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First Aid
Basic First Aid
Securing the Scene
 Electrical hazards
 Chemical hazards
 Noxious & Toxic gases
 Ground hazards
 Fire
 Unstable equipment
Before performing any First Aid,
Check for:
Universal Precautions for
Airborne
& Bloodborn Pathogens
HIV & Hepatitis
Tuberculosis
Gloves & Respiratory
Barrier devise are a must to
prevent transmission of
diseases
Fundamentals of First Aid
1. ABC (airway-breathing-circulation)
2. Control bleeding
3. Treat for Shock (medical emergencies)
4. Open wounds & Burns
5. Fractures & Dislocations
6. Transportation
Activate EMS System
“Call Out or 911”
Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation
Control of Bleeding
Direct
Pressure
Elevation
Cold
Applications
Pressure
bandage
Sources for Consideration
Veins
Capillary
Spurting
Steady flow
Oozing
Artery
Internal
Injuries
Pressure Points
Where the artery
passes over a bone
close to the skin
Temporal
Facial
Carotid
Sub-clavian
Brachial
Radial
Ulnar
Femoral
Popliteal
Pedal
Tourniquet
Absolute last resort in
controlling bleeding.
Remember
Life over limb
Once a tourniquet
is applied, it is not
to be removed ,
only by a doctor
Shock
Shock affects all major
functions of the body
loss of blood flow to
the tissues and organs
Shock must be
treated in all
accident cases
Treatment for Shock
Lie victim down if possible
-Face is pale-raise the tail
-Face is red-raise the head
Loosen tight clothing
Keep victim warm and dry
Do not give anything by mouth
Transport!
Thermal burns
Cold
application
Remove
constricting
clothing
Dry sterile
dressing
Treat for
shock
TRANSPORT!
Severe Burns
Send for medical attention.
Cool the burn area with water for 10 to 20minutes.
Lay the casualty down and make him as
comfortable as possible, protecting burn area
from ground contact.
Gently remove any rings, watches, belts or
constricting clothing from the injured area before
it begins to swell.
Cover the injured area loosely with sterile
unmedicated dressing or similar non fluffy
material and bandage.
Severe Burns
Don't remove anything that is sticking to the burn.
Don't apply lotions, ointments, butter or fat to the
injury.
Don't break blisters or otherwise interfere with the
injured area.
Don't over-cool the patient and cause shivering.
If breathing and heartbeat stop, begin
resuscitation immediately,
If casualty is unconscious but breathing normally,
place in the recovery position.
Treat for shock.
Fractures & Dislocations
Must treat for bleeding
first
Do not push bones
back into place
Don’t align a break -
Unless equipped and
trained - treat as found
Splints
Must be a straight line break Can be formed to shape
of deformity
Be careful of temperature or elevation change
Neck & Spinal Injuries
CARE AND TREATMENT
ABC's
extreme care in initial examination
— minimal movement
urgent ambulance transport
apply cervical collar or support
treat for shock
treat any other injuries
maintain body heat
if movement required, 'log roll' and
use assistants
always maintain head alignment
with the spine
Lifting
Techniques
Two person carry
Lift & roll or log roll
4 person straddle
Questions/Comments?

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