Toulmin triad


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Toulmin triad

  1. 1. Examining theStructural Core of an Argument The Toulmin Model
  2. 2. Stephen Edelston Toulmin (25 March 1922 – 4 December 2009) ● 1947, PhD, Philosophy, Cambridge University ● Oxford University, Melbourne University, University of Leeds, University of California, Santa Cruz, University of Chicago, La Salle University, Columbia, Dartmouth, Michigan State, Northwestern, Stanford, the University of Chicago, and the University of Southern California School of International Relations. ● An Examination of the Place of Reason in Ethics (1950), An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science (1953), The Uses of Argument (1958) 2nd edition 2003, Metaphysical Beliefs, Three Essays (1957) with Ronald W. Hepburn and Alasdair MacIntyre, The Riviera (1961), Seventeenth century science and the arts (1961), Foresight and Understanding: An Enquiry into the Aims of Science (1961), The Architecture of Matter (1962) with June Goodfield, The Fabric of the Heavens: The Development of Astronomy and Dynamics (1963) with June Goodfield, Night Sky at Rhodes (1963), The Discovery of Time (1966) with June Goodfield, Physical Reality (1970), Human Understanding: The Collective Use and Evolution of Concepts (1972), Wittgensteins Vienna (1972) with Allan Janik, Knowing and Acting: An Invitation to Philosophy (1976), An Introduction to Reasoning (1979) with Allan Janik and Richard D. Rieke 2nd edition 199, The Return to Cosmology: Postmodern Science and the Theology of Nature (1985), The Abuse of Casuistry: A History of Moral Reasoning (1988) with Albert R. Jonsen, Cosmopolis: The Hidden Agenda of Modernity (1990), Social Impact of AIDS in the United States (1993) with Albert R. Jonsen, Beyond theory - changing organizations through participation (1996) with Björn Gustavsen (editors), Return to Reason (2001)
  3. 3. The Syllogism● Major Premise● Minor Premise● Conclusion
  4. 4. All men are Socrates is mortal a man Socrates is mortal
  5. 5. Toulmins Criticism ● Doesnt describe everyday arguments. ● Too redundant
  6. 6. Toulmin Model● Necessary elements ● Optional elements ● Claim ● Backing ● Grounds ● Rebuttal ● Warrant ● Qualifier
  7. 7. Claim● A single statement, ● “We should abolish advanced with support, executions as a form of which seeks to gain the punishment” adherence of an audience.
  8. 8. Grounds● The examples, analysis, ● “Executions prevent and/or evidence that individuals from arguing supports the claim their innocence.”
  9. 9. Warrant● “The reason or logic ● “We should abolish behind using the forms of punishment grounds to support the that prevent individuals claim.” from arguing their● Could be implied innocence.”
  10. 10. Executions We shouldprevent abolishindividuals executions as afrom arguing form oftheir punishmentinnocence We should abolish forms of punishment that prevent individuals from arguing their innocence