Explain the difference between hazards and disaster.
Prevention is better than cure, hence mitigation and preparedness step should be priority in disaster management.
Energy Source or Illumination (A) - the first requirement for remote sensing is to have an energy source which illuminates or provides electromagnetic energy to the target of interest. Radiation and the Atmosphere (B) - as the energy travels from its source to the target, it will come in contact with and interact with the atmosphere it passes through. This interaction may take place a second time as the energy travels from the target to the sensor. Interaction with the Target (C) - once the energy makes its way to the target through the atmosphere, it interacts with the target depending on the properties of both the target and the radiation. Recording of Energy by the Sensor (D) - after the energy has been scattered by, or emitted from the target, we require a sensor (remote - not in contact with the target) to collect and record the electromagnetic radiation. Transmission, Reception, and Processing (E) - the energy recorded by the sensor has to be transmitted, often in electronic form, to a receiving and processing station where the data are processed into an image (hardcopy and/or digital). Interpretation and Analysis (F) - the processed image is interpreted, visually and/or digitally or electronically, to extract information about the target which was illuminated. Application (G) - the final element of the remote sensing process is achieved when we apply the information we have been able to extract from the imagery about the target in order to better understand it, reveal some new information, or assist in solving a particular problem.
Meteorologists have used satellite images to monitor storms for decades. For example, the World Meteorological Organization's Tropical Cyclone Programme uses satellite observations, together with meteorological measurements and modelling, to produce cyclone warnings. These estimate the storm's position, direction and speed, maximum wind speeds, areas likely to be affected, and likely storm surges. The programme issues these to government officials, river port authorities, the general public, coast guard, non-governmental organisations and cyclone preparedness programmes across the world.
Acronyms: Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT); Thematic Mapper (TM); Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR); Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS); Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER); Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM); Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR); Phased Array type L-band SAR (PALSAR); Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM); Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM); Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E); Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)
Remote sensing in Disaster management
DISASTER MANAGEMENT CYCLE
REMOTE SENSING AND GIS
ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING IN:
REMOTE SENSING- GLOBAL ISSUES
DISASTER is a natural or man-made (or technological) hazard resulting in an event of
substantial extent causing significant physical damage or destruction, loss of life, or drastic
change to the environment.
It is a phenomenon that can cause damage to life and property and destroy the
economic, social and cultural life of people.
Natural events can't be prevented, but potential disasters can be
'managed' to minimise loss of life through a four-part cycle of mitigation,
preparedness, response and recovery
Remote sensing — the science of acquiring information about the Earth
using remote instruments, such as satellites — is inherently useful for
disaster management. Satellites offer accurate, frequent and almost
instantaneous data over large areas anywhere in the world. When a disaster
strikes, remote sensing is often the only way to view what is happening on
1.Energy Source or Illumination (A) 2.Radiation and the Atmosphere (B) -
3.Interaction with the Target (C) 4.Recording of Energy by the Sensor (D) 5.Transmission, Reception, and Processing (E)-
6.Interpretation and Analysis (F) 7.Application (G) -
Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer based application of
technology involving spatial and attributes information to act as a decision support
tool. It keeps information in different layers and generates various combinations
pertaining to the requirement of the decision making.
The data required for disaster management is coming from different
scientific disciplines, and should be integrated.
Data integration is one of the strongest points of GIS. In general the
following types of data are required:
• Data on the disastrous phenomena (e.g. landslides, floods, earthquakes), their location,
frequency, magnitude etc.
• Data on the environment in which the disastrous events might take place: topography,
geology, geo-morphology, soils, hydrology, land use, vegetation etc.
• Data on the elements that might be destroyed if the event takes place: infrastructure,
settlements , population, socio-economic data etc.
• Data on the emergency relief resources, such as hospitals, fire brigades, police stations,
Cyclone Lehar by KALPANA 1
Cyclone Helen by Mangalayan
Planning routes for
search and rescue;
identifying sites for
InSAR; SPOT; IRS
The World Agency of Planetary Monitoring and Earthquake Risk Reduction
(WAPMERR) uses remote sensing to improve knowledge of building stocks — for example the
number and height of buildings. High resolution imagery can also help hazard mapping to guide
building codes and disaster preparedness strategies.
Sentinel Asia — a team of 51 organisations from 18 countries — delivers remote sensing data
via the Internet as easy-to-interpret information for both early warning and flood damage
assessment across Asia.
It uses the Dartmouth Flood Observatory's (DFO's) River Watch flood detection and
measurement system, based on AMSR-E data, to map flood hazards and warn disaster managers
and residents in flood-prone areas when rivers are likely to burst their banks.
Flood In Uttarakhand
Flood In Assam
land and water
crop water requirement
spread/direction of fire;
Monitoring rainfall and
7th October, 2013: Indian Meteorological Department received information from KALPANA I,
OCEANSAT and INSAT 3A Doppler radars deployed at vulnerable places, with over-lap, sensors in
the sea and through the ships, about a cyclone forming in the gulf between Andaman Nicobar
and Thailand named PHAILIN (Thai for “Sapphire”).
8th October, 2013: IMD confirmed cyclone formation and predicted it as “severe cyclone” and
its effects would be felt from Kalingapatnam in Andhra Pradesh to Paradeep in Odisha, and that it
would probably first strikethe port of Gopalpur in Ganjam district at about 5 pm on 12 October.
The wind speed could touch 200(km/h).
10th October, 2013: IMD prediction of a severe cyclone was converted to a “very severe
cyclonic storm” with wind speeds up to 220 kmph. the US Navy’s Joint Typhoon Warning Centre
predicted it would have wind speeds up to 315 km/h.
12th October, 2013: The “very severe” cyclonic storm had its landfall at Gopalpur port at about
9 pm with a wind speed of 200 km/h.
Navy & Air Force;
Early Warning System;
Constant updates from
ISRO, IMD and
Distribution of Satellite
Phones , VHF and
HAMRADIO to DMs,
BDO’s, Sarpanch etc.;
GIS: Risk modelling;
Mass Evacuation on
the basis of cyclone’s
path over the state.
Google Crisis Map;
ODRAF & NDRF
Several initiatives are working to provide equal access to the process and
services of remote Sensing for all countries irrespective of their financial
The International Charter helped with floods in Senegal on 2 September
and those in Burkina Faso on 17 September this year. Both emergency
requests received near-immediate data from RADARSAT and SPOT.
The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), managed
by the intergovernmental Group on Earth Observations (GEO), supports
satellite access at all stages of the disaster management cycle. It provides
data from various satellites including Meteosat, Geostationary
Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), Terra and SPOT to
regional centres in Europe, Africa and Asia via a small receiving station.
Sentinel Asia and SERVIR are other major components of GEOSS. And
GEO has done much to convince individual space agencies to release their
data for free.
Emerging from a GEO ministerial summit in Cape Town late last year, NASA
announced that it would make the full archive, and future data, from the
Landsat satellites free.
The time is ripe for engaging developing country researchers and
policymakers in remote sensing for disaster management. Data and
software costs are plummeting, information communication technology is
developing quickly, and tools such as Google Earth are starting to get
policymakers enthused about satellite imagery.
HAZARDS , especially natural hazards are an
inevitable occurrence which was never and will never be in
control of humans. Humans can only try their best to prevent it
becoming a DISASTER.
REMOTE SENSING and GIS can play a very
important role in this endeavour and hence preventing the loss of
millions of innocent lives and billions of dollars of properties.
Its highly prerogative that we must focus Remote
Sensing methods more on mitigation and preparedness rather
than rescue as it is rightly said “Prevention Is Better Than Cure”.