The                             LEading EdgE                                                                              ...
Winter Ops    Continued from page 1    Remember: Bombardier has released          and let it stabilize for two minutes    ...
Winter OpsContinued from page 2through the windows in the cabin’s        On the CrJ50, heavy snow                   the em...
Winter Ops    Continued from page 3    is prohibited in conditions of                  attention to the wiper arms and out...
Making sense of                           By Dean Weaver                         CRJ50 First Officer                      ...
Aviation safety Action Program    The Event Review    Committee made up of    Comair’s Corporate Flight    Safety, the FAA...
nOtAMsContinued from page 5release, they do help in flight planning   nOTAM (d) Falls into                       example:a...
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Leading Edge, pilot safety newsletter, Fall 2009


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Leading Edge, pilot safety newsletter, Fall 2009

  1. 1. The LEading EdgE A Comair Central Air Safety Fall 2009 Committee Publication Preparing for theBy Steve Petersen,CRJ50 Captain, and Hazards of Winter Ops adhering to any criticalDean Weaver, surface prior to takeoff.CRJ50 First Officer The FAA-approvedNOTE: For additional Bombardier-specific deicing Ground Deicing/Anti-guidance, see the Icing Awareness video located Icing Program for Winterin the PilotTraining Center on EPIC. 2009−2010 is Revision1. Can you depart in heavy 18 dated Sept. 15, 2009. Photo by Brian Futterman snow without a published It should be in the back holdover time? of the Operations Manu- al and provides detailed2. Can you depart with reports information calculating of freezing fog combined holdover times. with snow? Comair N691CA dusk departure off runway 27 at General New Jeppesen-style Edward Lawrence Logan International Airport, Boston.3. What parts of the aircraft pink pages are being must be touched by hand on issued to all pilots by Comair Flight vertical stabilizer, control surfaces, the preflight when the temper- Standards and will include this deic- and engine inlets. The CRJ50 does ature falls below 5°C (41°F)? ing information in a readily acces- not have the benefit of slats on the sible place for all pilots. These pages leading edge and is particularly vul-It’s that time of year when ice and will replace the laminated pages nerable to lower takeoff stall speedssnow cling to wings and cover run- previously found in the aircraft’s with contamination.ways, testing pilots’ knowledge, pa- power pack.tience, and judgment as they deal with A touch check of the wing leadinganti-ice holdover times and TLR data. The Flight Standards Manual Chapter edge, forward upper surface, and rear 2, Limitations, and Chapter 3.A.5, upper surface must be done if theThe past couple of years have seen Cold Weather Operations, also pro- OAT is below 5°C, the wing fuel tem-several changes to holdover times and vide deicing/anti-ice information. perature is below 0°C, or atmospherica dramatically different way for calcu- conditions have been conducive tolating performance numbers. frost formation. PreflightWith all the new rules and limitations, This is the time to find any frost, ice, Crews should pay close attention tothe goal is the same: ALWAYS make or snow on critical surfaces, which in- snow or ice accumulation inside thesure that frost, ice, or snow is not clude the wings, horizontal stabilizer, cowls near the engine fan blades. Comair aircraft have suffered dam- InsIde… age from fan blades being frozen to the cowling. If unsure, pilots should ask Maintenance to make sure the fan 1 Preparing for the Hazards of Winter Ops blades spin freely prior to engine start. 2 Welcome to the Leading Edge e-Edition Pilots should also ensure that there 3 Takeoff and Landing Report is N1 fan rotation prior to thrust lever advancement during starts to prevent 4 Links to Great Smart Phone Websites for Flight Planning engine damage. 5 Making Sense of NOTAMs Please see Winter Ops page 2 6 Aviation Safety Action Program Upate
  2. 2. Winter Ops Continued from page 1 Remember: Bombardier has released and let it stabilize for two minutes with the wing anti-ice on to ensure In heavy snow: training material that states that if that the leading edge heating is The aircraft must be anti-iced with the leading edge of the CRJ100/200 complete. 100 percent Type IV. aircraft had contamination equivalent to 40-grit sandpaper, then lift coeffi- The CRJ 50 MUst have a tactile Crews should exercise extreme cau- cient would be reduced by 30 percent check of all critical surfaces within tion when operating in heavy snow. and the stall angle of attack would be five minutes of takeoff. Look for No published holdover times exist for reduced by as much as 7 degrees. these inspections near the end of the heavy snow; however, the Aircraft Ground Deicing/Anti-Icing Program runway. If this cannot be done, the Bombardier has put out stringent pre- (page 6-23) does permit a departure aircraft must be deiced again. flight guidance and reduced rotation- rate guidelines after some Challenger if the aircraft is checked five minutes The CRJ70/90 may have the wings and CRJ aircraft suffered accidents prior to takeoff. visually checked by a cabin check or and incidents from uncommanded roll tactile check. To conduct the cabin The aircraft must be inspected to on takeoff. Wing contamination of the check, the first officer should look determine if it has a clean wing. leading edge and forward upper-wing surface was a factor in these takeoffs. Please see Winter Ops page 3  The asymmetrical stalling of one wing prior to the other caused the roll. Some pilots were able to regain con- trol but only after lowering the pitch Welcome to the Leading Edge angle. Aileron control input could not e Edition overpower the roll until the angle of By ALPA’s Air Safety Committee at Comair attack was reduced, according to Bombardier’s Icing Awareness Video Welcome to the new e-edition of Publishing this newsletter online ver- available on EPIC. Comair’s Leading Edge newsletter sus print also provides a substantial produced by the ALPA Safety cost savings. Committee. deicing/Anti-Icing Please make sure you have a current The FAA Deicing/Anti-Icing charts This e-newsletter replaces the e-mail address on file with ALPA so have not changed much from the pre- printed newsletter and will be sent you can stay abreast of urgent safety vious year. Heated Type I fluid is still to pilot e-mail addresses on file with articles and bulletins. used for deicing, with Type IV being ALPA. The new format allows the As always, your ideas and feedback the primary means of keeping the ice Safety Committee a quicker way on how to improve the Leading Edge off the wings and tail until takeoff. to communicate time-critical safety newsletter are welcome. info to pilots. The e-newsletter is Be careful to read the Warnings and in a PDF file format that can be Please submit any comments to Notes when using the charts. accessed over the Internet so it can the Leading Edge newsletter editor, be read anywhere. It can be easily Dean Weaver, at Dean.Weaver@ Deice with the flaps at zero to viewed on the screen or printed for prevent fluid from freezing inside future reference. the flap actuation flex shaft lines on the CRJ50. Before exiting the deice pad, allow time to perform the taxi checklist, lower the flaps, and restart the APU. The LEading EdgE CRJ50 limitations now require the The Leading Edge is a quarterly publication produced by volunteer Comair pilots wing anti-ice to be selected after who are members of ALPA’s Central Air Safety Committee. The goal of the commit- the second engine is started during tee is to promote and enhance safety at Comair. “final taxi” when the OAT is below Mail inquiries to: 5°C (41°F), even on clear days. This Comair MEC Editor: Dean Weaver is done to ensure that any frost or Attn: Leading Edge E-mail: contamination on the wing is melted 3490 Olympic Blvd., Suite 120 prior to takeoff. Erlanger, KY 41018 Please share any ideas, questions, or comments you have with us. Captains need to provide adequate taxi time to start the second engine2 ThE LEading EdgE
  3. 3. Winter OpsContinued from page 2through the windows in the cabin’s On the CrJ50, heavy snow the emergency-row exit windows dur-emergency exit row. Or a tactile requires a tactile check five ing periods of heavy snow if they arecheck can be done five minutes minutes prior to takeoff because unable to get a tactile check.prior to takeoff. The cabin check can it is more vulnerable to wing contami-substitute for a tactile check only on nation without the aid of leading-edge Multiple Forms of Freezingthe CRJ70/90, and the parking brake slats. At CVG, these tactile inspec-must be set during this inspection. Precipitation tions are sometimes done with an observer near the end of the runway. Last year, some Comair crews wereThe FAA has given pilots more discre- confronted with freezing fog com- However, tactile inspections are lim-tion this year in determining snow bined with snow or other forms of ited at other airports.intensity by using the prevailing freezing precipitation.Visibility Chart. A trained weather Good judgment certainly allowsobserver in the control tower often CRJ50 pilots to perform a cabin A Warning Note on page 6-15 ofreports the snow intensity as light, inspection of the wings to help ensure the FAA-approved Aircraft Groundmoderate, or heavy. The ATIS and a clean wing prior to takeoff, but in Deicing/Anti-Icing Program prohibitsRVR reports also provide support- heavy snow a tactile check must be dispatch in these visibility data. However, if a snow performed.squall approaches a runway, the pi- WARnInG—When SAE Type IVlots may determine that the intensity The CRJ70/90 pilots can perform a fluid has been applied, dispatchhas increased. cabin check of the wing surface from Please see Winter Ops page 4  Takeoff and Landing Report ter 6B, and use the Single Section TLR Data to obtain the maximum runway takeoff weight and V-speeds. By ALPA’s Air Safety Committee at Comair 1. If actual takeoff weight is within Aerodata’s Takeoff and 2. V-speeds in the Max Temp chart 1,000 pounds of Maximum Runway Landing Report (TLR) will should not be affected by the 14th Takeoff Weight (MRTW), use the Stage Bleed Air configuration V-speeds from the Single Section. need additional scrutiny when when using Wing and Cowl Anti- departing with wing and cowl 2. If actual takeoff weight is 1,000 Ice, according to Comair Flight pounds or more below MRTW, anti-ice. Performance weights Standards. For the CRJ50: When compare the flap setting for the de- and V-speeds also change with departing 10th Stage Bleeds parture runway with the Max Temp Open, use the “BLOP” correc- runway contamination. Refer Section. tions at the bottom of the chart. to Flight Standards Manual 3. If the flap settings do not match, 3. For the CRJ50: Go to the Max Chapter 6B for TLR planning. use the Single Section V-speeds. Temp Chart for “A/I OFF – nOte: Using the TLR in adverse NORM” and use the V-speeds 4. If flap settings are the same, compare weather conditions presents pilots appropriate for the aircraft’s weight the charts and use the lowest V1. with many challenges. There are and runway surface condition. The 5. Compare charts and use the lower numerous tables and more than 25 CRJ70/90 does not distinguish VR and associated V2. pages of explanation in the Flight between NORM and FLEX thrust charts since it has the performance 6. Use the Thrust Setting from the Standards Manual. Do not rush Single Section. through the process, reference the advantages from Full Authority books, and use good Crew Resource Digital Engine Control (FADEC). When landing on a contaminated Management making sure both pilots CRJ50 pilots need to make sure they runway, refer to the Minimum Land- agree on thrust settings, weights, have selected the correct anti-ice ing Distance Section on the TLR and and V-speeds prior to pushback. bleed configuration in the FMS when reference the appropriate runway sur- copying the max thrust, max continu- face condition. FSM Chapter 6B ex- 1. Start with the Max Weight Sec- plains the landing charts and contami- ous, and climb thrust numbers onto tion and use the report titled “A/I nation definitions and abbreviations. the worksheet. PER LIMITATIONS” to get the correct N1 Normal Thrust number If departing on a contaminated run- NOTE: More detailed guidance on TLR Winter and Runway Limited Performance way, determine the level of contami- Ops is available from a Flight Standards number. nation by consulting the FSM Chap- “PIREP” report available on EPIC.Fall 2009 3
  4. 4. Winter Ops Continued from page 3 is prohibited in conditions of attention to the wiper arms and out- turn to the deicing pad at more than heavy ice pellets, snow pellets, board wings while on the flight deck one airport. The minimum tempera- to monitor ice accumulation. The first ture for deicing with heated Type I is moderate and heavy freezing officer can perform a cabin check of 160°F (71°C). The deicing staff will rain, hail, or conditions where no the wings if needed. provide this information to the crew holdover time exists. if it is requested. If there is any doubt the wings are the phrase “conditions where Deicing during winter operations adds clean, the aircraft must be deiced no holdover time exists” was to task saturation on the flight deck. again. added as the result of an ASAP Pilots are encouraged to slow down report. The crew refused to depart Comair’s ALPA Central Air Safety and use good judgment in determining in freezing fog and snow because Committee has stood, and will con- how to get the aircraft to the end of of concerns about holdover times. tinue to stand, behind any crew who the runway with a clean wing. The ASAP Event Review Committee correctly chooses not to depart in con- unanimously agreed to change the ditions where no holdover time exists. Remember that holdover times are language for the warning note. needed for dispatch, but there are Captains always have the final other factors to consider. The ef- the FAA does not provide hold- authority in making a go/no-go deci- fectiveness of anti-ice fluid changes over times for multiple forms of sion. Pilots should never let them- as the type and intensity of the freezing precipitation. The excep- selves be pushed into departing in precipitation changes. Strong winds, tions to this are ice pellets with other hazardous icing conditions without jet blast, falling temperatures, and forms of precipitation and a note that a holdover time. Any crew that feels cold, soaked wings also shorten the allows for light-freezing-rain holdover pressured to dispatch should immedi- effectiveness of anti-ice fluid. times to be used when light snow is ately contact an ALPA Safety repre- mixed with light rain. sentative at 1-800-283-1335, and call Deice and anti-ice operations are not the ASAP Hotline. an exact science. It takes a diligent, Holdover times do not take the place well-trained crew to make sure the of a pre-takeoff check for a clean One final concern that caused icing aircraft’s critical surfaces are contam- aircraft, but the times do provide a trouble last year was low nozzle tem- inate-free prior to takeoff.  guideline for anti-ice fluid effective- perature when applying heated Type I ness. Pilots should always pay close deicing fluid. This forced crews to re- Links to Great smart Phone Websites for Flight Planning My-Cast Aviation Mobi Digital weather for smart phones includes animated Nexrad radar A free mobile website that gives pilots the and satellite imagery, current con- tools of a dispatcher on their phone. Get METAR, TAF NWS Regional/National , ditions and observations, six-day radar, NOTAMs, SIGMET/AIRMET, Winds forecasts, and the ability to store Aloft, airport runway lengths, and even multiple locations. My-Cast is a instrument approach procedures. Just type Garmin company, and there are in the ICAO identifier for the airport. fees for some of the services. Flight stats A free mobile website that provides estimated and actual flight arrival and departure times. Information on flights can be accessed by route, flight number, or airport. It also includes airport weather, real-time flight maps, and next-flight-out information.4 ThE LEading EdgE
  5. 5. Making sense of By Dean Weaver CRJ50 First Officer NOTAMs !USD 08A /236 (K NEWARK EW critical part of every pre- NOTAMs; KLGA, SEVEN D R A1688/09) E DEPARTU EPARTUR WR AIRS flight includes scanning 48; and KBOS, RE CHAN E PACE DEPARTU GE TAKE MARINER TWO dozens of Notices to Airmen 34. Combine ar- RE ROUT -OFF RW CLIMB V E Y 4 (NOTAMs) looking for a hid- rival and departure IA HEAD DESCRIPTION T L/R 4 DME R ING 060 O READ:den gotcha, something that overrides airport NOTAMs WY 4R I , IF 4R I LS (USE UPON CROSSINGa procedure on a Jeppesen diagram. onto one dispatch LS IS N R LEFT HE OT AVAI WY 4L ILS ONL release, and there ADING 2 LABLE), Y 90 MAIN TThese obscure, abbreviated are sometimes THENCE. .. CHAN TAIN 30 URN DEPARTU GE TAKE 00 FEETNOTAMs tagged onto the end of a more than 100 RE ROUT -O . CLIMB V E DESCR FF RWY 11dispatch release reference dozens notices vying IA HEAD IP EAST OF ING 060 TION TO READ:of changes to instrument-approach for the crew’s COL R-0 (DO NOT RWY 4R 2 Pminimums and missed-approach attention. ILS (US 3). UPON CROS ROCEED ILS IS E RWY 4 SING 4procedures, along with changes to NO L I DMEarrivals and departures. 290 MAI T AVAILABLE), LS ONLY IF 4R NTAIN 3 Why so 000 FEE TURN LE OTHER D T. THEN FT HEADINGNot adhering to some of these notices many ATA REM AINS TH CE... A LLcould result in a Letter of Warning from E SAME.the FAA or put the aircraft dangerously nOTAMs?close to an unseen obstruction. The Federal Aviation Admin- istration changed the way it issues extraThe most recent gotcha for several NOTAMs on Jan. 28, 2008. Now, all minutes topilots at several airlines came buried local (L) NOTAMs have been inte- check the weather and click on thein this NOTAM, which raised the grated into the distant (D) NOTAMs. tab labeled QBS, Query by Station.Newark Seven and Mariner Two De- This means a NOTAM (L) that is Input the airports on your trip, andparture altitude from 2,500 to 3,000 broadcast on the ATIS now gets the it will show you a list of NOTAMs.feet when departing 4L/R. same widespread dissemination as Take a moment to scan through FDC the NOTAM (D) and will be printedsee example: on the dispatch release. NOTAMs to look for changes to ILS visibilities or decision altitudes, espe-This serves as a reminder that not ev- These changes occurred when the cially if you are planning for instru-erything is “as advertised” on the FAA took over the NOTAM function ment conditions. Missed-approachATIS or in the Jeppesen diagram. from Lockheed Martin with the intent procedures also may be different.This is not the only instance airline to standardize and consolidate differ- Review any USD and UAR NOTAMscrews have been caught off guard. ent databases into one. that may change departure or arrivalA couple years ago several Comair Flight Data Center (FDC) NOTAMs procedures. Make a note of the af-crews accepted an instrument ap- remain unchanged and contain infor- fected runways on your DSL so youproach into KLGA and later learned mation that is regulatory in nature know what to look up in the releasethey were not legal to conduct the pertaining to flight including, but not once under way.approach. A NOTAM had raised theminimum visibility on the approach for limited to, changes to charts, proce- 2. Harness the powerCategory D aircraft, and this change dures, and airspace usage. of the internet.was not reflected on the Jeppesen Sifting through all these NOTAMs Technology and smart phones haveInstrument Approach chart. isn’t easy. But a few simple strate- put the tools of an airline dispatcherThe problem with deciphering gies may help captains and first of- in the palm of a pilot’s hand. NewNOTAMs is compounded by their ficers avoid filing an ASAP after they Weather-on-Demand Internet sitesvolume. The above Newark Seven discover a pilot deviation has been like give WindowsNOTAM was one of 31 issued to filed by Air Traffic Control. Mobile and iPhone users the ability topilots for KEWR. look up NOTAMs for any U.S. airport 1. Use All Available resources in seconds. While these free websitesA quick scan of NOTAMs at other When you check in for a flight as- are not a substitute for a dispatchairports shows a similar deluge of signment at the beginning of a tripinformation. At KJFK, there were 64 and print your DSL, take a couple of Please see nOtAMs page 7 Fall 2009 5
  6. 6. Aviation safety Action Program The Event Review Committee made up of Comair’s Corporate Flight Safety, the FAA, and the Update must be on board to assist passengers getting on or off the aircraft since an emergency could still occur on the ground that might require a rapid evacuation. ALPA Safety Committee day. Unfortunately, this is the 3. navigating the Kennedy One has been tracking several only method pilots have to Departure change block times.  When performing the Canarsie safety concerns since the 2. Headset Usage or Breezy Point climb-out new ASAP program was of JFK, it is permissible to launched in June.  The ASAP ERC has received allow the nonflying pilot to several reports of headsets use White (FMS-derived) safety concerns that pilots being unavailable for pushback Navigation Data. Per the Pink should be aware of include: at congested ramps in JFK Pages, the flying pilot must re- and BOS. Headsets should main in Green (VOR-derived) 1. scheduling issues always be used for pushback. Navigation Data. By utilizing  Pilots are being asked to On the rare occasion a both sources of navigation closely monitor their schedules functioning headset cannot be data, the nonflying pilot can for one-in-seven issues per used, the Comair Operations assist the flying pilot and help FAR 121.471. The FAA consid- Manual requires that the ramp lead the turn to the appropri- ers a long-call reserve pilot’s personnel discuss the use of ate radial. However, building a obligation to call the company hand signals with the captain departure is still prohibited. the day before a reserve win- prior to pushback. dow begins to be a day of duty.  When departing 31 Left from  Being pushed back without a KK intersection, pilots may Please monitor your schedule headset creates an unneces- want to consider using the most to ensure you have at least 24 sary safety risk. favorable thrust/flap-setting hours free from duty during each seven calendar days.  If headsets are not available combination to ensure they turn for pushback, ask the tug driv- inside the Canarsie 039 radial.  The ASAP ERC has received er to locate a headset. If a sta-  New RNAV departures are several reports of inaccu- tion does not have headsets being developed for JFK rate block-in and block-out available, submit an ASAP so that will allow both pilots to times. These times are what the station managers can be navigate using White (FMS- Scheduling uses to comply made aware of the need for derived) data. Comair is flight- with FAR duty and rest functioning headsets. testing these departures in the requirements. Pilots should monitor their schedules to  Flight Attendants required simulator, as are other airlines make sure they are not sched- for Boarding AnD in working with Air Traffic uled to fly more than 8 hours Deplaning Aircraft Control to adopt more precise per day, 30 hours during any  Make sure the flight attendant(s) departure tracks out of New seven-day period, and that are on the aircraft for boarding York’s congested airspace. they comply with the current and deplaning. A pilot cannot take 4. pLeAse Update Your phone rest requirements. Please the place of a flight attendant to Contact information or risk submit changes to block times assist in the process, according enforcement Action using the form available on to Comair manuals. The required Epic at the end of each duty number of flight attendants Please see AsAp page 7  ImPortAnt ASAP Hotline 1-866-274-7088 ASAP (Call within 24 hours at the end of the duty day) Info: Electronic reports are submitted to: www.comairsafety.com6 ThE LEading EdgE
  7. 7. nOtAMsContinued from page 5release, they do help in flight planning nOTAM (d) Falls into example:and are quite accurate. One of 12 Categories: !ABC ABC AD CLsD 1100- 1900 DLY WeF 0811011100-The FAA has its own official NOTAM 1. rWY: Runway 0811151900Internet search site at https:// 2. tWY: Taxiway Explanation: The ABC airport 3. rAMp closed from 1100 to 1900 daily fromtion/home.html. 4. AprOn november 1, 2008, at 1100 untilAnd, of course, there is the old november 15, 2008, at 1900. 5. AD: Aerodrome used to denotestandby DUATS system, which still airports, helipads, and heliports. While the FDC NOTAM formatprovides plain English text NOTAMs Includes 5nm radius around remains unchanged for 2009, thereto pilots. each. are still a couple of ways to simplify3. practice Decoding a Few reading them: 6. OBst: Obstructions including nOtAMs. obstruction lighting outages The FDC NOTAM begins with a num-On the right is a quick refresher on usually identified by distance ber code, which is often followed byhow Notices to Airmen are written. from airport. contraction USD or UAR. 7. nAV: Navigation aids UsD notices depict changes to the 8. COM: Communications published departure procedure (DP)AsAp UpDAte for an airport.Continued from page 6 9. sVC: Services 10. AirspACe UAr notices are for Standard Termi-  The ASAP Event Review nal Procedures (STAR) to an airport. Committee occasionally 11. U: Unidentified becomes aware of pilot 12. O: Other Knowing any changes to these arriv- deviations filed by Air Traffic als and departures prior to being as- Control. A representative Now, a quick lesson on how the signed the route by ATC is essential. of the ASAP ERC will try to FAA writes a NOTAM and how the information appears starting from contact pilots by phone to the left: Improvements Are Coming invite them into the ASAP Every pilot knows that the NOTAM program. We need current 1. Exclamation point. system is in desperate need of mod- phone numbers to invite 2. Identifier for the accountability ernization. The formatting, number- pilots into the program. location. ing, and abbreviations that make Please make sure you have a the NOTAMs so difficult to read is a current phone number on file 3. Identifier for the affected facility holdover from the era of the teletype. with Scheduling. If someone or location. For obstructions, this Changes are on the way, but pilots from Comair or the ALPA is the closest airport. may have to wait a couple more years Safety Committee contacts 4. Keyword such as RWY or OBST to see the result. you about ASAP, please return the call and help us to categorize notice. In the future, computers will lock on gather valuable safety data. 5. Surface location for RWY, TWY, to key phrases in the NOTAMs and Participating in the program and RAMP notices. group pertinent notices together by shields you from company runways. As moving-map technology discipline and grants you FAA 6. Condition being reported. finds its way into modern cockpits, enforcement incentives. Your 7. Time notice is effective. some of this digital data may be pilot certificate may be at able to depict closed runways and risk—protect it. Perhaps the most confusing part of taxiways with an “X” on the screen. many NOTAMs is decoding the effec- Crews could be alerted to new ILS  Once you have filed an ASAP, tive times. The date and times from minimums when they program the make sure your personal con- left to right are: FMS for an arrival runway. tact information is up-to-date in the ASAP WBAT system. two-digit year/two-digit Until then, a few extra minutes scan- month/two-digit day/Four- ning the release at the gate will have digit time to be done by each airline crew that wants to avoid the “gotcha.”Fall 2009 ThE LEading EdgE 7