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Effects of exercise on caridio respiratory system


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Effects of exercise on caridio respiratory system

  1. 1. Lloyd Dean Short and Long Term Effects of Exercise on Cardio – Respiratory System
  2. 2. Aims <ul><li>By the end of the lesson you should be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the short and long term effects of exercise on the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the short and long term effects of exercise on the lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the short and long term effects of exercise on the blood vessels </li></ul>
  3. 3. Component Structure Function Epiglottis Trachea Bronchus Bronchioles Alveoli Diaphragm Intercostal muscles
  4. 4. Cardiovascular fitness <ul><li>Cardiovascular fitness is not just for top sportspeople </li></ul><ul><li>Involves the circulatory and the respiratory systems </li></ul><ul><li>The heart or cardiac muscle is different to any other muscle in that it never tires </li></ul><ul><li>It must continually pump blood — without it, we would die. If the blood vessels become blocked or hardened, angina or heart attack occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Improved cardiovascular fitness increases the number of blood vessels in and around the heart, so reducing the risk of a heart attack </li></ul>
  5. 5. Body changes during exercise <ul><li>The level of carbon dioxide in the blood increase </li></ul><ul><li>The brain detects this and sends a signal to the lungs to breathe faster and deeper </li></ul><ul><li>Gas exchange in the lungs speeds up </li></ul><ul><li>More carbon dioxide passes out of the blood and more oxygen passes into it </li></ul><ul><li>The brain also sends a signal to the heart to beat faster, making the heart rate go up </li></ul><ul><li>The muscles squeeze on veins, sending more blood back to the heart </li></ul>
  6. 6. Body changes during exercise <ul><li>Cardiac output rises — more blood gets pumped to the muscles each minute </li></ul><ul><li>This means more oxygen reaches the muscles each minute and more carbon dioxide is carried away </li></ul><ul><li>Arterioles widen so that your blood pressure won’t get too high </li></ul><ul><li>Blood gets moved to where it is needed from where it is less needed, eg from your gut to your legs </li></ul><ul><li>To make this happen, blood vessels widen and constrict at different points (vasodilation and vasoconstriction) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Body changes during exercise <ul><li>Exercise generates heat, making the </li></ul><ul><li>body hotter </li></ul><ul><li>Blood is directed close to the skin to cool down </li></ul><ul><li>This makes the skin redden </li></ul><ul><li>The body is also cooled by sweating, </li></ul><ul><li>through evaporation </li></ul><ul><li>Blood flow to skeletal muscles increases </li></ul><ul><li>Movement at joints may increase markedly </li></ul>
  8. 8. Short-term benefits of exercise <ul><li>Healthier heart, muscles, bones and joints </li></ul><ul><li>More calories burnt </li></ul><ul><li>Increased energy levels </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced stress, depression and anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Better sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Faster, sharper thinking </li></ul>
  9. 9. Cardio-respiratory training effects <ul><li>The heart becomes more efficient </li></ul><ul><li>The stroke volume is increased and, as a result, the resting heart rate becomes lower </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery after exercise becomes quicker </li></ul><ul><li>Blood volume and red cells increase </li></ul><ul><li>Arteries grow larger </li></ul><ul><li>The diaphragm grows stronger </li></ul><ul><li>Lung capacity increases </li></ul><ul><li>The heart’s workload is reduced </li></ul><ul><li>Less chance of heart disease </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in capillary network </li></ul><ul><li>Blood supply to the heart increases </li></ul><ul><li>The lungs become more expandable, increasing in volume </li></ul>