Structure and function of the lungs


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Structure and function of the lungs

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  • Page 6 in Books
  • Page 6 in Books
  • Page 6 in Books
  • Link Breathing to Gaseous exchange. Where does it occur? How Does it occur?
  • Page 7 in Books
  • Page 7 in Books
    Turn Two Tables Upside Down
    Table 1 (ALVEOLI)
    3 Students being “Oxygen”
    1 Student being “Carbon Dioxide”
    Table 2 (CAPILLARIES)
    3 Students being “Carbon Dioxide”
    1 Student being “Oxygen”
    Which partial pressure of Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen has highest concentration?
    Let them diffuse
    Link to oxygenated and deoxygenated blood
  • Page 7 in Books
  • Structure and function of the lungs

    1. 1. Cardio - respiratory System Structure and Function of the Lungs Lloyd Dean
    2. 2. Aims  Describe the structure of the lungs  Identify the function of the lungs  Recall how lungs perform their function
    3. 3. Recap Concave Discs Venule Artery Platelets Arterioles Capillary Plasma CO2 Lumen Tunica Media (Smooth Muscle)
    4. 4. TIME TO DO SOME COLOURING IN! (1 Pack per study buddy) Rule 1. Have fun Rule 2. If you find a term that you do not know then research it on your mobile device Rule 3. Make as many notes on the sheets as possible to help with your video!
    5. 5. Component Epiglottis Trachea Bronchus Bronchioles Alveoli Diaphragm Intercostal muscles Structure •Small flap of cartilage •Tube which carriers air •Covered in hairs (Cilia) •Surrounded by C-shaped cartilage rings (Protect) •Cartilage rings •Smooth muscle •Further division of bronchi •Very narrow tubes •Lead to alveoli •Air sacs •Thin walls •Muscle that sits underneath lungs •Attached to the ribs and sternum •Base of thoracic cavity •Muscles that sit between the ribs •Internal and external Function Prevents food entering the trachea Also known as the wind pipe; passage for oxygen to travel through Splits trachea into two tube to allow oxygen in right and left lungs Allows oxygen to filter into alveoli Site for exchange of gasses Enables thoracic cavity to be increased and decreased Enables thoracic cavity to be increased and decreased
    6. 6. Respiratory Volumes • Tidal Volume Amount of air moved in and out of the lungs in once breath Residual Volume Amount of air left in the lungs after exhalation Vital Capacity Maximum amount of air that can be inhaled and exhaled in one breath
    7. 7. Gaseous Exchange
    8. 8. Inspiration Diaphragm flattens and stretches lungs downward Intercostals pull the ribcage up and out causing the lungs to stretch Expansion of air causes a drop in air pressure in the lungs Air in the lungs is at a lower pressure than the air outside, so air enters the lungs
    9. 9. Expiration  Diaphragm relaxes  Intercostals relax  Lungs recoil  Volume of air in the lungs decreases causing an increase in the air pressure  Air flows from higher to lower pressure so the air flows out of the lungs
    10. 10. Intercostal and Diaphragm Muscles (Dugdale, 2009) Diaphragm Dome shaped muscle Separates thoracic cavity from abdominals Intercostal Muscles  Changes the shape rib cage during breathing  External intercostals contract to breathe in
    11. 11. Inspiration and Expiration During Exercise
    12. 12. Inhalation and Exhalation
    13. 13. External Respiration •Exchange of Oxygen and Carbon dioxide between the lungs and blood stream •Occurs at Alveoli (WebMD, 2009)
    14. 14. Diffusion Oxygen (02) is required in tissues Carbon dioxide (CO2) has to be removed Exchange occurs through Diffusion Movement of particles from a high concentration area, to a low concentration area Rule = Diffusion only occurs down a concentration gradient Concentration (pressure ) oxygen in lungs must be higher than concentration (pressure) in capillaries
    15. 15. Partial Pressure •Individual pressure of a particular gas within a mixture of gases •Diffusion occurs from high to low concentrations INHALED % GAS EXHALED % 79.04 Nitrogen 79 20.93 Oxygen 17 0.03 Carbon Dioxide 4
    16. 16. Exchange of Gases Fast rate of diffusion occurs with:  Large surface area  Small distance between areas involved Other Factors:  Capillary size  Moist surface of alveoli  Slow capillary blood flow = Complete Oxygenation  Haemoglobin – Magnet for oxygen Internal Respiration  Exchange of gases in the bodies cells  Works similar to external respiration  Cell use of oxygen to make ATP
    17. 17. Gas Exchange
    18. 18. Neural and Chemical Control of Breathing Medulla Oblongata (Respiratory centre) Impulses Stretch receptors Chemoreceptors Lactic acid