Hazards Risks Disasters 2

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Hazards Risks Disasters 2

  1. 1. Hazards, Risks and Disasters II David Alexander University College London
  2. 2. Information and communication
  3. 3. Wisdom: ability to take decisions on the basis of principles, experience and knowledge Knowledge: understanding of how things function (or should function) Information: description of physical and social situations Data: basic facts and statistics COMMUNICATION
  4. 4. DRR Knowledge of community vulerability Knowledge of hazards and their impacts Knowledge of coping capacity and resilience Disaster Risk Reduction
  5. 5. Shortage of information Excess of information Impact of disaster Time Information critical but lacking
  6. 6. Some effects of the information and communications technology revolution • flattening of the chain of command • IT support for disaster response • overload of information delivery systems • the emergency manager must study new ways to inform himself and others. • artificiality and isolation from the reality on the ground
  7. 7. data input and consultation Data banks Predictive models of events Display and analysis technology Ability to analyse data data analysis circuit Disaster relief Emergency manager emergency management circuit
  8. 8. Old ideas... • rigid structure • hierarchy • military doctrine • secrecy • cordon • command and control • security • civil defence.
  9. 9. New ideas... • planning • collaboration • flexible, adaptable management • limited "span of control" • information sharing • IT support • accredited journalists • involving the public • civil protection.
  10. 10. Social factors Plan Message Technology Response Perception Culture Optimisation
  11. 11. Lesson: emergency communication is a powerful but imprecise process that is undergoing a profound revolution.
  12. 12. Perception
  13. 13. Public perception of disasters continues to be dominated by myths and inaccuracies enthusiastically propagated by the mass media.
  14. 14. "Myth" no.1: Disasters are truly exceptional events.
  15. 15. "Myth" no.2: Disasters kill people without respect for social class or economic status.
  16. 16. "Myth" no.3: When disaster strikes panic and irrational behaviour are common reactions.
  17. 17. "Myth" no.4: People will flee in large numbers from a disaster area.
  18. 18. "Myth" no.5: After disaster has struck, survivors tend to be dazed and apathetic.
  19. 19. "Myth" no.6: People can survive for many days when trapped under the rubble of a collapsed building.
  20. 20. 0.5 1 3 12 1 2 3 4 5 7 10 15 Hours Days Survival time 100 50 0 Percentageofpeoplebroughtout alivefromundercollapsedbuilings
  21. 21. "Myth" no.7: After disaster people will not make rational decisions and will therefore inevitably tend to do the wrong thing unless authority guides them.
  22. 22. "Myth" no.8: Disasters usually give rise to widespread, spontaneous manifestations of antisocial behaviour, including looting and violence.
  23. 23. "Myth" no.9: The mass media create an accurate picture of the disasters on which they report.
  24. 24. "Myth" no.10: Unburied dead bodies constitute a health hazard.
  25. 25. "Myth" no.11: Disease epidemics are an almost inevitable result of the disruption and poor health caused by major disasters.
  26. 26. "Myth" no.12: Great quantities and assortments of medicines should be sent to disaster areas.
  27. 27. "Myth" no.13: Field hospitals are particularly useful for treating people injured by sudden impact disasters.
  28. 28. "Myth" no.14: In the aftermath of disaster mass vaccination is an excellent way of stopping the spread of diseases.
  29. 29. "Myth" no.15: Dead bodies, survivors, streets, rubble and other things should be sprayed with disinfectant to stop the spread of disease.
  30. 30. "Myth" no.16: Any kind of aid and relief is useful after disaster providing it is supplied quickly enough.
  31. 31. "Myth" no.17: Companies, corporations, associations and governments are always very generous when invited to send aid and relief to disaster areas.
  32. 32. "Myth" no.18: Emergency responders will not report to work in a disaster, they will protect their families instead.
  33. 33. "Myth" no.19: In disasters there are heroes and villains.
  34. 34. "Myth" no.20: Disasters always happen to someone else.
  35. 35. "Myth" no.21: Disaster is always a negative experience.
  36. 36. Our image of disasters is conditioned far too much by Hollywood!
  37. 37. Mutual antipathy or collaborative relationship? Representatives of the mass media Editorial independence and freedom Sales and ratings; reputation; revenue from advertising Emergency and disaster managers Obligation to inform the public Public information centres; warnings and alerts; informing the relatives of victims
  38. 38. Civil protection service The general public The mass media Call centre Feedback Feedback Direct communication Press conferences, communiques Consumer relations
  39. 39. SUPPLY DEMAND NEEDS POTENTIAL TO BE EXPLOITED CREATE A NEW CULTURE OF CIVIL PROTECTION
  40. 40. Organised Spontaneous Established Kinship groups Individual citizens Disaster subcultures Emergent groups Citizens' organisations Charitable NGOs Some public stakeholders in disaster Schools Workplace groups
  41. 41. INSTRUMENTS OF DISSEMINATION • mass media • targeted campaign • social networks • internet Augmentation MASS EDUCATION PROGRAMME SOCIAL CAPITAL HABIT CULTURE The creation of a culture of civil protection
  42. 42. Lesson: perception is a vital component of emergency planning and response, but it is also difficult to manage.
  43. 43. Education
  44. 44. Broad professional training in emergency management Professional experience and training Disciplinary training (e.g. bachelor's degree) Common culture Common language Common objectives
  45. 45. HAZARD, RISK & DISASTER STUDIES SEVEN SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT Criminal justice and forensic science and perhaps an eighth... Sociology Psychology & psychiatry Economic & financial studies Development studies Disaster medicine & epidemiology Physical & construction sciences Geography & anthropology: cultural (human) anthropology
  46. 46. Ecology Geology (& Geomorphology) Geophysics (inc. Seismology) Vulcanology Climatology Hydraulics Hydrology Meteorology Architecture Civil engineering Geotechnical engineering Structural engineering Mechanical & electrical engineeringInformation & communication technology (ICT) Computer technology Remote sensing Risk analysis (inc. risk identification, estimation, management & communication) Cartography Development studies Economics Geography, History Jurisprudence & legal stds Urban & regional planning Mass media studies Psychology Sociology Nursing Nutrition Pharmacology General medicine Surgery & emergency medicine Public health, hygiene & epidemiology Veterinary sciences Health sciences Social & spatial sciences Computational & analytical sciences Construction sciences Atmospheric & water sciences Earth & environmental sciences HAZARD, RISK & DISASTER CONSTITUENT DISCIPLINES
  47. 47. Emergency management training and education BASI C CON CEPTS HAZARD ANALYSIS EMERGENCY PLANNING EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT DISASTER SOCIOLOGYAND PSYCHOLOGY RECOVERY AND RECONSTRUCTION PLANNING PUBLIC INFORMATION MANAGEMENT METHODS OF RISK MITIGATION FIELD EXERCISES
  48. 48. Recognition and an institutional role for the professional figure Certification of competence Training programmes Emerging professional figure Policies and legislation Research Experience Organi- sation
  49. 49. Lesson: education is the key to better disaster risk reduction.
  50. 50. Conclusions
  51. 51. FUTUROLOGY • at the world scale, one or more great events will cause a drastic reorganisation disaster preparedness • the catalyst event may be a volcanic eruption, an earthquake, or a biological or radioactive incident. • losses in disaster will continue to increase steeply • poverty and vulnerability will define ever more closely the areas of greatest susceptibility to disasters
  52. 52. • the job of the emergency manager will become more and more complex • emergency planning will have to tackle new kinds of event • emergency management will very slowly become a profession • the level of international participation in disasters will rise.
  53. 53. The"Military Cross" WAR AND CONFLICT NATURAL DISASTERS INSECURITYPOVERTY HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE MILITARYASSISTANCE VULNERABILITY AND MARGINAL- ISATION
  54. 54. Justice Impartiality Humanitarianism Hijacking of assistance Relief Robbery and rape of victims Total war Politicisation of relief suppies What future?
  55. 55. Integration through emergency planning and training Links Mitigation and reduction of risks Preparations and warning Emergency relief actions Recovery and reconstruction
  56. 56. www.slideshare.net/dealexander Thank you for your attention!

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