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Plants for moodle


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Plants for moodle

  1. 1. Plants!STS Biology Unit 6 Mrs. Stein
  2. 2. Plant Kingdom Characteristics – Eukaryotic – Autotrophic (photosynthetic) – Multicellular Many aquatic “plants” are algae – No seeds or true roots Life on land required many adaptations
  3. 3. Evolution of Plants
  4. 4. Land Plants Need to be protected from drying out and methods to transport materials Early land plants were non-vascular and live in very moist environments – Mosses and liverworts Vascular plants have transport tissue – Xylem – thick, dead tissue which moves water UP from roots to leaves – Phloem – living tissue, transports FOOD (sugar) in both directions Ferns were the first vascular plants
  5. 5. Seed Plants Seed Ferns Gymnosperms Angiosperms1st seed plants “naked” seed Flowering plants Extinct Conifer: gametes Seed(s) contained in cones, not in fruits fruits Oaks, corn, tulips Cycads, ginkos, pines, spruce Monocot DicotFemale cone Male cone
  6. 6. Advantages of Seed Plants Can live on land Seed coat provides protection and prevents drying out - the seed can survive longer in harsh conditions Contains food supply for embryo Water is not needed for reproduction – pollinators and seed dispersal Roots, stems, and vascular tissue moves materials greater distances
  7. 7. Seed Structures A cotyledon is a food storage organ which functions as the first seed leaf Monocots – one cotyledon Dicots – two cotyledons Endosperm is also food storage Embryo will grow into the new plant Hypocotyl is below the cotyledon and becomes the lower stem Epicotyl is above the cotyledon and becomes the upper stem and leaves Radicle becomes the roots
  8. 8. Corn and Bean
  9. 9. Seed Germination
  10. 10. Monocots & DicotsPlant Part Dicot Monocot Seeds 2 cotyledons 1 cotyledon Roots Taproot Fibrous Leaves Branched Parallel Arranged in 4’s or Petals 5’s Arranged in 3’s Stem Vascular bundles Vascular bundles in a ring scattered
  11. 11. Monocots & Dicots
  12. 12. Leaves Function in food production (photosynthesis) Epidermal cells – outer layer of cells, covered with a waxy cuticle – Stomata surrounded by guard cells Mesophyll – cell layers containing chloroplasts – Palisade Layer – tall, closely packed, sit of most photosynthesis – Spongy Layer – loosely packed, air spaces allow gases to enter and exit the leaf
  13. 13. Leaf Cross Section CuticleUpperEpidermis Palisade Mesophyll Spongy VeinMesophyll (vascular tissue) Lower Epidermis Guard Cells Stoma
  14. 14. Stomata Greek for “mouth” Opening of stomata are regulated by guard cells Water exits through stomata (transpiration) Site of gas exchange – CO2 in, O2 out
  15. 15. Roots Functions – Absorb water and nutrients from soil – Food storage (ie: carrots) – Anchoring the plant Structure – Xylem and phloem – Epidermis – thin layer that absorbs water and nutrients – Cortex – food storage – Meristematic Tissue – only site of mitosis, found at tips of roots and shoots
  16. 16. Vascular Bundles in Roots Dicot roots have xylem in an “X” in the center of the root Monocot roots have vascular bundles in a circular pattern Dicot Root Monocot Root
  17. 17. XYLEMDicot Root PHLOEMVascular Cylinder
  18. 18. Stems Function – Support plant, hold leaves up to the sun – Transport foot and water Arrangement of vascular bundles – Dicots – arranged in a ring – Monocots – scattered throughout
  19. 19. StemsDicot Stem Monocot Stem
  20. 20. Flowers Reproductive structures of angiosperms Sepals are the outermost layer which encloses a bud and protects the developing flower Petals are just inside sepals, fragrance and color attracts pollinators The receptacle is where sepals, petals, and sex organs attach
  21. 21. Flowers (cont.) Stamen - male sex organ – Anthers produce pollen – Filaments hold the anther up for pollinators or wind Pistil (aka carpel) – female sex organ – The stigma is the sticky end where pollen lands – The style is the “neck” which connects the stigma to the ovary – The ovary contains ovules, when mature the ovary becomes a fruit
  22. 22. Flower Anatomy Petal Stigma en m Pis aSt Anther Style til Filament Ovary Sepal Ovule Receptacle
  23. 23. Pollination Pollen transfers from anther to stigma – Self-pollination – pollen fertilizes the ovule of the same plant – Cross-pollination – pollen fertilizes ovules of another plant, thus increasing genetic variation
  24. 24. Cross Pollination Methods Wind Pollination – Inefficient, high pollen production – Flowers (if present) are small and not colorful
  25. 25. Cross Pollination Methods Vector pollination uses animals to carry pollen between plants More efficient, less pollen produced Plants attract pollinators by: – Colorful petals – Fragrance – Nectar production
  26. 26. Coevolution Two species evolve in response to changes in one another
  27. 27. BeePollination
  28. 28. ButterflyPollination
  29. 29. BatPollination
  30. 30. MothPollination
  31. 31. Seed Dispersal Wind scatters seeds – Maple trees, dandelions Animal dispersal occurs when barbs stick to animal fur – Burdock plant Animals eat and digest fruits, seeds are excreted
  32. 32. Fertilization1. Pollen lands on stigma2. Pollen tube grows into the style3. Sperm and egg unite forming and zygote
  33. 33. Double Fertilization  Two sperm enter the ovary  The 1st sperm fertilizes the egg resulting in a zygote (2N)  The 2nd sperm fertilizes the polar nuclei forming the endosperm (3N) /3902001.html