
Social Reforms10. How did the social reform movements arise out of the Second Great Awakening, and what were other influences?11. What was Dorothea Dix’s argument in favor of the “insane” and what was its influence?
Reforms continued12. What spurred the rise of the temperance Movement in America, and how was it different from Dow’s Prohibition Movement?13. What was accomplished at the Seneca Falls Convention, and why was its message unsuccessful in the short term?
Utopias14. How did the Utopian movements of the early 19th century reflect long- standing American attitudes and ideals?15. Which Utopian movements were most successful, and why?
Cultural Achievements16. What were the limitations on American art and architecture during this period?17. What were the characteristics of the artistic movements that did arise?18. How did the Transcendentalist Movement reflect and differ from general American attitudes of the time?
Transcendentalism Intellectual movement, started in New England in 1830’s Influenced by loosening of Puritan theology in New England German Romantic philosophy Asian religions
Transcendentalism Characterized by Rejection of Enlightenment theory that all knowledge comes to the senses from the mind Belief that truth “transcends” the senses and can be known from each person’s “inner light” which puts one in direct touch with God or the “oversoul” Emphasis on individualism; self-sufficiency & self- discipline Belief in human dignity led them to embrace humanitarian reforms (abolitionism); rejected institutional authority. Love of nature
Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882) Leading Transcendentalist Tremendous impact thru his writings (popular essay series) & his Lyceum lecture tours His ideas became so popular because they reflected the general attitudes in the expanding US at the time: individualism, self-reliance, freedom and optimism, etc. Spoke out strongly against slavery. “That the government is best which governs least.”
Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862) Poet, mystic, transcendentalist & nonconformist; Famous for his 2 years in a tiny hut at Walden Pond (on Emerson’s property) and the resulting book, Walden (wanted to reduce his physical needs in order to have time to pursue truth thru study and meditation) Ended up in jail overnight because he would not pay Mass poll tax as a protest against a government that would allow slavery Very influential on Gandhi and later MLK Jr. thanks to his book, On the Duty of Civil Disobedience.
Culture continued19. What were the contributions of Emerson and Thoreau in particular?20. What trends can be observed in American literature in the first half of the 19th century?