Wind as an Alternative Energy Source
          Mariana Pickering . SID 307087433 . May 21st, 2008 . PLAN9169: Urban Enviro...
Wind: Background Information
              Wind as an Alternative Energy Source . Mariana Pickering . SID 307087433 . May ...
Wind: Background Information
              Wind as an Alternative Energy Source . Mariana Pickering . SID 307087433 . May ...
Wind: Background Information
              Wind as an Alternative Energy Source . Mariana Pickering . SID 307087433 . May ...
Wind Harvesting: Issues of Debate
               Wind as an Alternative Energy Source . Mariana Pickering . SID 307087433 ...
Wind Harvesting: Issues of Debate
               Wind as an Alternative Energy Source . Mariana Pickering . SID 307087433 ...
Wind Harvesting: Issues of Debate
               Wind as an Alternative Energy Source . Mariana Pickering . SID 307087433 ...
Wind Harvesting: Issues of Debate
               Wind as an Alternative Energy Source . Mariana Pickering . SID 307087433 ...
Wind Harvesting: Issues of Debate
               Wind as an Alternative Energy Source . Mariana Pickering . SID 307087433 ...
Legislating for Connection to the Grid
            Wind as an Alternative Energy Source . Mariana Pickering . SID 30708743...
Legislating for Connection to the Grid
            Wind as an Alternative Energy Source . Mariana Pickering . SID 30708743...
Legislating for Connection to the Grid
            Wind as an Alternative Energy Source . Mariana Pickering . SID 30708743...
Legislating for Connection to the Grid
            Wind as an Alternative Energy Source . Mariana Pickering . SID 30708743...
The Future of the Wind Industry
            Wind as an Alternative Energy Source . Mariana Pickering . SID 307087433 . May...
The Future of the Wind Industry
            Wind as an Alternative Energy Source . Mariana Pickering . SID 307087433 . May...
The Future of the Wind Industry
            Wind as an Alternative Energy Source . Mariana Pickering . SID 307087433 . May...
The Future of the Wind Industry
           Wind as an Alternative Energy Source . Mariana Pickering . SID 307087433 . May ...
The Future of the Wind Industry
            Wind as an Alternative Energy Source . Mariana Pickering . SID 307087433 . May...
The Future of the Wind Industry
            Wind as an Alternative Energy Source . Mariana Pickering . SID 307087433 . May...
The Future of the Wind Industry
            Wind as an Alternative Energy Source . Mariana Pickering . SID 307087433 . May...
The Future of the Wind Industry
            Wind as an Alternative Energy Source . Mariana Pickering . SID 307087433 . May...
Conclusion
Wind as an Alternative Energy Source . Mariana Pickering . SID 307087433 . May 21st, 2008 . PLAN9169: Urban Env...
Bibliography
                                Wind as an Alternative Energy Source . Mariana Pickering . SID 307087433 . Ma...
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Wind As An Alternative Energy Source

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Presentation (dated May of 2008) on Wind As An Alternative Energy Source. Topics of discussion include: background information on wind harvesting, issues of debate surrounding this form of energy sourcing, related legislation allowing grid connection, and the future of the wind industry.
For a copy of the presentation, please email me with a specific request - mariana.pickering@emuarchitects.com

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Wind As An Alternative Energy Source

  1. 1. Wind as an Alternative Energy Source Mariana Pickering . SID 307087433 . May 21st, 2008 . PLAN9169: Urban Environments • Background Information • Issues of Debate • Legislation for Connecting to the Grid • The Future of the Wind Industry GWEC. Global Wind Energy Outlook, 2006. Image in title block is Wind Rose for Sydney from Australian Bureau of Meteorology
  2. 2. Wind: Background Information Wind as an Alternative Energy Source . Mariana Pickering . SID 307087433 . May 21st, 2008 . PLAN9169: Urban Environments • Wind Basics – Wind Types – Topography’s Effect – Measuring Wind – Properties of Energy • A Brief History – Mechanical Origins – Danish Pioneers – U.S. ‘Wish Rush’ – Germany’s FIT’s – Emerging Markets • Modern Turbines – Traditional Designs – Scales of Structures – Performance Criteria – Electricity Output Top: http://virtualskies.arc.nasa.gov/weather/tutorial/tutorial3.html Bottom Left: http://homepages. ius.edu/PGALVIN/climate/wind.html Bottom Right: Danish Wind Industry website , 2008.
  3. 3. Wind: Background Information Wind as an Alternative Energy Source . Mariana Pickering . SID 307087433 . May 21st, 2008 . PLAN9169: Urban Environments • Wind Basics – Wind Types – Topography’s Effect – Measuring Wind – Properties of Energy • A Brief History – Mechanical Origins – Danish Pioneers – U.S. ‘Wish Rush’ – Germany’s FIT’s – Emerging Markets • Modern Turbines – Traditional Designs – Scales of Structures – Performance Criteria – Electricity Output Top Left: http://www.wind-works.org/photos/PhotosWindmills.html Top Right: http://blogs.busi ness2.com/greenwombat/wind_powe r/index.html Bottom Left: http://www.windatlas.dk/ Europe/Index.htm Bottom Right: World Wind Energy Association Press Release, February 2008
  4. 4. Wind: Background Information Wind as an Alternative Energy Source . Mariana Pickering . SID 307087433 . May 21st, 2008 . PLAN9169: Urban Environments HAWT (Standard) • Wind Basics Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine – Wind Types – Topography’s Effect – Measuring Wind – Properties of Energy • A Brief History – Mechanical Origins – Danish Pioneers – U.S. ‘Wish Rush’ VAWT (Darrieus) – Germany’s FIT’s Vertical Axis Wind Turbine – Emerging Markets • Modern Turbines – Traditional Designs – Scales of Structures – Performance Criteria Australia = 7,000 – Electricity Output kWh/yr/household HAWT and VAWT: http://www.wind-works.org/photos/wind_farm.html Watch turbine: http://www.inhabitat.com/2008/05/01/urwerk-ur-202-wind-turbines-in-a-watch/ Bottom Right: http://www.wind-works.org/articles/SmallWindTurbineSizetoMeetHouseholdConsumpt ion.html Data on Australian households: http://www.energy.com.au/energy/ea.nsf/Content/NSW+Green+energy Mega Machine: http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/assets/images/story/2005/ 2/4/1332_5M_He li1_final.jpg
  5. 5. Wind Harvesting: Issues of Debate Wind as an Alternative Energy Source . Mariana Pickering . SID 307087433 . May 21st, 2008 . PLAN9169: Urban Environments • Criticisms: – High Capital Cost – Unreliable – Environmental Concerns – Ugly and Noisy – Safety of Jobs • Praises: – Short Payback Period – Reliable – Comparative GHG Emissions – Elegant and Quiet – Creation of Jobs Top: http://europe.theoildrum.com/node/3688 Bottom: IEA’s World Energy Outlook 2006
  6. 6. Wind Harvesting: Issues of Debate Wind as an Alternative Energy Source . Mariana Pickering . SID 307087433 . May 21st, 2008 . PLAN9169: Urban Environments • Criticisms: – High Capital Cost – Unreliable – Environmental Concerns – Ugly and Noisy – Safety of Jobs • Praises: – Short Payback Period – Reliable – Comparative GHG Emissions – Ever-Renewable – Elegant and Quiet – Creation of Jobs Fig. 1. Variation in the wind speed, as a function of the altitude, based on the average European wind speed (3 m/s at ground level). Source: Delft University, Dr. Wubbo Ockels . Top Left and Right: Gipe. Wind Power, 2004 Bottom Left: M. Canal e, L. Fagiano, M. Ippolito, M. Milanese. Control of tethered airfoils for a new class of wind energy generator , 2006.
  7. 7. Wind Harvesting: Issues of Debate Wind as an Alternative Energy Source . Mariana Pickering . SID 307087433 . May 21st, 2008 . PLAN9169: Urban Environments • Criticisms: – High Capital Cost – Unreliable – Environmental Concerns – Ugly and Noisy – Safety of Jobs • Praises: – Short Payback Period – Reliable – Comparative GHG Emissions – Ever-Renewable – Elegant and Quiet – Creation of Jobs Top: Erickson et al., 2002, Summary of Anthropoge nic Causes of Bird Mortality Bottom: http://europe.theoildrum.com/node/3688
  8. 8. Wind Harvesting: Issues of Debate Wind as an Alternative Energy Source . Mariana Pickering . SID 307087433 . May 21st, 2008 . PLAN9169: Urban Environments • Criticisms: – High Capital Cost – Unreliable – Environmental Concerns – Ugly and Noisy – Safety of Jobs • Praises: – Short Payback Period – Reliable – Comparative GHG Emissions – Elegant and Quiet – Creation of Jobs Top: http://www.airtricity.ca/en/faqs/environment_safety.html. Bottom: http://www.windpower.org/en/pictures/modern.htm
  9. 9. Wind Harvesting: Issues of Debate Wind as an Alternative Energy Source . Mariana Pickering . SID 307087433 . May 21st, 2008 . PLAN9169: Urban Environments • Criticisms: – High Capital Cost – Unreliable – Environmental Concerns – Ugly and Noisy – Safety of Jobs • Praises: – Short Payback Period – Reliable – Comparative GHG Emissions – Elegant and Quiet – Creation of Jobs Global Wind Energy Outlook Report, 2006.
  10. 10. Legislating for Connection to the Grid Wind as an Alternative Energy Source . Mariana Pickering . SID 307087433 . May 21st, 2008 . PLAN9169: Urban Environments • U.S.A. “Tout sure terre appartient aux princes, hors le vent.” – Nat’l Energy Act ‘78 (Everything on Earth belongs to princes, except the wind.) - Victor Hugo, La Rose de L’Infante – PTC’s (Production Tax Credits) • United Kingdom – RPS (Renewable Portfolio Standard) http://www.ferc.gov/ – NFFO (Non Fossil- http://www.franklinpud.com/html/purpa.php Fuel Obligation) • Germany – FIT’s (Feed-In Tariffs) – ART’s (Advanced Renewable Tariffs) • Australia AWEA, Wind Power Outlook 2006
  11. 11. Legislating for Connection to the Grid Wind as an Alternative Energy Source . Mariana Pickering . SID 307087433 . May 21st, 2008 . PLAN9169: Urban Environments • U.S.A. – Nat’l Energy Act ‘78 – PTC’s (Production Tax Credits) • United Kingdom – RPS (Renewable Portfolio Standard) – NFFO (Non Fossil- Fuel Obligation) • Germany – FIT’s (Feed-In Tariffs) – ART’s (Advanced Renewable Tariffs) • Australia Top: http://www.countryguardian.net/UK%20windspeed%20map.jpg Bottom: The British Wind and Energy Association (BWEA)
  12. 12. Legislating for Connection to the Grid Wind as an Alternative Energy Source . Mariana Pickering . SID 307087433 . May 21st, 2008 . PLAN9169: Urban Environments • U.S.A. Feed-In Tariffs (FIT)  Advanced Renewable Tariffs (ART) – Nat’l Energy Act ‘78 – PTC’s (Production Tax Credits) • United Kingdom – RPS (Renewable Portfolio Standard) – NFFO (Non Fossil- Fuel Obligation) • Germany – FIT’s (Feed-In Tariffs) – ART’s (Advanced Renewable Tariffs) • Australia Gipe. Wind Power, 2004.
  13. 13. Legislating for Connection to the Grid Wind as an Alternative Energy Source . Mariana Pickering . SID 307087433 . May 21st, 2008 . PLAN9169: Urban Environments • U.S.A. – Nat’l Energy Act ‘78 – PTC’s (Production Tax Credits) http://www.ata.org.au/about-us • United Kingdom – RPS (Renewable Portfolio Standard) – NFFO (Non Fossil- Fuel Obligation) • Germany – FIT’s (Feed-In Tariffs) – ART’s (Advanced Renewable Tariffs) • Australia http://www.agso.gov.au/renewable/
  14. 14. The Future of the Wind Industry Wind as an Alternative Energy Source . Mariana Pickering . SID 307087433 . May 21st, 2008 . PLAN9169: Urban Environments • Mega-Machines – Is Bigger Better? • Offshore Wind Farms • Sky Sails and Kite Dams • High-Altitude • Magnetic Levitation • Small Turbine Focus Top Left: GWEC. Global Wind Energy Outlook, 2006. Top Right and Bottom Left: http://www.thewindpower.net/wind-turbine-pictures-223-enercon-e126.php Bottom Right: http://www.windpower.org/en/pictures/multimeg.htm
  15. 15. The Future of the Wind Industry Wind as an Alternative Energy Source . Mariana Pickering . SID 307087433 . May 21st, 2008 . PLAN9169: Urban Environments • Mega-Machines • Offshore Wind Farms – Results Coming In • Sky Sails and Kite Dams http://europe.theoildrum.com/node/3342 • High-Altitude • Magnetic Levitation • Small Turbine Focus http://www.windpower.org/en/pictures/offshore.htm
  16. 16. The Future of the Wind Industry Wind as an Alternative Energy Source . Mariana Pickering . SID 307087433 . May 21st, 2008 . PLAN9169: Urban Environments • Mega-Machines • Offshore Wind Farms – Floating/Deep Water Turbines • Sky Sails and Kite Dams • High-Altitude • Magnetic Levitation • Small Turbine Focus Top: http://offshorewind.net/Other_Page s/Turbine-Foundations.html Bottom: http://web. mit.edu/newsoffice/2006/wind.html
  17. 17. The Future of the Wind Industry Wind as an Alternative Energy Source . Mariana Pickering . SID 307087433 . May 21st, 2008 . PLAN9169: Urban Environments • Mega-Machines • Offshore Wind Farms • Sky Sails and Kite Dams • High-Altitude • Magnetic Levitation • Small Turbine Focus Top Left: http://www.inhabitat.com/2007/11/14/power-generating-wind-dam-by-chetwood-associates/
  18. 18. The Future of the Wind Industry Wind as an Alternative Energy Source . Mariana Pickering . SID 307087433 . May 21st, 2008 . PLAN9169: Urban Environments • Mega-Machines • Offshore Wind Farms • Sky Sails and Kite Ships • High-Altitude – Flying Electric Generators (FEG’s) • Magnetic Levitation • Small Turbine Focus http://www.inhabitat.com/2007/07/17/ flying-wind-turbi nes/
  19. 19. The Future of the Wind Industry Wind as an Alternative Energy Source . Mariana Pickering . SID 307087433 . May 21st, 2008 . PLAN9169: Urban Environments • Mega-Machines • Offshore Wind Farms • Sky Sails and Kite Ships • High-Altitude – “Laddermills” • Magnetic Levitation • Small Turbine Focus Top: http://www.ecoboot.nl/artikelen/graphics/laddermill_graph. gif Bottom: http://www.inhabitat.com/2007/07/17/ flying-wind-turbines/
  20. 20. The Future of the Wind Industry Wind as an Alternative Energy Source . Mariana Pickering . SID 307087433 . May 21st, 2008 . PLAN9169: Urban Environments • Mega-Machines • Offshore Wind Farms http://www.inhabitat.com/2007/11/26/super-powered-magnetic-wind-turbine-maglev/ • Sky Sails and Kite Ships • High-Altitude Right: http://news. xinhuanet.com/english/2007-11/05/content_7016626.htm Left: http://www.treehugger.com/files/2006/07/china_unveils_w.php • Magnetic Levitation • Small Turbine Focus http://www.inhabitat.com/2007/11/26/super-powered-magnetic-wind-turbine-maglev/
  21. 21. The Future of the Wind Industry Wind as an Alternative Energy Source . Mariana Pickering . SID 307087433 . May 21st, 2008 . PLAN9169: Urban Environments • Mega-Machines • Offshore Wind Farms • Sky Sails and Kite Ships • High-Altitude • Magnetic Levitation • Small Turbine Focus Top: http://www.inhabitat.com/2007/11/26/super-powered-magnetic-wind-turbine-maglev/ Bottom: http://www.inhabitat.com/2008/05/08/swift-ultra-quiet-rooftop-wind-turbine/
  22. 22. Conclusion Wind as an Alternative Energy Source . Mariana Pickering . SID 307087433 . May 21st, 2008 . PLAN9169: Urban Environments “Ill blows the wind that profits nobody.” -William Shakespeare, Henry VI, Part III, Act II
  23. 23. Bibliography Wind as an Alternative Energy Source . Mariana Pickering . SID 307087433 . May 21st, 2008 . PLAN9169: Urban Environments • quot;AWEA Legislative Priorities.quot; American Wind Energy Association. 2008. AWEA. 18 May 2008 <http://www.awea.org/legislative/>. • Basantani, Mahesh. quot;The MagLev: the Super-Powered Magnetic Wind Turbine.quot; Inhabitat. 26 Nov. 2007. 9 May 2008 <http://www.inhabitat.com/2007/11/26/super-powered-magnetic-wind-turbine- maglev/>. • Bergey, Mike, comp. The U.S. Small Wind Turbine Industry Roadmap. American Wind Energy Association. Golden, Colorado: National Wind Technology Center At NREL, 2002. 1-35. • Bolonkin, Alexander. Utilization of Wind Energy At High Altitude. 2nd Internat ional Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, 16 Aug. 2004, AIAA. Providence, RI: American Institue of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2004. • The Case Against Windfarms. Country Guardian. Count ry Guardian, 2000. 18 May 2008 <http://www.countryguardian.net/case.htm>. • Clausen, P D., and D H. Wood. quot;Research and Development Issues for Small Wind Turbines.quot; Renewable Energy 16.1-4 (1999): 922-927. Science Direct. University of Sydney, Sydney. 9 May 2008. Keyword: small wind turbine. • Cohn, David. quot;Windmills in the Sky.quot; Wired. 6 Apr. 2005. Wired Online Magazine. 9 May 2008 <http://www.wired.com/science/planetearth/news/2005/04/67121>. • Davidson, Keay. quot;Scientists Look High in the Sky for Power.quot; SF Gate: Home of the San Francisco Chronicle. 7 May 2007. San Francisco Chronicle. 9 May 2008 <http://www.sfgate.com/cgi- bin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2007/05/07/MNGNEPMD801.DTL>. • Doan, Abigail. quot;Power Generating Wind Dam by Chetwood Associates.quot; Inhabitat. 14 Nov. 2007. 9 May 2008 <http://www.inhabitat.com/2007/11/14/power-generating-wind-dam-by-chet wood- associates/>. • quot;DWIA - Home Page.quot; Danish Wind Industry Associati on. 2008. 9 May 2008 <http://www.windpower.org/en/core.htm>. • quot;Feed-in Tariffs for Renewable Energy.quot; Alternative Technology Association. 2008. ATA. 9 May 2008 <http://www.ata.org.au/projects-and-advocacy/feed-in-tariff-for-solar-systems>. • Gipe, Paul. quot;Home.quot; Wind-Works by Paul Gipe. 14 May 2008. 18 May 2008 <http://wind-works.org/>. • Gipe, Paul. Wind Power, Revised Edition: Renewable Energy for Home, Farm, and Busi ness. Vermont: Chelsea Green Publishing Company, 2004. • Givoni, Baruch. Man, climate and architecture (Architectural science series). Barking, Essex, England: Applied Science Publishers, 1976. • Givoni, Baruch. Passive Low Energy Cooling of Buildings (Archit ecture). New York, NY: Wiley, 1994. • Guillet, Jérôme. quot;Offshore Wind.quot; The Oil Drum: Europe. 10 Dec. 2007. The Oil Drum. 9 May 2008 <http://europe.theoildrum.com/node/3342>. • Hatcher, Jason, comp. quot;Magenn Power Inc. Home.quot; Magenn Power. Magenn Power Inc. 9 May 2008 <http://www.magenn.com/>. • International Renewable Energy. Energy Information Administrat ion. U.S. Department of Energy, 2007. 17 May 2008 <http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/solar.renewables/renewable.energy.annual/chap12.html>. • Kricenski, Ali. quot;Helix Wind Turbine: Small Wind Gets Smart.quot; Inhabitat . 8 Nov. 2007. 9 May 2008 <http://www.inhabitat.com/2007/11/08/helix-wind-turbine-small-wind-get s-smart/>. • quot;Laddermill.quot; Laddermill. Deft University and RMIT. 9 May 2008 <http://www.ockels.nl/>. • Li, Zijun. quot;China Makes Huge Breakthrough in Wind Power Technology.quot; Worldwatch Institute: Vision for a Sustainable World. 4 July 2006. Worldwatch Institue. 9 May 2008 <http://www.worldwatch.org/node/4217>. • Madsen, Birger T. Press Release: International Wind Energy Development World Market Update 2007 Forecast 2008-2012. BTM Consult ApS, 2007. 1-2. 9 May 2008 <www.btm.dk>. • Manwell, James F., J.G. Mcgowan, and A.L. Rogers. Wind Energy Explained: Theory, Design and Application. West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons Inc, 2002. • Piggott, Hugh. Choosi ng Windpower. Machynlleth: Centre For Alternative Technology Publications, 2006. • quot;Renewable Database.quot; Global Renewable Energy Policies and Measures. 2008. International Energy Association. 9 May 2008 <http://www.iea.org/textbase/pm/?mode=re>. • quot;Small Wind Turbines: Can They Live Up to Their Potential in the US?quot; Refocus July-Aug. 2003: 40-43. Sci ence Direct. University of Sydney Library, Alexandria. 18 May 2008. Keyword: Small Wind Turbine. • quot;Small Wind Turbines: the Unsung Heroes of the Wind Industry.quot; Refocus Mar.-Apr. 2002: 30-36. Science Direct. University of Sydney Library, Alexandria. 18 May 2008. Keyword: Small Wind Turbine. • Stauffer, Nancy. quot;Deep-Sea Oil Rigs Inspire MIT Designs for Giant Wind Turbines.quot; MIT News Office. 29 Aug. 2006. MIT. 9 May 2008 <http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2006/wind.html>. • Steffen, Bridgette. quot;Swift: Ultra Quiet Roof top Wind Turbine.quot; Inhabitat. 8 May 2008. 9 May 2008 <http://www.inhabitat.com/2008/05/08/ swift-ultra-quiet-rooftop-wind-turbine/ >. • Sussman, Paul. quot;Reach for the Sky: Coul d Flying Wind Farms Help Beat Global Warming?quot; CNN.Com/Technology. 31 Aug. 2007. CNN International. 9 May 2008 <http://www.cnn.com/2007/TECH/science/08/31/sky.turbines/>. • quot;The SkySails System.quot; Wintecc. 24 May 2005. Wintecc. 9 May 2008 <http://www.wintecc.de/>. • Tribalogic, comp. quot;Swift Turbine.quot; Renewable Devices. 2008. Renewable Devices Swift Turbines Ltd. 9 May 2008 <http://www.renewabledevices.com/swift/index.htm>. • Wind Energy Profile. Energy Informati on Administration. U.S. Department of Energy, 2007. 17 May 2008 <http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/solar.renewables/renewable.energy.annual/chap05.html>. Wind Energy Profile. Energy Information Administration. U.S. Department of Energy, 2007. 17 May 2008 <http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/solar.renewables/renewable.energy.annual/chap05.html>.

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