Command systems


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Command systems

  1. 1. Command Systems<br />in Emergency<br />Operations<br />Prof. David Alexander<br /><br />
  2. 2. In the context of emergencies,<br />'co-ordination' means conducting<br />processes and operations so that<br />their functionality is guaranteed.<br />'Command' means giving formal orders<br />and instructions to people and groups so<br />that they will take particular actions.<br />
  3. 3. Command<br />function<br />principle<br />Locus of<br />control<br />Tension of<br />opposites<br />Spectrum of<br />alternatives<br />Support<br />function<br />principle<br />Locus of<br />collaboration<br />(support)<br />
  4. 4. Order..................Chaos<br />Directed.......Ungovernable<br />Control.......Loss of control<br />Locus of<br />control<br />Autonomy.........Constraint<br />Initiative.......Obey orders<br />Collaboration.."Freelancing"<br />Locus of<br />collaboration<br />(support)<br />
  5. 5. The command and control model assumes<br />that the responses of the many<br />organisations that participate in emergency<br />operations need to be centralised and<br />formally directed by authoritative people.<br />
  6. 6. In general, everyone wants to command<br />and control but few people are happy<br />to be commanded and controlled.<br />In the modern world,<br />emergency managementmeans<br />co-ordinating more than controlling.<br />
  7. 7. At the lowest levels of the organisation of<br />relief efforts, decision-making processes<br />tend to be pluralistic and decentralised.<br />Emergency conditions favour:-<br /><ul><li>uncertainty
  8. 8. diversity
  9. 9. informality
  10. 10. decentralisation.</li></li></ul><li>Hierarchical<br />divisions<br />Government,<br />healthcare,<br />commerce, etc.<br />National,<br />regional,<br />local, etc.<br />Functional<br />divisions<br />Division<br />and integration<br />Geographical<br />divisions<br />Police,<br />Ambulance,<br />Fire, etc.<br />Catchments,<br />jurisdictions,<br />areas, etc.<br />Organisational<br />divisions<br />
  11. 11. Incident command system (ICS)<br />
  12. 12. Incident command system (ICS)<br />see: California Firescope<br /><><br /><ul><li>born in the summer of 1970 in California</li></ul>as an alternative response to forest fires<br /><ul><li>various versions have been devised.</li></li></ul><li>ICS is a modular system with command<br />instituted at the site of the incident.<br />Emergency operations grow with:-<br /><ul><li> continuing assessments of needs
  13. 13. forces and resources available on site.</li></li></ul><li>Incident command system (ICS)<br />a strategy for the management<br />of field personnel<br />
  14. 14. Definition:"a complex whole of operators,<br />strategies, procedures, equipment and<br />materials integrated into a common<br />organisational structure designed to<br />improve emergency operations of all<br />types and at all levels of compexity."<br />
  15. 15. The incident command system offers a<br />structure designed to co-ordinate the<br />work of different organisations which seek<br />to reach common objectives (stabilisation<br />of the incident and the protection of<br />lives, property and the environment).<br />It offers an integrated organisational<br />structure that can cope with complexity<br />and the need to avoid barriers between<br />institutions in the management process.<br />
  16. 16. Phases of a major incident<br />Funerals<br />Debriefings<br />Revision of plans<br />Inquests<br />Tribunals<br />Trials<br />Memorials<br />Prizes<br />Anniversaries<br />Training<br />Return to<br />normality<br />Consolidation<br />Recovery<br />Emergenza<br />iniziale<br />Response<br />Investigation<br />Demobilization<br />Time<br />
  17. 17. ICS is a management strategy.<br />
  18. 18. ICS was born in southern California<br />in the summer and fall of 1970:-<br /><ul><li>13 major incidents
  19. 19. 200.000 hectares burnt in 13 days
  20. 20. 16 deaths
  21. 21. 800 structures destroyed by fire.</li></li></ul><li>It was difficult to integrate more than 100<br />organisatoins into the response system.<br />Communications were inadequate:-<br /><ul><li>radio channels were insufficient
  22. 22. radio frequencies were not integrated
  23. 23. message terminology was not</li></ul> sufficiently standardised.<br />The diffusion of information and<br />forecastswas late and incomplete.<br />
  24. 24. Experts were not always available to<br />interpret the information received.<br />The organisations did not plan together.<br />Resource management was inadequate:<br />personnel and resources were lacking in<br />some places and excessive in others.<br />Conclusion: emergency operations<br />need to be based on<br />standardised criteria.<br />
  25. 25. The rapid spread of wildfire needed<br />a multi-agency response,<br />namely:<br />FirefightingResourcesof California<br />OrganizedforPotentialEmergencies<br />(FIRESCOPE).<br />
  26. 26. The operational procedures had to<br />be able to function for:<br /><ul><li>a single agency in a single area
  27. 27. multiple agencies in an single area
  28. 28. multiple agencies in multile areas.</li></li></ul><li>The organisational structure must be:-<br /><ul><li>adaptable to all types of emergency
  29. 29. able to assimilate new technologies
  30. 30. expandable from a simple</li></ul> incident to a major emergency<br /><ul><li>made up of common elements of</li></ul> organisation, terminology and procedures<br /><ul><li>compatible, as far as possible,</li></ul>with existing procedures<br /><ul><li>simple enough to be learned</li></ul> rapidly by new recruits.<br />
  31. 31. Incidentcommand system:<br /><ul><li>incident commander(s)
  32. 32. information, safety and</li></ul> planning officers<br /><ul><li> four support sections:</li></ul> planning, operations, logistics,<br />accountability/administration.<br />
  33. 33. Finance<br />section<br />Timekeeping<br />unit<br />Compensation<br />unit<br />Salaries<br />units<br />Cost<br />estimation<br />unit<br />Acquisitions<br />unit<br />Operations<br />support units<br />direction<br />Logistics<br />section<br />Field<br />support unit<br />Buildings<br />unit<br />Resupply<br />unit<br />Incident<br />commander<br />Service<br />units<br />direction<br />Communications<br />unit<br />Medical<br />unit<br />Catering<br />unit<br />Incident<br />commander's<br />staff<br />Aerial<br />operations<br />direction<br />Aerial<br />operations<br />unit<br />Helicopter<br />co-ordinator<br />Operations<br />section<br />Aerial<br />support<br />direction<br />Assembly area<br />management<br />Helicopter<br />management<br />Landings<br />management<br />Air<br />base<br />Field<br />operations<br />direction<br />Operations<br />units<br />Groups<br />division<br />Single<br />resources<br />Planning<br />section<br />Resources<br />unit<br />Situations<br />unit<br />Documentation<br />unit<br />Specialist<br />technicians<br />Demobilisation<br />unit<br />
  34. 34. The incident commander provides<br />leadership at the site of the incident.<br />The incident commander may be the<br />first person to arrive at the scene.<br />Command passes to the most appropriate<br />person (experience, training, rank, etc.).<br />The incident commander retains<br /> responsibility for co-ordinating<br />operations at the scene of the emergency.<br />
  35. 35. The information officerreleases<br />information to the public and works<br />with the mass media.<br />Thesafety officer monitors risks<br />associated with operations at the site<br />and ensures that emergency responders<br />are properly protected.<br />Theplanning officeris the point of contact<br />between the incident commander and the<br />organisations that respond to the incident.<br />
  36. 36. The planning section:<br /><ul><li>collects and evaluates</li></ul> information on the incident<br /><ul><li> defines operational priorities</li></ul> (together with the incident commander)<br /><ul><li>disseminates information on the</li></ul> incident and the response plan.<br />
  37. 37. The operations section:<br /><ul><li>puts the plan of action into effect</li></ul> according to the plan made by the<br /> incident commander and planning<br /> section.<br />
  38. 38. The logistics section:<br /><ul><li>acquires and supplies materials,</li></ul> equipment and services to support<br /> the emergency responders according to<br /> the instructions of the incident<br /> commander and operations section.<br />
  39. 39. The accountability and admin. section:<br /><ul><li>monitors and registers expenditures
  40. 40. manages administrative processes.</li></li></ul><li>Principles of ICS:-<br /><ul><li>common terminology
  41. 41. modular organisation
  42. 42. ability to add modules according</li></ul>to how the situation develops<br /><ul><li>common communications plan
  43. 43. integrated communications system.</li></li></ul><li>Principles of ICS:-<br /><ul><li>command units
  44. 44. each member of personnel</li></ul>responds to a single commander<br /><ul><li>expandable structure of command
  45. 45. common decision-making</li></ul> processesamong organisation<br /><ul><li>consolidated plan of action.</li></li></ul><li>Principles of ICS:-<br /><ul><li>manageable span of control
  46. 46. comprehensive resource management
  47. 47. clear structure for command post,</li></ul>assembly areas, base camps,<br />helicopter landing pads,<br />first aid post, etc.<br />
  48. 48. An example<br />
  49. 49. A fire occurs:-<br /><ul><li>the fire chief is first to arrive
  50. 50. he assesses the situation and</li></ul> decides how large the fire is<br /><ul><li> he established the command post</li></ul> (in the opposite direction to that<br /> in which the fire is travelling)<br /><ul><li>he determines the first</li></ul> priorities for action.<br />
  51. 51. The incident commander decides<br />where to put the command post<br /><ul><li>gives his first instructions to his team
  52. 52. advises the team not to go too</li></ul> close to the fire before its<br /> nature can be investigated<br /><ul><li> appoints thesecurity officer,</li></ul>who must estimate the risks.<br />
  53. 53. On the basis of the type of fire, the<br />firemen may need to use oxygen <br />and extinguish it with foam<br /><ul><li> the commander notes the presence</li></ul> of houses nearby and decides<br /> to order immediate evacuation<br /><ul><li>he notes the need to</li></ul> create an exclusion zone<br /><ul><li> he appoints the management officer,</li></ul> who contacts the police<br />to start the evacuation<br /><ul><li>the management officer informs the</li></ul>police of the need for road blocks.<br />
  54. 54. Some journalists arrive and approach the<br />command post in search of information<br /><ul><li> the incident commander appoints</li></ul> theinformation officer, who<br /> explains the situation to the media<br /><ul><li>the commander tells the</li></ul>safety officer to monitor<br /> the safety of the journalists.<br />
  55. 55. The fire gets worse and more<br />resourcesare needed to fight it<br /><ul><li>the incident commander asks for</li></ul> help from the operations centre<br /><ul><li>he tells the information officer</li></ul>to inform arriving units where to<br /> go and what to do to fight the fire<br /><ul><li>the commander informs the</li></ul>management officer to look for<br /> a reception centre for evacuees.<br />
  56. 56. <ul><li>the commander tells the safety</li></ul>officer to inform the newly-arrived<br />units of any risks they may run.<br />The fire gets worse:-<br /><ul><li>the incident commander reassesses</li></ul>the state of emergency operations<br /><ul><li>and asks the planning officer</li></ul>to produce a new plan of action.<br />
  57. 57. <ul><li>supplies of foam start to run out,</li></ul>and the firemen are tired<br /><ul><li>the commander asks the logistics section</li></ul> to find him new sources of foam and<br /> activate a mutual assistance agreement<br /><ul><li>the commander estabilshes the</li></ul>administrative section, which asks the<br />Red Cross to supply food to the fire<br /> fighters<br />... and in the end the fire is extinguished.<br />
  58. 58. Positive aspects of ICS:-<br /><ul><li>a logical system of organisation
  59. 59. improved safety and security</li></ul>for emergency responders<br /><ul><li>improved information sharing
  60. 60. participating organisations</li></ul> have plans in common<br /><ul><li>reduced span of control:</li></ul>realistic management<br /><ul><li>improved communications
  61. 61. resources acquired</li></ul> and used efficiently.<br />
  62. 62. Negative aspects of the<br />incident command system:-<br /><ul><li>'command' could signify</li></ul>authoritarianism<br /><ul><li>it does not necessarily</li></ul>work well in big disasters.<br />
  63. 63. ICS works well when<br />its objectives are:<br /><ul><li>well defined
  64. 64. reasonable
  65. 65. consistent
  66. 66. clear
  67. 67. prioritised.</li></li></ul><li>The best conditions for the use<br />of ICS are those in which:-<br /><ul><li>there is no lack oftrustorleadership
  68. 68. partecipants know each other</li></ul>and work well together<br /><ul><li>thetactics to be used are</li></ul> established before the incident<br /><ul><li>all participants are well aware of the</li></ul> nature and magnitude of the incident<br /><ul><li>planning, exercising and experience</li></ul>have created a good consensus<br /> among all the emergency responders.<br />
  69. 69. The main criticisms of ICS:-<br /><ul><li>it is difficult for the system to</li></ul> absorb groups of responders who<br /> are independent or poorly organised<br /><ul><li>it can createinflexibility</li></ul>when conditions change<br /> rapidly and uexpectedly<br /><ul><li>its weakest point lies in the</li></ul>co-ordination between organisations.<br />
  70. 70. The main criticisms of ICS:-<br /><ul><li>it can cause a largeconvergence</li></ul> reaction of emergency personnel,<br /> equipment and resources<br /><ul><li>the emergency response of multiple</li></ul> organisations needs multiple models<br /> of command and organisation<br /><ul><li>ICS is toosimplisticto manage the</li></ul> medium- to long-term emergency.<br />
  71. 71. Some critics argue that ICS is<br />unable to manage situations in which:-<br /><ul><li>there aremultiple impactsin a short</li></ul>time and a limited geographical area<br /><ul><li>many organisation seek</li></ul>to achievemany things<br /><ul><li>the variedobjectivesof emergency</li></ul>operations conflict with one another.<br />
  72. 72. The protagonists of ICS say that many<br />ofits inefficiencies result from failure<br />to train and exercise participants.<br />
  73. 73. ICS:<br /><ul><li>means rational bureaucratic organisation
  74. 74. offers rules and protocols to enable</li></ul>organisations to work together<br /><ul><li>favouris the apportionment oftasks
  75. 75. introduces co-ordination tasks.</li></li></ul><li>In the full development of ICS:-<br /><ul><li>the main areas of concentration are</li></ul> operations, planning and logistics<br /><ul><li>standardised description of roles
  76. 76. each role has its own</li></ul> programme of training<br /><ul><li>there are standardised descriptions</li></ul>for equipment and supplies<br /><ul><li>the chain of command is</li></ul> modern and well structured.<br />
  77. 77. In the most developed form of ICS:-<br /><ul><li>each participant in the emergency</li></ul>depend son a single commander<br /><ul><li>the span of control is limited to</li></ul> the number of people a single<br /> commander can effectively work with<br /><ul><li>the level of authority is commensurate</li></ul>with that of responsibility<br /><ul><li> emergency tasks are assigned</li></ul> to responders rationally<br /> irrespective of their ranks.<br />
  78. 78. In the most developed form of ICS:-<br /><ul><li>work is divided by sector
  79. 79. emphasis is given to</li></ul>efficiency, efficacy and safety<br /><ul><li>the "principle of scale": the</li></ul> dimensions and compexity of<br /> ICS depend on those of the<br /> event that miust bemanaged<br /><ul><li>ICS consists of a network of responses</li></ul> to the event that incorporate both<br /> internal and external resources.<br />
  80. 80. ICS uses:-<br /><ul><li>a unified command
  81. 81. command at the site(area command)
  82. 82. a multi-agency command.</li></li></ul><li>Resorces:-<br />(structures - things - tasks)<br /><ul><li>manpower (personnel)
  83. 83. vehicles (light and heavy)
  84. 84. equipment
  85. 85. materials and supplies
  86. 86. buildings and structures.</li></li></ul><li>The logistics section brings<br />resources to the assembly area<br />(or point of distribution)<br />The operations section sends resources<br />to their final destinations and directs<br />all activities at the site by means of:-<br /><ul><li>a strategic plan (of action)
  87. 87. a tactical plan, which supplies</li></ul> objectives for each period of operations<br />(the plan of action for the incident).<br />
  88. 88. A task force<br />(for example, of firefighters):-<br /><ul><li>operations section
  89. 89. planning andinformation section
  90. 90. logistics section.</li></li></ul><li>In synthesis, ICS:-<br /><ul><li>clarifies command processes
  91. 91. assigns all the responsibilities
  92. 92. favours collaboration between</li></ul>rescuers, including mutual assistance<br /> between diverse organisations<br /> and areas of competence.<br />
  93. 93. In synthesis, ICS:-<br /><ul><li>can be used at various</li></ul> geographical scales<br /><ul><li>sends scarce resources immediately</li></ul> where they are needed<br /><ul><li>is generally flexible
  94. 94. creates comparable standardised</li></ul> components in all organisations<br />that participate in the system.<br />
  95. 95. The bronze-silver-gold<br />
  96. 96. UK:3 commands, 4 levels<br />Police - Fire Services- Medical Services<br /> [Diamond - policies]<br />Gold - strategies<br /> Silver - tactics<br />Bronze - operations<br />
  97. 97. Strategic<br />level<br />OUTER<br />CORDON<br />LEAD GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENT<br />Public<br />enquiries<br />Strategic Co-ordinating Group<br />Police Local authority<br />Fire Military forces<br />Ambulance Government advisors<br />Other agencies<br />Temporary<br />Mortuary<br />Media<br />Centre<br />Casualty<br />Bureau<br />Media<br />Liaison<br />Point<br />Survivor<br />Reception<br />Centre<br />Relatives’<br />Reception<br />Centre<br />Local Authority<br />Emergency Centre<br />Receiving<br />Hospitals<br />Voluntary<br />Agencies<br />Tactical<br />level<br />Body<br />Holding<br />Area<br />Incident Control Point<br />Police<br />Fire<br />Ambulance<br />Liaison<br />Vehicle<br />Marshalling<br />Area<br />Ambulance<br />Loading<br />Point<br />Operational<br />level<br />Site of Disaster<br />Police<br />Fire<br />Ambulance<br />Specialist advisors<br />Casualty<br />Clearing<br />Station<br />INNER CORDON<br />
  98. 98. Rescuers'<br />assembly point<br />Points of<br />access to<br />cordoned<br />off areas<br />Public<br />assembly area<br />Cordon I<br />Only<br />rescuers<br />Cordon <br />III for <br />traffic <br />control<br />Only authorised<br />personnel<br />Cordon II<br />Multi-agency<br />operations<br />command.<br />Pedestrians only<br />Incident<br />
  99. 99. Policies<br />Command<br />systems:<br /><ul><li>operations centres
  100. 100. task forces
  101. 101. communications
  102. 102. chains of command</li></ul>Plans<br />Procedures <br />Results<br />Operations<br />
  103. 103. Bronze command (operations) must:-<br /><ul><li>estimate the geographical size</li></ul>and seriousness of the problem<br /><ul><li>assign control of a specific</li></ul> geographical area to a<br /> particular commander<br /><ul><li>begin the process of co-ordination</li></ul>for organisations working at the site.<br />
  104. 104. Silver command (tactical) must:-<br /><ul><li>determine prioritiesin the</li></ul> allocation of resources<br /><ul><li>plan and co-ordinate tasks
  105. 105. establish general command over all</li></ul> operatons, not merely at specific<br /> sites associated with the incident<br /><ul><li>mantain a register of</li></ul> decisions and actions taken.<br />
  106. 106. Gold command (strategic) must:-<br /><ul><li>establish the strategic matrix in</li></ul> which tactical commanders work<br /><ul><li>supply adequate resource</li></ul> support to tactical commands<br /><ul><li>form a strategic co-ordination group</li></ul> to ensure multi-agency response.<br />
  107. 107. In an emergency the bronze level<br />(operations) is activated before<br />the silver and gold levels.<br />The operations centre (silver) decides<br />whether to activate the emergency<br />plan and puts into action the<br />measures needed to tackle the incident.<br />
  108. 108. Incident<br />Emergencyresponse<br />planning<br />Permanentemergencyplan<br />Contingency planning in<br />the pre-emergencyphase (days)<br />Operational planning<br />Short-termstrategic<br />planning (hours -> days)<br />Short-termtactical<br />planning (hours)<br />
  109. 109. Permanent emergency plan<br />Aftermath<br />Monitoring<br />prediction<br />& warning<br />Strategic,<br />tactical & operational<br />planning<br />Business continuity plan<br />Recovery and<br />reconstruction<br />planning<br />Disaster<br />
  110. 110. Information technology<br />and command<br />
  111. 111. The use of information technology<br />enables the emergency coordinator to:-<br /><ul><li>manage data banksof</li></ul> the available resources<br /><ul><li>maintain a record of events and</li></ul>decisions (for example regarding<br />resource allocation) both for individual<br />functions and all operations together<br /><ul><li>follow up emergency operations.</li></li></ul><li>The use of information technology<br />enablesthe emergency coordinator to:-<br /><ul><li>use compatible cartographic</li></ul> software to register the location<br /> of impacts, resources and effects<br /><ul><li>construct lists of decisions relating</li></ul> to actions that need to be taken<br /><ul><li>make rapid reference to the emergency</li></ul>plan or other support documents<br /><ul><li>communicate from the operations</li></ul> operations centre with people outside it.<br />
  112. 112. The concept of the "lead agency"<br /><ul><li>the reference organisation for</li></ul>basic command in the incident<br /><ul><li>must assume a co-ordinating role</li></ul>and preside over decision processes,<br /> above all at the site of the incident<br /><ul><li>could be any of the main emergency</li></ul> response organisations (e.g. fire service)<br /><ul><li>in the UK it is the police, as the</li></ul> first issue is deemed to be the<br /> maintenance of public order.<br />
  113. 113. Some problems of command:<br /><ul><li>recognise rapidly the</li></ul>magnitude of the event<br /><ul><li>declare the emergency rapidly</li></ul>and in a synchronised way<br /> between participating organisations<br /><ul><li>maintain lines of communication</li></ul>between organisations<br /><ul><li>ensure full sharing of information.</li></ul>[X]<br />