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A Brief History of Resilience

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  • Terrific content. Thanks for tracking the development of resilience so clearly, and for making plain the need for resistance as well as adaptation, something which sometimes gets overlooked when the term is used in management circles. And, no, I think we ought to let Bacon off for his use of the greengrocer's apostrophe.
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  • nice ppt
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A Brief History of Resilience

  1. 1. A Brief History of RESILIENCE David Alexander University College London
  2. 2. There's a unique London flavour to resilience: I will explain why....
  3. 3. Caveat emptor: this is a story of dead white males, not of women or ethnic diversity. Much as I would like to, I can't rewrite history.
  4. 4. RESILIENCE: the ability to overcome the impacts of large, negative events [by a combination of resistance and adaptation]. Not the only definition, not exclusive, not comprehensive, and not incontestable.
  5. 5. Hypothesis: by examining the history of the resilience concept, we can understand better its meanings in the context of contemporary science. A recent publication listed 28 definitions of resilience.
  6. 6. "Originally developed as an ecological concept, resilience is being applied to coupled human-environment systems." (Berkes 2007, p. 286) "The study of resilience traces its roots back a scant 50 years." (Goldstein and Brooks 2006, p. 3) "The concept of resilience was originally developed in the field of ecology." (Djalate et al. 2011, p. 3)
  7. 7. Marcus Tullius Cicero Cicero 106 - 43 BC Orationes resilio, resilire - to rebound
  8. 8. Marcus Annaeus Seneca Seneca the Elder 54 BC - AD 39 Controversiae resilio, resilire - leap, to leap ...quanto minus quam in templum resiliuit?
  9. 9. Publius Ovidius Naso Ovid 43 BC – AD 17/18 Metamorphoses resilio, resilire - to shrink, contract
  10. 10. Marcus Fabius Quintilianus Quintilian AD 35 - 100 Institutio Oratoria resilio, resilire - to avoid
  11. 11. Gaius Plinius Secundus Pliny the Elder AD 23 –79 Naturalis Historia resilio, resilire - leaping frogs and fleas
  12. 12. St Jerome 347-420 St John Chrysostom 347-407 Sagitta in lapidem numquam figitur, interdum resiliens percutit dirigentem. "An arrow never lodges in a stone: often it recoils upon its sender."
  13. 13. Reslience: a concept on the move résiler Unverwüstlichkeit resile
  14. 14. Henry VIII 1491-1547 Anne Boleyn 1485-1536 "if the Quene wold herafter resile and goo back" Stephen Gardiner (1483-1555), writing at Woodstock on 1 September 1529 to Thomas Wolsey (1473-1530).
  15. 15. Resilience English science rises to the challenge.
  16. 16. The "cradle" of resilience: Canonbury Tower London N1. Built in 1509 to survive the Universal Deluge: inhabited in 1625 by Francis Bacon.
  17. 17. 3.9 km
  18. 18. Francis Bacon 1561-1626
  19. 19. Francis Bacon Sylva Sylvarum, 1625 [Are we to criticise him for using the "greengrocer's apostrophe"?]
  20. 20. John Amos Comenius 1592-1670 Lumen divinum reformatae synopsis "Natural Philosophy Reformed by Divine Light" (Leipzig, 1633, tr. 1651) Resiliency
  21. 21. Thomas Blount 1619-79 Glossographia, 1661 "A Dictionary of the Hard Words of Whatsoever Language" First dictionary definition
  22. 22. Samuel Taylor Coleridge Hymn to Earth in Friendship's Offering 1834
  23. 23. William J.M. Rankine 1858-67 Manual of Applied Mechanics
  24. 24. William J.M. Rankine, 1858-67 A Manual of Applied Mechanics
  25. 25. Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry, 1857
  26. 26. Perry noted the resilience of the Japanese after the Ansei Great Earthquakes, 1854-5
  27. 27. Norman Garmezy 1918-2009 Psychologist
  28. 28. Ludwig Von Bertalanffy 1901-72 General Systems Theory
  29. 29. Prof. Crawford Stanley ('Buzz') Holling [b. 1930], Canadian systems ecologist, University of Florida
  30. 30. Annual Review of Ecology & Systematics 4 (1973)
  31. 31. "But there is another property, termed resilience, that is a measure of the persistence of systems and of their ability to absorb change and disturbance and still maintain the same relationships between populations or state variables." (Holling 1973, p.14)
  32. 32. • analysis of the stability of ecological assemblages • ideal for island ecology and other well-defined systems • in line with GST resilience is an equilibrium tendency • promotes a narrow view of the resilience concept • Holling's approach has been widely used uncritically. Holling's use of the resilience concept
  33. 33. "Resilience is a systems concept*, and the social-ecological system, as an integrated and interdependent unit, may itself be considered a complex adaptive system." (Berkes and Ross 2013, p. 14) *not necessarily!
  34. 34. Causes of disaster natural geophysical, technological, social History single and cumulative impact of past disasters Human cultures constraints and opportunities IMPACTS Adaptation to risk RESILIENCE
  35. 35. Neil Adger University of East Anglia Progress in Human Geography, 2000
  36. 36. Urie Bronfenbrenner 1917-2005
  37. 37. Society Culture Politics Economy Welfare Hospitals Church Media Community- based services Family Community Workplace individual Bronfenbrenner's community resilience theory Microsystem MesosystemMacrosystem Chronosystem Exosystem
  38. 38. LAW STATESMANSHIP LITERATURE SCIENTIFIC METHOD MECHANICS MANU- FACTURING ECOLOGY MANAGEMENT (ADAPTIVE) CHILD PSYCHOLOGY ANTHROPOLOGY SOCIAL RESEARCH DISASTER RISK REDUCTION SUSTAINABILITY SCIENCE CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION c. BC 50 AD 1529 1625 1859 1930 1950 1973 2000 2010 NATURAL HISTORY
  39. 39. RESILIENCE Social Technical Physical Psychological CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION DISASTER RISK REDUCTION OTHER HAZARDS AND RISKS natural social technological intentional compound cascading SUSTAINABILITY SCIENCE
  40. 40. Organisational systems: management Social systems: behaviour Natural systems: function Technical systems: malfunction VulnerabilityHazard Resilience Political systems: decisions
  41. 41. physical environmental social economic health-related cultural educational infrastructural institutional RESILIENCE COPING VULNERABILITY FRAGILITY SUSCEPTIBILITY Organisation: • public admin. • private sector • civil society Community Individual Resilience: facets... ...and relationships
  42. 42. • an objective, a process or a strategy? • a paradigm, diverse paradigms? • 'bounce-back' or 'bounce-forward'? • focuses on the community scale • can reconcile dynamic & static elements. Resilience
  43. 43. RESILIENCE: as a material has brittle strength and ductility: society must have an optimum combination of resistance to hazard impacts and ability to adapt to them.
  44. 44. Society Culture Politics Economy Welfare Hospitals Church Media Community- based services Family Community Workplace individual Bronfenbrenner's community resilience theory Microsystem MesosystemMacrosystem Chronosystem Exosystem
  45. 45. Resilient culture Culture of resilience
  46. 46. INSTRUMENTS OF DISSEMINATION • mass media • targeted campaign • social networks • internet Augmentation MASS EDUCATION PROGRAMME HUMAN CAPITAL HABIT CULTURE The creation of a culture of civil protection
  47. 47. Broader scope and outcomes Changing objectives of emergency management Civil Protection Disaster Management Resilience Civil Contingencies Management Disaster Risk Reduction
  48. 48. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 13(1): 2707-2716 [2013] www.slideshare.com/dealexander m.slideshare.net/ dealexander

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