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Introduction to agricultural economics

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Agricultural Economics

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Introduction to agricultural economics

  1. 1. Introduction to AgriculturalIntroduction to Agricultural EconomicsEconomics
  2. 2. What do We Study inWhat do We Study in Economics?Economics? The study of economics deals with ordinary, everyday things (e.g. Food, shelter, clothing, designer jeans, prostitution, bass boats, etc.)
  3. 3. Basic Definition ofBasic Definition of EconomicsEconomics The demand for goods and services is unlimited.  Yet the resources needed to make goods and services all resources are limited.  Economics is the field of study that deals with the allocation of these scarce resources among competing needs, over time.
  4. 4. The Study of EconomicsThe Study of Economics Although economics deals with ordinary, everyday things, it does so scientifically.  So economists look at these things in a methodical and scientific way which allows economists to draw conclusions and make predictions;  Words  Data  Graphs  Equations
  5. 5. Economic ConceptsEconomic Concepts In order for any profession to function it must develop a working set of relevant concepts and an agreed upon definition for such concepts.  In Economics this means that certain attributes of goods and services and human behavior are important enough to receive special treatment and in some cases a unique name.
  6. 6. What Is It That GivesWhat Is It That Gives Something Value?Something Value? For something to be of value it must be useful; provide UTILITY. Utility = usefulness = ability to satisfy = value
  7. 7. What Is the RelationshipWhat Is the Relationship Between Utility and Price?Between Utility and Price? Water is a necessity of life yet it is free for the gulping at the nearest water fountain.  Diamonds are hardly a necessity yet, they are very expensive.
  8. 8. Utility, Scarcity, & PriceUtility, Scarcity, & Price The key to understanding price is the relationship between the amount of a thing that is available and the amount which is desired.  Water is abundant and diamonds are scarce.
  9. 9. Utility, Scarcity, & PriceUtility, Scarcity, & Price  Two-headed dogs are scarce, yet they do not command a high price in the market place. This is because they have little utility.  For a good or service to command a high price, it must be both useful and relatively scarce.
  10. 10. Opportunity CostOpportunity Cost Opportunity cost is what one is willing to give up to consume a particular good or service.  Opportunity cost is measured as being the cost or value of the "next best" thing you could have been doing, if you were doing something else; you could have eaten an apple but you chose a peach.
  11. 11. Marginal AnalysisMarginal Analysis (Step by Step)(Step by Step) Analyzing a process incrementally
  12. 12. Law of Diminishing MarginalLaw of Diminishing Marginal UtilityUtility  When an individual consumes additional units of a commodity (X), consumption of other commodities unchanged, the amount of satisfaction derived from each additional unit of commodity (X) decreases. “I bet you can’t eat just one”
  13. 13. Law of Diminishing MarginalLaw of Diminishing Marginal UtilityUtility A very hungry lad purchases a dozen donuts.  The consumption of the first donut will give him a great deal of satisfaction. Consumption of the second donut will also give him much satisfaction but not quite as much as the first. Consumption of the third donut will likewise be enjoyed by the lad but, again, not quite as much as the second donut and so on. This is the law of diminishing marginal utility.
  14. 14. MacroeconomicsMacroeconomics Deals with the economic system as a whole. Scope; national & world economy. – GDP – Money supply – Unemployment rate – Interest rates – International currency exchange rates – Income Tax – Government Programs
  15. 15. MicroeconomicsMicroeconomics  Scope; from a single individual to a specific industry.  Market supply and demand  Commodity prices  Cost of production
  16. 16. Agricultural EconomicsAgricultural Economics The agricultural industry is unique because; – It produces products from living entities, – Cyclical production which results in volatile prices  An applied science dealing with the food & fiber system.  Includes the economic issues related to resources, production, processing, and distribution.
  17. 17. AgribusinessAgribusiness The sum total of all businesses involved in the production, manufacture, and sale of agricultural products.  Deals with any agricultural product from the beginning of production to its final consumption.
  18. 18. Positive vs. NormativePositive vs. Normative EconomicsEconomics Facts vs. opinions
  19. 19. GraphsGraphs Economic data is often displayed in graphic form.  Graphs make it easier to see relationships.
  20. 20. Y X Quadrant I values of X are positive values of Y are positive Quadrant II values of X are negative values of Y are positive Quadrant III values of X are negative values of Y are negative Quadrant IV values of X are positive values of Y are negative 0 1 2 3 4 5-4 -3 -2 -1 -1 3 -2 1 2 -3 Cartesian Coordinate System
  21. 21. GraphsGraphs Dependent variable. – Variable whose value changes as the result of a change in another (independent) variable.  Independent variable. – Variable whose changes cause the value of another (dependent) variable to change.
  22. 22. GraphsGraphs  The value of the dependent variable is shown on one axis and the value of the independent variable on the other axis.  Four basic relationships may exist between two variables.
  23. 23. Y X0 Positive relationship - an increase in X causes an increase in Y.
  24. 24. Y X0 Negative relationship - an increase in X causes a decrease in Y.
  25. 25. Y X0 Constant relationship - an increase in X does not change the level of Y.
  26. 26. Y X0 Changing relationships - an increase in X has a variable affect on Y.
  27. 27. Y X0 Changing relationships - an increase in X has a variable affect on Y.
  28. 28. Implicit Assumptions AboutImplicit Assumptions About GraphsGraphs Economists tend to make a lot of assumptions in order to simplify complex problems. Ceteris paribus = all other things remaining constant. When making a graph, this means that all things not measured along the two axes, are held constant.
  29. 29. Implicit Assumptions AboutImplicit Assumptions About GraphsGraphs  Homogeneous units = the physical units measured along the axes are all alike.  Divisibility = in order to draw smooth continuous lines, we assume that the units can be divided into small fractions.

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