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Multilingual DRR

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Disaster risk reduction for linguists and translators, with some explanation of the nature and state of the field. And the challenges of multi-lingual settings.

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Multilingual DRR

  1. 1. Disaster Risk Reduction in Multilingual Settings David Alexander University College London
  2. 2. Definitions
  3. 3. Vol. 1 Vol. 2
  4. 4. "...to worry about what the term 'disaster' means is not to dedicate oneself to an academic exercise without meaning. Instead it is to focus in a fundamental way on what should be considered important and significant..." (Quarantelli 1995)
  5. 5. "If scholars in the field cannot even agree on the question of whether a 'disaster' is fundamentally a social construction or a physical event, then clearly the discipline has problems." (Quarantelli, 1998)
  6. 6. In disaster risk reduction we have a definitional morass
  7. 7. The structure of the field
  8. 8. Recovery and reconstruction Mitigation and resilience Preparation and mobilisation Emergency intervention Quiescence Crisis The disaster cycle
  9. 9. Recovery and reconstruction Mitigation and resilience Preparation and mobilisation Emergency intervention Crisis Emergency planning and organisation of security systems Warning and preparation; damage limitation measures activated Emergency operations and damage limitation Recovery and restoration Safety manage- ment of emergency operations Quiescence
  10. 10. Emergency Disaster Catastrophe Scenarios for emergency planning - fundamental concepts - (Hazard x Vulnerability x Exposure) Resilience = Risk [ → Impact → Response]
  11. 11. Civil contingencies Resilience management The risk environment Business continuity Civil defence Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) Civil protection Humanitarian Relief
  12. 12. Risk Civil defence Hazard Vulnerability Threat Exposure Response Mitigation Protection Civil protection
  13. 13. Armed aggression on the part of states Civil defence Natural disasters Civil protection Armed aggression on the part of groups of dissidents "Homeland security" (civil defence) "Generic" disasters "Civil contingencies" (resilience)
  14. 14. Civil Defence Civil Protection Instability threats Enhanced natural hazards Complex hazards Natural hazards Evolving strategic situation Large technological hazards Evolving climate change 'Na-tech' (hybrid) hazards Major geophysical events Top-down Bottom-up
  15. 15. Locus of control Locus of collaboration (support) Tension of opposites Command function principle Support function principle Spectrum of alternatives
  16. 16. Co-locate Communicate Co-ordinate Jointly understand risk Share situational awareness Common operating picture Joint Emergency Services Inter- operability Programme
  17. 17. Formerly the Monitoring and Information Centre
  18. 18. IMPLEMENTATION ACTIONS (employing resources) MONITORING AND FEEDBACK ETHICAL PRINCIPLES & CORE VALUES STRATEGIC DECISIONS (finding and committing resources) TACTICAL DECISIONS (allocating resources) FLOW OF DIRECTION AND HARMONISATION FLOW OF EXPERIENCE AND FIELD INFORMATION 'Top-down' and 'bottom-up'
  19. 19. Command function principle: command and control model Support function principle: collaborative and cooperation model Information technology Management decisions
  20. 20. Emergency management: an evolutionary approach Proxy Participatory Civil defence...............Civil protection Command and control Vertical chain of command Population excluded Law and order Secrecy Collaboration Task forces Population consulted and included Problem solving Openness
  21. 21. Organisational systems: management Social systems: behaviour Natural systems: function Technical systems: malfunction VulnerabilityHazard Resilience Political systems: decisions
  22. 22. Culture
  23. 23. THE WAR ON HAZARDS AND DISASTERS CULTURE HISTORY EVENTS CONTEXT RISKS INCREASING MORE FREQUENT IMPACTS LOSSES RISING VULNERABILITY HAZARDS
  24. 24. Disaster Risk Reduction Culture Economics Access to knowledge Theweight ofhistory CONSTRAINTS
  25. 25. Diffusion of information Perceptual filter Cultural filter Emergency not decoded Emergency decoded Ignorance Images of reality Symbolic constructions Enlightenment
  26. 26. Filter Perception Culture Decision Action Result Positive Negative Risk Accurate Inaccurate
  27. 27. Technology as risk mitigation Technology as a source of vulnerability Research, development and investment in technology individual family peer group organisation community society international Culturalfilter Sociocentrism Technocentrism
  28. 28. Kenneth L. Pike 1912-2000 Etic and emic
  29. 29. Long term Short term Emic components Etic components METAMORPHOSIS OF CULTURE Experiences of culture [mass-media and consumer culture] Accumulated cultural traits and beliefs Inherited cultural background Ideological (non-scientific) interpretations of disaster Learned (scientific) interpretations of disaster
  30. 30. Value system Family culture Work culture Peer group culture Personal culture National culture Regional culture
  31. 31. Etic elements of culture Emic elements of culture Area of cultural interpenetration
  32. 32. Retribution Judgement Portent DISASTERMEANING ACCEPTANCE Retrospective interpretation Predictive interpretation Traditional view of disaster - modern parallels?
  33. 33. Symbolism inherent in technological culture Traditional symbolism and portent Event Interpretation Dynamic cultural metamorphosis
  34. 34. Resilient culture Culture of resilience
  35. 35. INSTRUMENTS OF DISSEMINATION • mass media • targeted campaign • social networks • internet Augmentation MASS EDUCATION PROGRAMME HUMAN CAPITAL HABIT CULTURE The creation of a culture of civil protection
  36. 36. BENIGN (healthy) at the service of the people MALIGN (corrupt) at the service of vested interests interplay dialectic Justification Development [spiritual, cultural, political, economic] IDEOLOGY CULTURE
  37. 37. Learning to work together
  38. 38. Basic concepts: hazard, vulnerability, exposure, risk, impact, resilience, etc. Hazard analysis Technical skills: telecomminications computer, GIS, etc. Emergency planning Emergency management Disaster sociology and psychology Public information management Recovery and reconstruction planning Methods of risk mitigation Field exercises Disaster and emergency management training
  39. 39. HAZARD, RISK & DISASTER STUDIES SEVEN SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT Criminal justice and forensic science and perhaps an eighth... Sociology Psychology & psychiatry Economic & financial studies Development studies Disaster medicine & epidemiology Physical & construction sciences Geography & anthropology: cultural (human) anthropology
  40. 40. Ecology Geology (& Geomorphology) Geophysics (inc. Seismology) Volcanology Climatology Hydraulics Hydrology Meteorology Architecture Civil engineering Geotechnical engineering Structural engineering Mechanical & electrical engineeringInformation & communication technology (ICT) Computer technology Remote sensing Risk analysis (inc. risk identification, estimation, management & communication) Cartography Development studies Economics Geography, History Jurisprudence & legal stds Urban & regional planning Mass media studies Psychology Sociology Epidemiology Nursing Nutrition Pharmacology General medicine Surgery & emergency medicine Public health, hygiene & epidemiology Veterinary sciences Health sciences Social & spatial sciences Computational & analytical sciences Construction sciences Atmospheric & water sciences Earth & environmental sciences HAZARD, RISK & DISASTER CONSTITUENT DISCIPLINES
  41. 41. Broad professional training in emergency management Professional experience and training Disciplinary training (e.g. bachelor's degree) Common culture Common language Common objectives
  42. 42. Practitioners Emergency services Emergency management agencies Volunteer NGOs Researchers Academics Consultants Users The general public Businesses Three constituencies
  43. 43. survivors and beneficiaries emergency managers and responders policy makers and emergency planners international dimension marginalised groups domestic dimension tourists and visitors THE TRANSLATOR
  44. 44. The international dimension
  45. 45. The international relief system PUBLIC AND CORPORATE DONORS INTERNATIONAL NGOs DONOR COUNTRY GOVT. AGENCIES RECIPIENT COUNTRY GOVERNMENT AGENCIES RECIPIENT COUNTRY DONORS LOCAL NGOs AFFECTED POPULATION AND VICTIMS UNITED NATIONS AGENCIES UN Office for the Co-ordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN-OCHA) UN Disaster Assistance Team (UNDAC) International SAR Advisory Group (INSARAG) UN High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) World Food Programme (WFP) Other UN Agencies RAPID RESPONSE TEAMS International SAR teams Disaster Assistance Response Teams (DARTs) RED CROSS-RED CRESCENT International Committee of the RC (ICRC) International Federation of RC Socs. (IFRC) National societies - donor countries National societies - recipient countries
  46. 46. UN Resident Co-ordinator (UN-RC) UN Humanitarian Aid Co-ordinator (UN-HC) Emergency Response Co-ordinator (UN-ERC) (Undersecretary General for Humanitarian Affairs) Permanent Interagency Support Committee (UN-IASC) [UN humanitarian agencies; UNHCR, Red Cross, World Bank, various NGOs] Civil-Military Humanitarian Co-ordination (UN-CMCoord) Department of Humanitarian Affairs (UN-DHA) Office for the Co-ordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN-OCHA) In the assisted country:-
  47. 47. War and conflict Poverty Natural disasters Insecurity Vulnerability and marginalisation Military Humanitarian assistance assistance The "Military Cross"
  48. 48. What falls out of the sky? Cluster bombs Humanitarian rations
  49. 49. Justice Impartiality Humanitarianism Hijacking of assistance Relief Robbery and rape of victims Total war Politicisation of relief suppies What future?
  50. 50. Justice system Rights Responsibilities Moral Ethical Legal Constitution Disaster Context of disaster
  51. 51. welfare mobility sovereignty identity entitlement proxy wars ?
  52. 52. • prevalence of myths and misassumptions • migration and evacuation • informal settlements • precarious livelihoods • crises of leadership. Some parallels between disaster risk reduction (DRR) and human mobility
  53. 53. Xenophobia Distrust of unfamiliar people Compassion Desire to help refugees Rejectionism It is not our problem Distancing Not in my back yard The role of mass cognitive dissonance Charity Willingness to donate
  54. 54. Conclusions
  55. 55. • disaster response is increasingly internationalised, with up to 130 countries participating • interoperability is vital: civil protection needs a common culture • beware of the clash between top-down and bottom-up approaches in civil defence and civil protection. Take-away messages
  56. 56. • culture is facilitator or inhibitor of DRR: initiatives must be culturally compatible • minorities should not be neglected and marginalised (especially in human mobility and conflict situations) • suppression of democracy, human rights and people's cultures must be opposed. Take-away messages
  57. 57. THANK YOU FOR LISTENING david.alexander@ucl.ac.uk www.slideshare.net/dealexander

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