Wireless power transmissiusing microwave

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Wireless power transmissiusing microwave

  1. 1. WIRELESS POWER TRANSMISSION USING MICROWAVES AND SOLAR POWER SATELLITES INSTITUTE OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION & RESEARCH BY DEBARUN SENGUPTA 1011016293 GUIDED BY: PROFESSOR MIHIR NARAYAN MOHANTY
  2. 2. DISCUSSION ROADMAP  INTRODUCTION  HISTORY OF WIRELESS POWER TRANSMISSION  METHODS OF SPACE BASED WPT  DC-RF CONVERSION  RF-DC CONVERSION USING RECTENNA  CONCEPT OF SOLAR POWER SATELLITE  CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION WHY WE NEED WIRELESS POWER TRANSMISSION?  We are in an age of serious energy crisis and resource crunch.  Wireless power transmission from space using Solar power satellites.  Wireless energy transmission to distant remote islands.  Powering aerial vehicles from ground.
  4. 4. HISTORY OF WPT  Nicola Tesla considered as the Father of WPT.  Tesla applied the principle of resonance to transfer power wirelessly.  William Brown of Raytheon company used MWPT for wireless powered helicopter. www.pancea-bocarf.org
  5. 5. HISTORY(CONTINUED)  In 1975 a grand MWPT experiment occurred at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory Goldstone facility.  It generated 37 KW of power that was sent to a rectenna system , located one mile away, which collected and converted 84% of the energy to DC. www.mwrf.com
  6. 6. METHODS OF SPACE BASED WPT  Far Term Space Systems to beam power to Earth  Light-Wave Systems  Radio-Wave WPT System  In case of light-wave system we use laser beam for wireless power transmission.  In case of radio-wave power transmission systems we use microwaves for wireless power transmission.
  7. 7. COMPARISON ATTRIBUTE MWPT LASER INTERFERENCE Radio frequency interference None except astronomical APERTURE SIZE Large, so system is very large small ATTENUATION Penetrates clouds and rains Stopped by clouds EFFICIENCY (SPACE) HIGH IMPROVING EFFICIENCY (GROUND) HIGH IMPROVING SAFETY Keep aircraft out of beam Safe PERCEPTION Public fears of “cooking” Government fears of “weapons”
  8. 8. WPT USING MICROWAVES  Typical WPT uses point-to-point power transmission.  Lower frequency electromagnetic waves suffer from directivity issues and less efficiency.  The Rayleigh criterion dictates that any radio wave, microwave or laser beam will spread and become weaker and diffuse over distance;  Power transmission via radio waves can be made more directional, allowing longer distance power beaming, with shorter wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation, typically in the microwave range.
  9. 9. WPT USING MICROWAVES(Continued)  Microwaves have frequencies between 300 MHz (0.3 GHz) and 300 GHz (1m to 1mm).  The atmosphere is transparent at longer wavelengths (e.g. 100 MHz), opaque at shorter wavelengths (e.g. 400 GHz), but becomes transparent again when you go up to 500 THz (light).
  10. 10. WINDOWS
  11. 11. BUILDING BLOCKS OF MWPT SYSTEM  A converter for converting DC to Microwave frequency.  Antenna for transmission of the generated microwave.  A rectifying antenna (RECTENNA) for receiving the microwave beam and converting back into DC.
  12. 12. BLOCK DIAGRAM OF MWPT SYSTEM
  13. 13. DC-RF (MICROWAVE GENERATOR) The DC-RF conversion is done , using MAGNETRONS. www.smarttech.com
  14. 14. RF-DC CONVERSION(RECTENNA)  RECTENNA- Rectifying Antenna  Invented in 1964 and patented in 1969 by William C. Brown.  Its a special type of antenna used to convert microwave energy into DC.  The simplest crystal radio receiver, employing an antenna and a demodulating diode (rectifier), is actually a rectenna - although it discards the DC component  A simple rectenna element consists of a dipole antenna with an RF diode connected across the dipole elements.  The diode rectifies the AC current induced in the antenna by the microwaves, to produce DC power, which powers a load connected across the diode.
  15. 15. SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM
  16. 16. MICROSTRIP RECTENNA www.smartmatech.com • The diagram shows a micro strip rectenna •A large rectenna consists of array of many such dipole elements.
  17. 17. SOLAR POWER SATELLITE A CONCEPTUAL VIEW OF THE SYSTEM www.pedain.com
  18. 18. SPACE ANTENNA The effective aperture size of Tx can found out using the formula: Assuming that transmitter aperture efficiency is 80%, the actual physical size of Tx is found using: Reference [1]
  19. 19. SPACE ANTENNA(Continued)  It is composed of pilot signal receiving antennas followed by detectors finding out the location of the rectenna on the earth, power transmission antenna elements.  The pilot signal frequency and a frequency for the energy transmission are different from each other ( otherwise they will interfere each other).  Pilot signal makes it possible to find out the accurate direction of a specified rectenna.
  20. 20. GROUND RECTENNA FOR SPS SYSTEM www.airspacemag.com
  21. 21. NEEP602 Course Notes (Fall 1997) Resources from Space
  22. 22. EFFICIENCY  Received power at rectenna, given by Friis transmission equation: where Gt and Gr are the antenna gains (with respect to an isotropic radiator) of the transmitting and receiving antennas respectively, and R is the distance between the antennas.
  23. 23. TEST RESULT (R=225Km,Pt=1kw) Gr f(GHz) Gt Pr(microwatt) 40 dB 5.8 20dB 0.3347 5.8 30dB 3.3466 10 20dB 0.1126 10 30dB 1.1258 50dB 5.8 20dB 3.346 5.8 30dB 33.4660 10 20dB 1.125 10 30dB 11.2580
  24. 24. CONCLUSION  The system efficiency is very low to be used for practical purpose with current technology.  Emergence of META MATERIALS may change the scenario in future.  Metamaterial antennas use metamaterials to increase performance of miniaturized (electrically small) antenna systems.
  25. 25. REFERENCE 1. Corey Bergsrud, Sima Noghanian, Jeremy Straub, David whalen, Ronald Fevig “ORBIT-TO- GROUND WIRELESS POWER TRANSFER TEST MISSION”, 2013 IEEE 2. Syed Atif Adnan, Muhammad Inam Abbasi, Farukh Kamran “WIRELESS POWER TRANSFER USING MICROWAVES AT 2.45 GHz ISM BAND”, proceedings of international Bhurban Conference on applied science and technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 3. T.S. Hasaramani “WIRELESS POWER TRANSFER FOR SOLAR POWER SATELLITE” , AKGEC journal of technology, vol .1 , no.2
  26. 26. *******THANK YOU******

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