Colonialism in Southeast Asia (Portugal, Spain, Dutch)


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  • The international Muslim trading community convinced Mahmud that the Portuguese were a grave threat. Mahmud subsequently captured several of his men, killed others and attempted to attack the four Portuguese ships, although they escaped.
  • The centralized port of exchange of Asian wealth had now gone, as was a Malay state to police the Straits of Malacca that made it safe for commercial traffic. Trade was now scattered over a number of ports among bitter warfare in the Straits.
  • The centralized port of exchange of Asian wealth had now gone, as was a Malay state to police the Straits of Malacca that made it safe for commercial traffic. Trade was now scattered over a number of ports among bitter warfare in the Straits.
  • The Portuguese first settled on Timor in 1520, and the Spanish arrived in 1522. The Dutch took possession of the western portion of the island in 1613. The British governed the island in 1812–15. The Dutch and the Portuguese fought for supremacy over Timor; Portuguese sovereignty over the island's eastern half was settled by treaties in 1860 and 1893, although the latter became effective only in 1914. Japanese forces occupied Timor during World War II. East Timor province, including the Ambeno enclave, thereafter remained in Portuguese possession until 1975, when one of the major political parties there, Fretilin (FrenteRevolucionária de Timor LesteIndependente [Revolutionary Front of Independent East Timor]), gained control of much of the territory and declared its independence (November) as the Democratic Republic of East Timor. The area was subsequently invaded and occupied by Indonesian forces (in early December) and in 1976 was declared by Indonesia to be an integral part of Indonesia as the province of Timor Timur (East Timor).Over the next two decades tens of thousands of East Timorese died (some observers claim as many as 200,000 perished) resisting the Indonesian occupation and annexation or as a result of famine and disease. In response to mounting international pressure, the Indonesian government authorized a referendum there (August 1999) to determine the future of East Timor. Almost four-fifths of the voters supported independence, and the Indonesian parliament rescinded Indonesia's annexation of the territory. East Timor was returned to its preannexation status of independence, but as a non-self-governing territory under UN supervision. However, the transfer of power was accompanied by violence perpetrated by anti-independence militants. Hundreds were killed, and thousands fled to the western half of the island; refugees subsequently began returning home.
  • Colonialism in Southeast Asia (Portugal, Spain, Dutch)

    1. 1. Dean Ruffel R. Flandez M. History - 1
    3. 3. PORTUGUESE
    4. 4. PORTUGUESE Portuguese colonizationreached Southeast Asiaparticularly in some parts ofIndonesia, Malacca, Timor, andMoluccas.
    5. 5. PORTUGUESE MALACCA The news of Malaccas wealth attracted the attention of ManuelI, King of Portugal and he sent Admiral Diogo Lopes deSequeira to find Malacca, to make a trade compact with its ruler asPortugals representative east of India.
    6. 6. PORTUGUESE MALACCA Although he was initially well-received by Sultan Mahmud Shahtrouble however quickly ensued. The international Muslim trading community convinced Mahmudthat the Portuguese were a grave threat. Mahmud subsequentlycaptured several of his men, killed others and attempted to attack thefour Portuguese ships, although they escaped.
    7. 7. PORTUGUESE MALACCA In April 1511, Alfonso de Albuquerqueset sail from Goa to Malacca with a force ofsome 1200 men and seventeen or eighteenships. Conflict was unavoidable, and after 40 daysof fighting, Malacca fell to the Portuguese on24 August 1511.
    8. 8. PORTUGUESE MALACCA  It soon became clear that Portuguese control of Malacca did not also mean they controlled Asian trade centered there. Their Malaccan rule was severely hampered by administrative and economic difficulties.
    9. 9. PORTUGUESE MALACCA In the early 17th century, the Dutch East India Company began contestingPortuguese power in the East. At that time, the Portuguese had transformedMalacca into an impregnable fortress, the Fortaleza de Malaca, controllingaccess to the sea lanes of the Straits of Malacca and the spice trade there. The Dutch with their local allies assaulted and finally wrested Malaccafrom the Portuguese in January 1641.
    11. 11. PORTUGUESE TIMOR The Portuguese first settled on Timor in 1520, and the Spanisharrived in 1522. The Dutch took possession of the western portionof the island in 1613. The British governed the island in 1812–15.The Dutch and the Portuguese fought for supremacy over Timor;Portuguese sovereignty over the islands eastern half was settled bytreaties in 1860 and 1893, although the latter became effective only in1914.
    12. 12. PORTUGUESE TIMOR Japanese forces occupied Timor during World War II. East Timorprovince, including the Ambeno enclave, thereafter remained inPortuguese possession until 1975, when one of the major politicalparties there, FRETILIN (Frente Revolucionária de Timor LesteIndependente [Revolutionary Front of Independent EastTimor]), gained control of much of the territory and declared itsindependence (November) as the Democratic Republic of EastTimor.
    13. 13. PORTUGUESE MOLUCCAS Sought after by manyEuropean nations because ofits famous spices. It is knownas the Spice Islands.
    14. 14. PORTUGUESE MOLUCCAS Apart from some relatively minor cultural influences the mostsignificant lasting effects of the Portuguese presence was thedisruption and reorganization of the Southeast Asian trade, and ineastern Indonesia—including Maluku—the introduction ofChristianity.
    15. 15. PORTUGUESE MOLUCCAS After the Portuguese annexed Malacca in August 1511, one Portuguesediary noted it is thirty years since they became Moors‗- giving a sense ofthe competition then taking place between Islamic and Europeaninfluences in the region. Alfonso de Albuquerque learned of the routeto the Banda Islands and other Spice Islands, and sent an exploratoryexpedition of three vessels under the command of António deAbreu, Simão Alfonso Bisigudo and Francisco Serrão.
    16. 16. PORTUGUESE MOLUCCAS Allying himself with Ternatesruler, Serrão constructed a fortress onthat tiny island and served as the headof a mercenary band of Portugueseseamen under the service of one of thetwo local feuding sultans whocontrolled most of the spice trade.
    17. 17. PORTUGUESE MOLUCCAS Sometime in the 16th century, there had been encounters betweenSpanish and Portuguese. The Dutch and British soon joined in the conflicts to try to gain amonopoly over the trade and expel Portugal. The fighting for control overthese small islands became very intense in the 17th and 18th centurieswith the Dutch even giving the island of Manhattan to the British inexchange for, among other things, the tiny island of Run which gave theDutch full control over the Banda archipelagos nutmeg production.
    18. 18. SPANISH
    19. 19. SPANISH Spanish colonization reachedSoutheast Asia particularly inPhilippines, where they reign forover 300 years.
    20. 20. SPANISH PHILIPPINES Spanish colonial motives were not, however, strictly commercial.The Spanish at first viewed the Philippines as a stepping-stone to theriches of the East Indies (Spice Islands), but, even after thePortuguese and Dutch had foreclosed that possibility, the Spanish stillmaintained their presence in the archipelago.
    21. 21. SPANISH PHILIPPINES The Portuguese navigator and explorer Ferdinand Magellanheaded the first Spanish foray to the Philippines when he madelandfall on Cebu in March 1521; a short time later he met an untimelydeath on the nearby island of Mactan. After King Philip II (for whomthe islands are named) had dispatched three further expeditions thatended in disaster, he sent out Miguel López de Legazpi, whoestablished the first permanent Spanish settlement, in Cebu, in 1565.
    23. 23. SPANISH PHILIPPINES The Spanish city of Manila was founded in 1571, and by the endof the 16th century most of the coastal and lowland areas fromLuzon to northern Mindanao were under Spanish control. Friarsmarched with soldiers and soon accomplished the nominal conversionto Roman Catholicism of all the local people under Spanishadministration. But the Muslims of Mindanao and Sulu, whom theSpanish called Moros, were never completely subdued by Spain.
    24. 24. SPANISH PHILIPPINES Spanish rule for the first 100 years was exercised in most areasthrough a type of tax farming imported from the Americas andknown as the encomienda. But abusive treatment of the local tributepayers and neglect of religious instruction by encomenderos(collectors of the tribute), as well as frequent withholding of revenuesfrom the crown, caused the Spanish to abandon the system by the endof the 17th century.
    25. 25. SPANISH PHILIPPINES Manila dominated the islands not only as the political capital. Thegalleon trade with Acapulco, Mex., assured Manilas commercialprimacy as well. The exchange of Chinese silks for Mexican silver notonly kept in Manila those Spanish who were seeking quick profit, butit also attracted a large Chinese community.
    26. 26. SPANISH PHILIPPINES By the late 18th century, political andeconomic changes in Europe were finallybeginning to affect Spain and, thus, thePhilippines. Important as a stimulus totrade was the gradual elimination of themonopoly enjoyed by the galleon toAcapulco.
    27. 27. SPANISH PHILIPPINES The growth of commercial agriculture resulted in the appearanceof a new class. Alongside the landholdings of the church and the riceestates of the pre-Spanish nobility there arose haciendas ofcoffee, hemp, and sugar, often the property of enterprising Chinese-Filipino mestizos.
    28. 28. SPANISH PHILIPPINES Not until 1863 was there public education in the Philippines, andeven then the church controlled the curriculum. Less than one-fifthof those who went to school could read and write Spanish, and farfewer could speak it properly. The limited higher education in thecolony was entirely under clerical direction, but by the 1880s manysons of the wealthy were sent to Europe to study.
    29. 29. SPANISH PHILIPPINES There, nationalism and a passion for reform blossomed in theliberal atmosphere. Out of this talented group of overseas Filipinostudents arose what came to be known as the Propaganda Movement.Magazines, poetry, and pamphleteering flourished. José Rizal, thismovements most brilliant figure, produced two political novels—Noli me tangere (1886; Touch Me Not) and El filibusterismo (1891;The Reign of Greed)—which had a wide impact in the Philippines.
    31. 31. SPANISH PHILIPPINES Rizal was quickly arrested by the overly fearful Spanish, exiled to aremote island in the south, and finally executed in 1896.Meanwhile, within the Philippines there had developed a firmcommitment to independence among a somewhat less privilegedclass. Shocked by the arrest of Rizal in 1892, these activists quicklyformed the Katipunan under the leadership of Andres Bonifacio, aself-educated warehouseman.
    33. 33. SPANISH PHILIPPINES In August 1896, Spanish friars uncovered evidence of theKatipunans plans, and its leaders were forced into premature action.Revolts broke out in several provinces around Manila. After monthsof fighting, severe Spanish retaliation forced the revolutionary armiesto retreat to the hills. In December 1897 a truce was concluded withthe Spanish
    34. 34. SPANISH PHILIPPINES Emilio Aguinaldo, a municipal mayor andcommander of the rebel forces, was paid alarge sum and was allowed to go to HongKong with other leaders; the Spanish promisedreforms as well. But reforms were slow incoming, and small bands of rebels, distrustfulof Spanish promises, kept their arms; clashesgrew more frequent
    35. 35. SPANISH PHILIPPINES Meanwhile, war had broken out between Spain and the UnitedStates (the Spanish-American War). After the U.S. naval victory in theBattle of Manila Bay in May 1898, Aguinaldo and his entouragereturned to the Philippines with the help of Adm. George Dewey.Confident of U.S. support, Aguinaldo reorganized his forces and soonliberated several towns south of Manila.
    36. 36. SPANISH PHILIPPINES Independence was declared on June 12 (now celebrated asIndependence Day). In September a constitutional congress met inMalolos, north of Manila, which drew up a fundamental law derivedfrom European and Latin American precedents. A government wasformed on the basis of that constitution in January 1899, withAguinaldo as president of the new country, popularly known as the―Malolos Republic.‖
    39. 39. DUTCH
    40. 40. DUTCH Dutch colonization reachedSoutheast Asia particularly all ofIndonesia and a part ofCambodia.
    41. 41. DUTCH EAST INDIES From the arrival of the first Dutch ships in the late sixteenthcentury, to the declaration of independence in 1945, Dutch controlover the Indonesian archipelago was always tenuous. Although Javawas dominated by the Dutch, many areas remained independentthroughout much of this time including Aceh, Bali, Lombok andBorneo.
    43. 43. DUTCH EAST INDIES  In 1806, with the Netherlands under French domination, Napoleon appointed his brother Louis Bonaparte to the Dutch throne which led to the 1808 appointment of Marshall Herman Willem Daendels to Governor General of the Dutch East Indies.
    44. 44. DUTCH EAST INDIES In 1811, British forces occupied several Dutch East Indies portsincluding Java and Thomas Stamford Raffles became LieutenantGovernor. Dutch control was restored in 1816. Under the 1824Anglo-Dutch Treaty, the Dutch secured British settlements inIndonesia, such as Bengkulu in Sumatra, in exchange for cedingcontrol of their possessions in the Malay Peninsula and Dutch India.
    45. 45. DUTCH EAST INDIES  Kingdom by kingdom, the Dutch slowly conquered the whole range that would form the territory of the Republic of Indonesia.
    46. 46. DUTCH EAST INDIES  During World War II the entire Dutch East Indies, excepting a part of southern Netherlands New Guinea, was occupied by Japan. The years 1945–49 formed a transition period in which The Netherlands unsuccessfully tried to regain control of the islands; the islands achieved independence as the new nation of Indonesia in 1949.
    47. 47. DUTCH EAST INDIES The Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) were administered by theDutch East India Company and later the Dutch government. TheNetherlands developed its empire without challenge due to winningconcessions and political influence from local rulers, placing Chinesein positions of authority and imposing systems of forced labor.
    48. 48. ARIGATOUGOZAIMASU ! Thank You!