Sensory integration disorder or dysfunction (SID) is a neurological disorder that results from the brain's inability to integrate certain information received from the body's five basic sensory systems. These sensory systems are responsible for detecting sights, sounds, smell, tastes, temperatures, pain, and the position and movements of the body. The brain then forms a combined picture of this information in order for the body to make sense of its surroundings and react to them appropriately. The ongoing relationship between behavior and brain functioning is called sensory integration (SI), a theory that was first pioneered by A. Jean Ayres, Ph.D., OTR in the 1960s.
Unf interview part 1
RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS / AWARDS? National Academy of Education Postdoctoral Fellowship ($55,000)2011 Hampton Williams Research Award by USM ($1,500)2011 Best Doctoral Dissertation Award by AAER/NAER ($150)2002 Berbecker Fellowship/Doctoral Graduate Assistantship, USF ($25,000)1997 Fulbright, Tskuba, Ibaraki Prefecture (Science City) Tokyo, Japan ($3,000)
PUBLICATIONSEadens, D., Bruner, D., & Black, W. (2012). The intentions offlorida educational leadership graduate students to pursueadministrative positions. International Journal of EducationalLeadership Preparation, 7(1). Retrieved fromhttp://www.ncpeapublications.org/latest-issue.htmlEadens, D. W., & Hindes, N. (In Print). Educational leadershipgraduate programs: Unpacking the selection process. Synergy:A Journal for Graduate Student Research, 2(3).Eadens, D. W. (2001, December). [Review of the bookPromising Practices for Contextual Learning, by S.H. Harwell &W.E. Blank] Wingspan: The Pedamorphosis Communique, 14(1) 38.
Eadens, D. W., &Hindes, N. (In Print).Educationalleadership graduateprograms: Unpackingthe selectionprocess. Synergy: AJournal for GraduateStudentResearch, 2(3).
PUBLICATIONS IN PROGRESSEadens, D.W. (In Review) The intentions of florida educational leadership graduate students. Journal for theAssociation for the Advancement of Educational Research Journal. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Mullen, C.A., Papa, R., Eadens, D.W., Hewitt, K. K., Schwanenberger, M., Bizzell, B., Chopin, S. (NCPEA 2012Kansas City) Ideas-based Paper. The Future as We See it: Junior Faculty’s Envisioning of Mid-CenturyLeadership.Hindes, N., & Eadens, D.W. (?) Four steps to recognizing and responding to child abuse and neglect. Phi DeltaKappan International.Eadens, D. W., & Eadens, D.M. (paper 2011, October). Stop the world, I need to get off: the future of sensoryprocessing disorder in the classroom. Interactive Symposium lecture session to be presented during the 65thAnnual State Conference at the Florida Council for Exceptional Children, Jacksonville, Florida.http://www.floridacec.org/Jacksonville2011.htm----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Ward, M., Rolle, A., Eadens, D.W., McColl, A. ( ?) Evolution of Leandro vs. State of N.C.: financial and legalramifications today considering NCLB’s and the current administration.McNeese, R., Roberson, T., & Haines, G. (2009) Motivation and Leadership: A comparison of motivationfactors for pursuing a degree in education administration. An extended examination byEadens, D.W., Labat, M., Kreiger, J., Roberson, T., & McNeese, R.
The Intentions of Florida Educational Leadership Graduate Students to Pursue Administrative Positions Daniel Eadens, Ed.D. University of Southern Mississippi Darlene Bruner University of South Florida William Black, Ph.D. University of South Florida
Problem & Purpose• Districts are concerned about the quality of the applicant pools• Despite the large number of certified candidates, quality administrator applicants are not applying for positions in schools in certain locations and socio-economic regions• To analyze factors that influence the intentions of educational leadership graduate students currently enrolled in university educational leadership programs in Florida
Research QuestionsIs there a relationship between intent to seek an assistant principal position and:• Self-assessed Leadership behavior measured by (LPI)?• Gender?• Number of Credits successfully completed?• Age?• All above?
Literature• Overproduction• Choose not to work in administration• Lack of qualified willing applicants
Significance• To more fully understand why pools have perceived quality candidate shortages using job choice theory as a frame• To identify self-reported leadership behavior and intent to practice• To share results to offer DOE, District Leadership Academies, and University Programs insight for reform of selection, recruitment, and retention
Surveys & Sampling1. (LPI ) Leadership Practices Inventory2. (DIQ) Demographics & Intentions Questionnaire--------------------------------------------------------• N=217• Online Survey Monkey and/or Hard Packets administered to Educational Leadership M.Ed classes only at USF (Tampa, Lakeland, St Pete),FSU, NL, SLU, UCF
Sampling Results• Response rate: varied between institutions. Approx 50% - 50% were Online vs. Hard Copy in person• 46.5% secondary, 62.7% public, 74.7% teachers• 5 to 9 years experience mean; Guidance/ESE: 25.9%• Mostly 25 to 30 yrs old; skewed Mean age was 31 to 35 yrs• 75.6% Female; 84.3% Caucasian
Data AnalysisRQ1: Between Intent to seek and Leadership Behavior on LPI?• The Multiple Regression Analysis indicated no significant relationship (p = .715).• The majority of respondents (83.9 %) do intend to seek an assistant principal position upon program completion.• Which level of assistant principal they intended to become: 52.5% indicated they will choose an Elementary assistant principal position. However, most were Secondary teachers, not Elementary
Data AnalysisRQ2: Between Intent to seek and Gender?• 53 male and 164 females respondents. Results of the ANOVA analysis indicated no significant difference. (p = .074).• Since the dependent variable (Intent) was skewed, the variable was transformed using a square root (sqrt) function to see if the outcome could be improved. Based on these results, there might be a significant difference (p = .038) between male and female students and their intent to seek an assistant principal position; females having more intention to seek an assistant principal position.
Data AnalysisRQ3: Between Intent and Number of Credits completed? • The results of the Regression Analysis indicated no significant relationship (p = .251). • 64.1% rated the influence salary had on their decision to pursue a degree in educational leadership as either somewhat (important) or (one of the primary reasons).
Data AnalysisRQ4: Between Intent to seek and Age?• The Regression Analysis results indicated no significant relationship was found (p = .384).• The (highest) percentage were between 25-30 yrs old.
Data AnalysisRQ5: Relationship between intent and leadership behavior, gender, number of credits completed, and age?• The Multiple Regression Analysis found no individual relationships between predictor and dependent (p = .188).
Open-Ended Data Analysis• When do you intend to seek an assistant principal position? 61.3% claim within two years; 14.3% say they never or it is unknown.• Explain: 74.1% indicated they will wait (to get more experience) to seek a position; 18.8% will seek another position.Response Category n %Not Waiting 22 25.9Waiting: More experience in 33 38.8current of next positionWaiting: Earn more degrees, 9 10.6certification, or professionaldevelopmentWaiting: Family Related 8 9.4reasonsOther: Get a district level, 16 18.8higher ed, DOE, or specificposition
Exploratory Analysis: Trends & Patterns• LPI’s Five Constructs were standardized and categorized by intensity. Using ANOVA, Construct cases with z-scores Low(≤ -0.5) and High(≥ 0.5) were retained; 34% of cases clustered around the mean were removed. Intent to Seek z-scores (>-1.0) were retained. Those unlikely to intend to seek the position were categorically removed. DV IV F Sig Mean Low Mean High High Intentions Encourage 3.465 0.066 4.64 5.03 High Intentions Model 7.490 0.008** 4.54 5.22 High Intentions Enable 2.809 0.098 4.42 4.86 High Intentions Inspire 2.922 0.092 4.70 5.12 High Intentions Challenge 4.355 0.040* 4.65 5.16Note. * = p < .05, ** = p < .01
Influence of Gender• The estimated marginal means of intentions for females were not significantly higher than males; this means that females do not indicate stronger intentions to seek an assistant principal position upon program completion than males.• This study supports and affirms the literature that cites there are increases in females pursuing educational leadership degrees.
Influence of Degree Progress• Strahan and Wilson (2006) claimed that proximity to a future possible self has an impact on current motivation to act in ways to achieve future goals. However, in this study, the number of credits successfully completed and degree progress was not shown to be a significant factor in determining intentions towards seeking an assistant principal position.• In the DIQ, 64.1% of respondents rated the influence salary had on their decision to pursue a degree in educational leadership as either (somewhat important) or (one of the primary reasons).
Influence of Age• Data in this study did not support age as having a significant impact on graduate student intentions to seek an assistant principal position.• The age ranges in this study ranged up to greater than 55, which skewed the mean. The majority of this study’s participants had between 5 and 9 years of teaching experience which corresponds to the highest respondent percentages being between 25 and 30 yrs old.• 14.3% of this study’s respondents claim they never intend to seek an assistant principal position or claim they do not know how long they would wait.
Discussion of Open-Ended Results• The largest theme of responses as to why educational leadership students plan to wait after graduation to seek an assistant principal position is that they are waiting to get more experience in their current or next position.• Results indicated 18.8% plan to seek something other than an assistant principal position.
Exploratory Analysis: Trends & Patterns• Results from this analyses found a distinct trend in the data. The findings suggest those likely to intend to seek an assistant principal position have higher self-assessed leadership behavior potential and/or qualities.• It further suggests that students with low self- assessed leadership behavior quality construct scores may be self-selecting themselves out. That is, participants with low scores may want to be in a leadership position, but temper their intent due to a lack of self-efficacy about their self-assessed leadership.
Further Study Needed• To discover what changes graduates’ intentions and the reasons so many graduates complete the program and obtain certification without the intent of using their degree to move upward• To compare those who claimed they intended to wait and the actual wait times before hired• To examine how many do accept positions after completion and certification using DOE records.• To discover more about how much these economic factors play a role in affecting intentions.• To uncover which gender specific factors may affect intentions to seek after program completion
Recommendations for Practice• Given the fact that many (14.3%) respondents were pursuing the educational leadership degree without a goal of seeking an administrative position, university programs might develop two tracks within the K-12 educational leadership masters degree: one for those seeking Educational Leadership certification and another for the others who simply want more knowledge about leadership and administrative practices to enhance their teacher leadership skills.
CONFERENCE PRESENTATIONS Mullen, C. A., Papa, R., Kappler Hewitt, K., Eadens, D., Schwanenberger, M., Bizzell, B., & Chopin, S. (2012, August). The future as we see it: Junior faculty’s envisioning of mid-century leadership. Paper to be presented at the National Council of Professors of Educational Administration (NCPEA), Kansas City, MO. Eadens, D.W. (2011, November). The intentions of Florida educational leadership graduate students to pursue administrative positions. Paper presented at the annual 14th annual conference of the Association for the Advancement of Educational Research, Stuart, Florida.Eadens, D. W., & Eadens, D.M. (2011, October). Stop the world, I need to get get off: the future of sensory processing disorder in the classroom. Interactive Symposium lecture session to be presented during the 65th Annual State Conference at the Florida Council for Exceptional Children, Jacksonville, Florida. http://www.floridacec.org/Jacksonville2011.htmEadens, D.W. (2011, August). The intentions of Florida educational leadership graduate students to pursue administrative positions. Paper Presented at the National Council of Professors of Educational Administration summer conference, Portland, Oregon. http://www.emich.edu/ncpeaprofessors/Portland%20Program/Final%207- 9%20NCPEA%202011%20Portland.pdf Eadens, D.W. (2010, November). The intentions of Florida educational leadership graduate students. Paper Presented at the annual 13th annual conference of the Association for the Advancement of Educational Research, Stuart, Florida. http://www.aaer.org/images/aaer_program_2010.pdf Eadens, D. M., & Eadens, D.W. (2010, October). Bringing it all together: best practices in behavior management. Interactive Symposium presented during the 64th Annual State Conference at the Florida Council for Exceptional Children, Clearwater, Florida. http://www.floridacec.org/Clearwater2010/FCEC-2010-Saturday.pdfMullen, C. A., Gordon, S. P., Greenlee, B., & Anderson, R. H., & Eadens, D.W. (2002, November). Multiple capacities needed for school leadership: Emerging trends. Paper presented at the annual convention of the University Council for Educational Administration, Pittsburgh, PA.
Stop the World, I Need toGet Off: The Future of Sensory Processing Disorder in the Classroom Daniel W. Eadens, Ed.D. University of Southern Mississippi Danielle M. Eadens, Ph.D. St. Petersburg College Florida Council for Exceptional Students Conference October 2011
I have selective hearing or difficulty listening “SPD is a neurologically- based disorder where the brain does not properly process and integrate input from the body’s sensory systems.”Drs. D FCEC 2011 37
Well DocumentedChildren respond to sensory experiences differently from peers without disabilities. Sensory Processing Disorders (SPD) are well documented :• Initial Sensory Integration theory from Dr. Jean Ayres in the 1960s• Basic Science Literature (Ornitz, 1989; Ornitz, Lane, Sugiyama, & de Traversay, 1993; Yeung-Courchesne & Courchesne, 1997),• Clinical Literature (Ermer & Dunn, 1998; Kientz & Dunn,1997; Watling, Deitz, & White, 2001)• First-Person Accounts (Cesaroni & Garber, 1991; Grandin, 1995), including Eadens & Eadens, 2011 at FCEC.Note: Initial appearance of Sensory Processing symptomsoften predate diagnosis (Adrien et al., 1993; Baranek, 1999;Dahlgren & Gillberg, 1989; Lord, 1995). Drs. Daniel & Danielle Eadens FCEC 2011 38
Current Research on Diagnosis & Origin OTs use the Sensory Profile (1999) & and the Sensory Processing Measure (2007) to assess the sensory needs of children. Both have significant reliability (internal consistency and inter-rater reliability), (Brown, Morrison, & Stagnitti, 2011). Welters-Davis & Lawson (2011) studies the relationship between SP and Parent–Child play preferences. Results suggests a possible relationship between some parent and child SP patterns and between parents SP patterns and their play preferences with their children.Drs. Daniel & Danielle Eadens FCEC 2011 39
“Balance” (prōprē-ō- sěpshən) “Muscles” Image courtesy of Asperger Syndrome & Sensory Issues FCEC 2011 40Drs. Daniel & Danielle Eadens
Sensory Profiles (*Subtypes) J J(DOB 2005) Z (DOB 2008)*Sensory-based Motor Disorder*Sensory Modulation Disorder *Sensory Modulation DisorderSEEKER SEEKER-Auditory -Vestibular-Visual (art-related) -Proprioception -VisualAVOIDER (esp. videos)-Vestibular -Tactile-Proprioception-Tactile AVOIDER-Gustatory-Visual & Olfactory -Auditory (unpleasant-food related -Gustatory (learned vs. innate?) only)Drs. Daniel & Danielle Eadens FCEC 2011 41
Best PracticesChildren BEST benefit from sensory integration therapy (SIT) when all stakeholders: communicate, collaborate , create, commission, and carryout a specific “sensory diet” plan for the child based upon the child’s specific needs, circumstances, history, and severity.• Occupation Therapist• Physical Therapist• Classroom Teacher• Special Educator• Counselor• Parent Drs. Daniel & Danielle Eadens FCEC 2011 42
Sensory Diet• “A sensory diet is a daily or weekly list of activities that the child can engage in during regular routines to help maintain an optimal state of arousal” (Spiral Foundation).• Home versus school Extreme Home Makeover, Vardon Family FCEC 2011 43Drs. Daniel & Danielle Eadens
Sensory Changes - Vestibular• Since J started therapy three years ago, high improvements: – Age 3: Did not like to be swung around – Age 3.5: Starts to like & seek out swings – Age 5: Went on Thunder Mountain – Age 6: Wants to fly! Drs. Daniel & Danielle Eadens FCEC 2011 44