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  1. 1. The Dead Sea By Dr.R. ronen Phd.
  2. 2. How many cells in our body???? <ul><li>720? </li></ul><ul><li>7,200? </li></ul><ul><li>72,000? </li></ul><ul><li>7,200,000? </li></ul><ul><li>72,000,000? </li></ul><ul><li>720,000,000? </li></ul><ul><li>72,000,000,000? </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Human Body <ul><li>A most complicated system consisting of billions of cells organized uniquely and functioning dynamically together. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Anatomists divide the human body into eight systems: skeleton muscles the circulatory and respiratory systems the digestive system the urinary system the glandular system the nervous system the skin
  5. 5. The human skeleton <ul><li>consists of 206 bones. </li></ul><ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><li>Support the body, </li></ul><ul><li>Allow movement, </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacture blood cells and store important minerals. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Muscles-functions <ul><li>pull on bones and act as lever systems. </li></ul>
  7. 9. The circulatory system <ul><li>Functions: transport of dissolved materials throughout the body, including oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and waste of the body. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  8. 10. The circulatory system The red blood cells
  9. 11. The Respiratory System
  10. 12. The Respiratory System -
  11. 13. The Digestive System – Food Pathway <ul><li>- mouth --> pharynx </li></ul><ul><li>esophagus --> stomach </li></ul><ul><li>--> small intestine --> </li></ul><ul><li>large intestine --> rectum </li></ul><ul><li>--> anus- </li></ul>
  12. 14. The Urinary System - Anatomy <ul><li>Kidneys </li></ul><ul><li>Urete </li></ul><ul><li>Bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Urethra </li></ul><ul><li>Urine </li></ul>
  13. 15. The Urinary System – Functions <ul><li>Removing waste from the blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Urea it is a poison to the body. </li></ul>
  14. 16. The Glandular System - Glands <ul><li>Examples are: </li></ul><ul><li>Tear glands, </li></ul><ul><li>Salivary glands, </li></ul><ul><li>Sweat glands, </li></ul><ul><li>The pineal, </li></ul><ul><li>Pituitary, </li></ul><ul><li>Thyroid, </li></ul><ul><li>Parathyroid, </li></ul><ul><li>Thymus, </li></ul><ul><li>Pancreas, </li></ul><ul><li>Adrenals, </li></ul><ul><li>Sex glands. </li></ul>
  15. 17. The Nervous System – Anatomy     2   1-  The central nervous system   2-  The peripheral nervous system     1 The system is divided into two parts
  16. 18. The Nervous System – The Structure <ul><li>The Structure of a nerve cell. </li></ul>
  17. 19. The Skin - The Structure <ul><li>Skin is the outside covering of body tissue, which protects inner cells and organs from the outside environment. The skin is the largest organ of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>The layer on the outside is called epidermis. </li></ul><ul><li>The epidermis is producing the skin colore ,melanin. </li></ul>
  18. 20. The Skin – Diseases & Disorders <ul><li>Acne and its Scarring </li></ul><ul><li>Cold Sores </li></ul><ul><li>Hair Loss </li></ul><ul><li>Hives - drugs, and other allergies can cause hives. </li></ul><ul><li>Nail Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Itching - dry skin or dermatitis, </li></ul><ul><li>Psoriasis </li></ul><ul><li>Eczema </li></ul><ul><li>Warts - A virus causes warts. </li></ul><ul><li>Skin Cancer - basal cell, squamous cell, melanoma. </li></ul>
  20. 22. the dead sea and its minerals <ul><li>The most unique </li></ul><ul><li>phenomenon on earth </li></ul><ul><li>A singular mineral composition (water and soil) </li></ul><ul><li>Millions of years of mineral creation, at the dead sea in israel </li></ul>
  21. 23. Dead sea israel-facts <ul><li>It is a unique climat </li></ul><ul><li>Low humidity </li></ul><ul><li>High temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Absence of air pollution </li></ul><ul><li>High oxygen concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Weakened UV radiation mainly (UVB) </li></ul><ul><li>No need for pesticides.plants are organic </li></ul>
  22. 24. Dead sea
  23. 25. THE DEAD SEA IN ISRAEL It is the most ancient source of minerals in dry form and in water
  24. 26. The Minerals – Definition <ul><li>Mineral is from the latin word: “ mine ” (soil) </li></ul>
  25. 27. Minerals-definition <ul><li>The four rules defining a mineral: </li></ul><ul><li>they must be: </li></ul><ul><li>1- Crystals, </li></ul><ul><li>2- Natural, </li></ul><ul><li>3- Inorganic, </li></ul><ul><li>4- The same chemical formula all the time. </li></ul><ul><li>Of more than 50 known minerals, 19 are necessary for health. </li></ul>
  26. 28. DEAD SEA MINERALS DEAD SEA MINERAL water creation 1-Rain 2-Mineral melting
  27. 29. selenium calcium copper iron manganase chromium magnesium
  28. 30. A selenium mineral water spring at the dead sea The Ein-bokek spring
  29. 31. The Minerals – Macro & Micro <ul><li>Macrominerals </li></ul><ul><li>calcium, chlorine, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and sulfur. </li></ul><ul><li>Microminerals </li></ul><ul><li>chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silicon, zinc, boron, tin, and vanadium. </li></ul>
  30. 32. The Minerals – Functions <ul><li>Blood and bones. </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy nerve function. </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle tone. </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular system. </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes for energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth and healing. </li></ul>
  31. 33. Minerals –Essential Component of: <ul><li>Hormones. </li></ul><ul><li>Iron in haemoglobin, </li></ul><ul><li>Cobalt in B12, </li></ul><ul><li>Selenium in glutathaion, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid and electrical balance. </li></ul><ul><li>Ph balance in tissue and blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Digestion and assimilation : (hydrochloric acid). It is used in the food assimilation process. </li></ul>
  32. 34. Calcium – Functions and target areas <ul><li>Bones and teeth. </li></ul><ul><li>Nerve and muscle function. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>Kidney function. </li></ul><ul><li>Colon cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood cholesterol levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Nerve impulses. </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent bone osteoporosis. </li></ul><ul><li>Structuring of RNA and DNA. </li></ul><ul><li>Activation of several enzymes including lipase. </li></ul><ul><li>Neuromuscular activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy skin. </li></ul><ul><li>Absorption of toxic metals. </li></ul>
  33. 35. Calcium - DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS: <ul><li>muscles spasms, soft bones, back and leg cramps, brittle bones, poor growth, osteoporosis, tooth decay, depression Aching joints Brittle nails Eczema Blood cholesterol Heart palpitations Hypertension Insomnia Rheumatoid arthritis Cognitive impairment Convulsions </li></ul>
  34. 36. Calcium requirment <ul><li>800-1200mg. Per day </li></ul>
  35. 37. Magnesium – Functions <ul><li>Neuromuscular activity of the heart;(rhythm) , </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium & Vitamin C metabolism, </li></ul><ul><li>Converts blood sugar into energy, </li></ul><ul><li>Enzyme activity, </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents calcification of the aorta, </li></ul><ul><li>Bone and mineral metabolism, </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent cardiovascular disease, </li></ul><ul><li>Osteoporosis, </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce cholesterol levels, </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces asthma, </li></ul><ul><li>Depression, insomnia, </li></ul><ul><li>Irritable bowel syndrome, </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic pain syndrome, </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary disorders. </li></ul>
  36. 38. Magnesium – Deficiency <ul><li>Heart spasms, </li></ul><ul><li>Nervousness, muscular problems, </li></ul><ul><li>Confusion, </li></ul><ul><li>Kidney stones, </li></ul><ul><li>Insomnia , </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid heart beat. </li></ul>
  37. 39. Magnesium - Sources <ul><li>Seafood, </li></ul><ul><li>Dark green vegetables, </li></ul><ul><li>Legumes, </li></ul><ul><li>Nuts, seeds, </li></ul><ul><li>Soy products( tofu) , </li></ul><ul><li>Bran and brown rice , </li></ul><ul><li>Fruits such as avocado , dried apricot are other sources , </li></ul><ul><li>Hard water is a valuable source of magnesium. </li></ul><ul><li>Dolomite and bonemeal are good sources of magnesium, as they are of calcium. </li></ul>
  38. 40. Magnesium Requirements <ul><li>The Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) is about 300-450 mg. </li></ul><ul><li>those who drink alcohol need more magnesium. </li></ul>
  39. 41. Phosphorus – Functions and targets <ul><li>Bones and teeth, energy production, protein synthesis for the growth, maintenance, and repair of all tissues and cells. </li></ul><ul><li>The production of the nucleic acids in DNA and RNA, which carry the genetic code for all cells. </li></ul><ul><li>kidney function, it acts as a buffer for acid-base balance in the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle contraction (heartbeet), supportive of proper nerve conduction. </li></ul>
  40. 42. Phosphorus –Uses <ul><li>Treat bone problems; It is used in the Treatment of osteomalacia, </li></ul><ul><li>Osteoporosis, </li></ul><ul><li>Rickets, </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing stress, </li></ul><ul><li>Arthritis, </li></ul><ul><li>Tooth and gum problems, </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer, phosphorus may be useful in the nutritional support of cancer patients. </li></ul>
  41. 43. Phosphorus – Sources <ul><li>Meats, fish, chicken, turkey, </li></ul><ul><li>Milk, cheese, and eggs, </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds and nuts also whole grains, brewer's yeast, and wheat germ and bran. </li></ul><ul><li>Fruits and vegetables. </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphorus absorption may be decreased by antacids, iron, aluminum, or magnesium. </li></ul><ul><li>Caffeine causes increased phosphorus excretion by the kidneys. </li></ul>
  42. 44. Phosphorus –Deficiency <ul><li>Rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. </li></ul><ul><li>Anorexia, weakness, weight loss, irritability, anxiety, stiff joints, bone pain, and bone fragility. </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased growth, poor bone and tooth development. </li></ul>
  43. 45. Phosphorus – Requirements <ul><li>The RDA for phosphorus is the same as that for calcium, 800-1200 mg. for adults. </li></ul>
  44. 46. Potassium - General <ul><li>Important to cellular and electrical function. </li></ul><ul><li>It is an &quot;electrolytes&quot; (the others are sodium and chloride), which means it carries a tiny electrical charge (potential). </li></ul><ul><li>Potassium and sodium are antagonistic. </li></ul>
  45. 47. Potassium – Sources <ul><li>Vegetables </li></ul><ul><li>Fruits </li></ul><ul><li>WholeGRAINS </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds and nuts </li></ul><ul><li>Fish AND meat </li></ul>
  46. 48. Potassium – Deficiency1 <ul><li>Increases acid levels in the body, </li></ul><ul><li>The liver cannot operate normally, particularly regarding transformation of glucose to glycogen. </li></ul><ul><li>` </li></ul>
  47. 49. Potassium – Deficiency 2 <ul><li>Connective tissue problems, </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue, muscle weakness, slow reflexes, </li></ul><ul><li>Dry skin or acne, </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous disorders, insomnia, slow or irregular heartbeat, </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of gastrointestinal tone, </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac disorders, </li></ul><ul><li>Elevated blood sugar, </li></ul><ul><li>Serious muscle weakness, bone fragility, central nervous system changes, decreased heart rate, and even death. </li></ul>
  48. 50. Potassium – Requirements <ul><li>At least 2-2.5 grams per day are needed. </li></ul>
  49. 51. Sodium – General <ul><li>Known as table salt- </li></ul><ul><li>Table salt, has a high sodium content. </li></ul>
  50. 52. <ul><li>Bodily fluids, </li></ul><ul><li>Ph. balance and blood pressure regulation, </li></ul><ul><li>Electrolyte for the normal functioning of the nerve system, </li></ul><ul><li>Retain water and prevent dehydration, </li></ul><ul><li>Antibacterial,as mouth wash to combat gum infections. </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium supplements may be required in: </li></ul><ul><li>Addison's disease, adrenal gland tumors, </li></ul><ul><li>kidney disease, </li></ul><ul><li>Low blood pressure, </li></ul><ul><li>For severe dehydration or by people who take diuretic drugs. </li></ul><ul><li>External use of sodium </li></ul><ul><li>Soaking in water from the Dead Sea helps in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis , psoriatic arthritis, and osteoarthritis of the knees. </li></ul><ul><li>Located in Israel, the Dead Sea is rich in other minerals such as magnesium , potassium,selenium and calcium . </li></ul><ul><li>Dead sea water have also been recommended as a remedy for sweaty feet. </li></ul>Sodium – Functions
  51. 53. Sodium – Requirements <ul><li>The minimum for children and adults ages 10 and over is 500 mg a day. </li></ul>
  52. 54. Sulfur – Functions <ul><li>Enzyme reactions and protein synthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Collagen. </li></ul><ul><li>keratin, for the maintenance of the skin, hair, and nails, helping to give strength, shape, and hardness to these protein tissues. </li></ul><ul><li>Insulin and heparin, an anticoagulant, biotin, coenzyme A, lipoic acid. </li></ul><ul><li>It helps the cells utilize oxygen, which aids brain function and all cell activity. </li></ul><ul><li>It helps to produce glutathione. </li></ul>
  53. 55. Sulfur – Sources <ul><li>Protein foods-meats, fish, poultry, eggs, milk, and legumes are all good sources. </li></ul><ul><li>Egg yolks are one of the better sources of sulfur. </li></ul>
  54. 56. Sulfur – Uses 1 <ul><li>Psoriasis with zinc, </li></ul><ul><li>Prblems of the skin or hair, </li></ul><ul><li>Joint problems may be helped by chondroitin sulfate. </li></ul><ul><li>Arthritis sufferers have been helped by bathing in waters that contain high amounts of sulfur. </li></ul><ul><li>Magnesium sulfate, as a laxative. </li></ul><ul><li>Taurine, another sulfur-containing amino acid, has been used in epilepsy treatment, usually along with zinc. </li></ul>
  55. 57. Sulfur – Uses 2 <ul><li>To prevent Oxidation of LDLs that cause atherosclerosis. </li></ul><ul><li>Glucosamine sulfate is Used to treat osteoarthritis. </li></ul>
  56. 58. Sulfur – Uses 3 <ul><li>Like glutathione, it can scavenge free radicals. </li></ul><ul><li>To reduce autoimmunity associated with radiation. </li></ul><ul><li>It helps to prevent fatty liver </li></ul>
  57. 59. Sulfur – Requirements <ul><li>Our needs are usually easily met through diet. </li></ul><ul><li>About 850 mg. Per day. </li></ul>
  58. 60. Microminerals – Chromium Function <ul><li>Metabolism of sugar and stabilizes blood sugar levels </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing Cholesterol & Triglyceride levels, </li></ul><ul><li>Helps transport amino acids to where the body needs them, </li></ul><ul><li>To control the appetite, </li></ul><ul><li>To prevent cancer and heart problems and becoming diabetic, </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolism of glucose, hence to produce energy, </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis of cholesterol, fats and protein, </li></ul><ul><li>To prevent continued elevations of blood sugar, which can lead to diabetes. </li></ul>
  59. 61. Microminerals – Chromium – Sources <ul><li>Brewer's yeast is likely the best available source of chromium. </li></ul><ul><li>Beef, liver, whole wheat, rye, fresh chilies, oysters, potatoes, wheat germ, green peppers, eggs, chicken, apples, butter, bananas, and spinach. </li></ul>
  60. 62. Microminerals – Chromium – Uses <ul><li>Treatment of Diabetes, </li></ul><ul><li>Lowering Cholesterol Levels, </li></ul><ul><li>Lowering Triglyceride Levels, </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing atherosclerosis in people, especially in those who show low chromium levels. </li></ul>
  61. 63. Microminerals – Chromium – Deficiency <ul><li>blood sugar metabolism, </li></ul><ul><li>anxiety and fatigue. </li></ul><ul><li>Abnormal cholesterol metabolism. </li></ul><ul><li>Atherosclerosis . </li></ul><ul><li>decreased growth in young people. </li></ul><ul><li>slower healing time after injuries or surgery. </li></ul><ul><li>Higher incidence of diabetes and arteriosclerosis. </li></ul>
  62. 64. Microminerals – Chromium – Requirements <ul><li>We need at least 100-200 mcg. in the daily diet. </li></ul><ul><li>Persons with type 1 or 2 diabetes may require 400 or 600 microg/d. </li></ul>
  64. 66. Microminerals – Selenium <ul><li>What is it??? </li></ul><ul><li>Selenium is a nonmetallic element with an atomic number of 34 and an atomic weight of 78.96. Its chemical symbol is Se. Selenium is most commonly found in nature in its inorganic form, sodium selenite. An organic form of selenium, selenomethionine, is found in foods AND WATER. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1989, selenium was reclassified as an essential micronutrient first recommended daily allowance (RDA) for it. </li></ul><ul><li>It is considered a minor mineral, or a trace element. </li></ul><ul><li>There is less than 1 mg of selenium in the average human body. </li></ul><ul><li>The selenium is concentrated in the liver, kidneys, and pancreas. </li></ul><ul><li>In males, selenium is also found in the testes and seminal vesicles. </li></ul><ul><li>It is now regarded as an essential one, needed in small daily amounts. </li></ul>
  65. 67. Microminerals – Selenium - Antioxidant <ul><li>Selenium is a strong antioxidant. </li></ul><ul><li>It protects cell membranes form being destroyed by free radicals. </li></ul><ul><li>Free radicals initiate chain reactions that destroy cell structures. </li></ul><ul><li>Like other antioxidants , selenium scavenges or cleans up these highly reactive radicals and changes them into inactive, less harmful compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, it can help to prevent cancer , </li></ul><ul><li>Premature aging , </li></ul><ul><li>Heart disease, </li></ul><ul><li>Autoimmune diseases, </li></ul><ul><li>Arthritis, cataracts , </li></ul><ul><li>Alzheimer's disease , </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetes. Selenium and vitamin E work together synergistically. </li></ul>
  66. 68. The life of a sad cell Oxidative stress Free radicals Heavy metals Sun radiation Lipid peroxidation DNA
  68. 70. Microminerals – Selenium – Functions 1 <ul><li>The main role as an antioxidant in the enzyme selenium-glutathione peroxidase. </li></ul><ul><li>That enzyme helps to prevent cellular degeneration from the common peroxidase free radicals. </li></ul><ul><li>GP-X has been shown to prevent chromosome damage in tissue cultures. </li></ul><ul><li>Selenium in the form of selenocysteine prevents or slows the biochemical aging process of tissue degeneration and hardening. </li></ul><ul><li>The antioxidant effect may also benefit the cardiovascular system and protect against cancer. </li></ul>
  69. 71. Microminerals – Selenium – Functions 2 <ul><li>Selenium also appears to work as an anti-inflammatory agent in certain disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>Selenium also appears to help stimulate antibody formation in response to vaccines. </li></ul><ul><li>Selenium is thought to offer protection against cardiovascular disease. </li></ul>
  70. 72. Microminerals – Selenium unctions 3 <ul><li>Selenium is also being found to have an anticarcinogenic effect. </li></ul><ul><li>Good selenium levels correlate with low cancer rates and low levels with increased cancer rates. </li></ul><ul><li>Selenium decreases cell division and helps cell repair. </li></ul>
  71. 73. Microminerals – Selenium – Functions 4 <ul><li>Selenium protects us from the toxic effects of heavy metals. </li></ul><ul><li>People with adequate selenium intake have fewer adverse effects from cigarette smoking, </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol, </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidized fats, </li></ul><ul><li>Mercury and cadmium. </li></ul><ul><li>Selenium may also aid in protein synthesis, growth and development, and fertility, especially in the male. </li></ul><ul><li>It has been shown to improve sperm production and motility. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, selenium may prevent male infertility. </li></ul>
  72. 74. Microminerals – Selenium – Sources and facts <ul><li>Soil levels of selenium vary greatly from state to state. </li></ul><ul><li>Selenium in foods is lost during processing. </li></ul><ul><li>Good sources of selenium include brewer's yeast, wheat germ , wheat bran, kelp (seaweed), shellfish, Brazil nuts, barley, and oats. Onions, garlic , mushrooms, broccoli, and Swiss chard may contain high amounts of selenium if they are grown in selenium-rich soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Selenium is rare to be presented in drinking water . </li></ul><ul><li>Nursing mothers should note that human milk is much richer in selenium than cow's milk. </li></ul><ul><li>About 60% of dietary selenium is absorbed as food passes through the intestines. </li></ul><ul><li>Selenium leaves the body in the urine and feces; males also lose some selenium through ejaculation of sperm. </li></ul>
  73. 75. Microminerals – Selenium – Uses 1 <ul><li>Naturopaths use selenium supplements to treat </li></ul><ul><li>Asthma , </li></ul><ul><li>A cne , </li></ul><ul><li>T endinitis , </li></ul><ul><li>I nfertility problems in men, </li></ul><ul><li>Post-menopausal disorders in women. </li></ul>
  74. 76. Microminerals – Selenium – Uses 2 <ul><li>Dermatology </li></ul><ul><li>Selenium has been used since the 1960s in dandruff shampoos. </li></ul><ul><li>Folliculitis </li></ul><ul><li>Tinea versicolor, </li></ul><ul><li>Mild infection of the skin, </li></ul><ul><li>Fungus Pityrosporum orbiculare. </li></ul>
  75. 77. Microminerals – Selenium – Uses 3 <ul><li>Anti – inflamatory </li></ul><ul><li>To treat arthritis and some autoimmune problems, such as lupus erythematosus or vasculitis. </li></ul>
  76. 78. Microminerals – Selenium – Uses 4 <ul><li>Cardiovascular diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>Heart attacks and strokes treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>selenium can help prevent atherosclerosis (narrowing and hardening of the arteries. </li></ul><ul><li>It is binding the free radicals that damage the tissues lining in the arteries. Other studies indicate that selenium reduces the symptoms of angina pectoris. </li></ul>
  77. 79. Microminerals – Selenium – Uses 5 <ul><li>Cataracts </li></ul><ul><li>Cataracts eyes contains only one-sixth as much selenium as normal lens tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>The healthy lens requires adequate levels of enzyme glutathione peroxidase. </li></ul><ul><li>Glutathione peroxidase in the human eye is dependent on selenium, which suggests that a selenium deficiency speeds up the progression of cataracts. </li></ul>
  78. 80. Microminerals – Selenium – Uses 6 <ul><li>Cancer treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>Low dietary levels of selenium have been associated with an increased incidence of cancer . </li></ul><ul><li>Cancers of the respiratory system and the gastrointestinal tract seem to be especially sensitive to the level of selenium in the body. </li></ul><ul><li>In a recent study, patients with histories of skin cancer were given 200 mcg.of selenium per day which </li></ul><ul><li>lowered the rate of mortality for all the patients. </li></ul><ul><li>Selenium protects against cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>Some researchers believe that selenium may prevent mutations or decrease the rate of cell division. </li></ul>
  79. 81. Microminerals – Selenium – Uses 7 <ul><li>Periodontal disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Selenium appears to speed up the healing of fragile gum tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>Flu (reducing morbidity and mortality. </li></ul><ul><li>(50-100 mcg/day, less for children) </li></ul>
  80. 82. Microminerals – Selenium – Uses 8 <ul><li>Rheumatoid arthritis </li></ul><ul><li>Autoimmune diseases, especially lupus and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) </li></ul><ul><li>Patients suffering from RA have low selenium levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Production of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, which reduces the production of inflammatory substances in the body (prostaglandins and leukotrienes) </li></ul>
  81. 83. Microminerals – Selenium – Uses 9 <ul><li>Menopausal symptoms. </li></ul><ul><li>It is certainly possible that selenium can increase sexual potency and fertility by improving sperm production and motility and by protecting against oxidative damage in the testes and related organs. </li></ul>
  82. 84. Microminerals – Selenium – Requirements <ul><li>Between 100-200 mcg. per day for adults and about 30-150 mcg. per day for children, depending on age. </li></ul><ul><li>Men may need more selenium, especially when sexually active. </li></ul><ul><li>The generally higher levels for males are related to the importance of selenium in producing vigorous sperm. </li></ul>
  83. 85. Selenium – Bioavailability <ul><li>The bioavailability of selenium is complicated. </li></ul><ul><li>The major form of selenium in foods is selenomethionine. </li></ul><ul><li>Selenomethionine is well absorbed (90%) it is found in ein bokek spring water near the dead sea in israel. </li></ul><ul><li>This type of selenium functions as the best available form known in The world. </li></ul>
  84. 86. Chlorine- General <ul><li>It exists primarily as the chloride anion, </li></ul><ul><li>It joins with cations such as sodium to make salt (sodium chloride) and with hydrogen to make stomach acid (hydrochloric acid). </li></ul>
  85. 87. Chlorine Functions <ul><li>It helps generate the osmotic pressure of body fluids. </li></ul><ul><li>To maintain the body's acid-base balance . </li></ul><ul><li>Allowing the liver to clear waste products. </li></ul>
  86. 88. Chlorine – Sources <ul><li>Salt, vegetables, Seaweeds (such as dulse and kelp), olives, rye, lettuce, tomatoes, and celery. </li></ul><ul><li>Good chloride-containing foods. Potassium chloride (KCl) is also found in foods or as the &quot;salt substitute.&quot; </li></ul>
  87. 89. Chlorine - Deficiency <ul><li>metabolic alkalosis (body fluids becoming too alkaline) </li></ul><ul><li>low fluid volume </li></ul><ul><li>urinary potassium loss. This can cause further problems in acid-base balance. </li></ul>
  88. 90. Chlorine – Requirements <ul><li>Infants probably need about 0.5-1 gram daily. </li></ul><ul><li>Adults needs are in the range of 1.7-5 grams daily. </li></ul>
  89. 91. Microminerals – Copper Function <ul><li>I ron absorption and transport. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a cofactor for approximately 50 different enzymes. These enzymes need copper to function properly. </li></ul><ul><li>To make hemoglobin. </li></ul><ul><li>To build elastin and collagen,for bones and connective tissues. </li></ul><ul><li>To protect the bones and joints against degeneration and osteoporosis . </li></ul><ul><li>For melanin production. People with copper deficiency may have pale skin and hair. </li></ul>
  90. 92. Microminerals – Copper, Function <ul><li>Immune system. </li></ul><ul><li>Wound healing. </li></ul><ul><li>Attacks free radicals. </li></ul><ul><li>Superoxide dismutase (SOD). </li></ul><ul><li>Produce energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Break down fats in fat tissue to produce much needed energy. </li></ul><ul><li>For normal functioning of insulin. </li></ul><ul><li>Needed for normal functioning of the cardiovascular system. </li></ul><ul><li>The nervous system, including the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Copper protects nerve fiber by maintaining myelin, the insulating sheath that surrounds nerve cells. It also aids the transmission of nerve signals in the brains. </li></ul>
  91. 93. Microminerals – Copper, Sources <ul><li>whole grains, wheat; shellfish, shrimp ,liver and other organ meats; </li></ul><ul><li>Dried peas and beans; and nuts, such as Brazil nuts, almonds, hazelnuts, walnuts, and pecans. </li></ul><ul><li>Oysters, </li></ul><ul><li>Soybeans, </li></ul><ul><li>Fruits, such as prunes; cocoa, black pepper, and yeast are also sources. </li></ul><ul><li>Copper can come from water pipes and cookware. </li></ul>
  92. 94. Microminerals – Copper – Antioxidant <ul><li>Copper is a strong antioxidant. It works together with an antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD), to protect cell membranes form being destroyed by free radicals. </li></ul><ul><li>Free radicals are any molecules that are missing one electron . Because this is an unbalanced and unstable state, a radical is desperately finding ways to complete its pair. Therefore , it reacts to any nearby molecules to either steal an electron or give away the unpaired one . In the process, free radicals initiate chain reactions that destroy cell structures. Like other antioxidants , copper scavenges or cleans up these highly reactive radicals and changes them into inactive, less harmful compounds. Therefore, it can help prevent cancer and many other degenerative diseases or conditions such as premature aging , heart disease, autoimmune diseases, arthritis, cataracts , Alzheimer's disease , or diabetes. </li></ul>
  93. 95. Microminerals – Copper – Uses <ul><li>Copper play a role in preventing osteoporosis . </li></ul><ul><li>Copper can be even effective in increasing bone density and preventing osteoporosis if it is used in combination with calcium and two other trace minerals, zinc and manganese . </li></ul><ul><li>It is possibly effective in reducing inflammatory response to such conditions as rheumatoid arthritis . </li></ul>
  94. 96. Microminerals – Copper – Deficiency 1 <ul><li>with iron deficiency, anemia . Fatigue , paleness , skin sores , and edema may appear with this, as may slowed growth, hair loss, anorexia, diarrhea , and dermatitis . </li></ul><ul><li>Low copper levels may also affect collagen formation . </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced thyroid function , </li></ul><ul><li>weakened i mmunity , </li></ul><ul><li>cardiovascular disease, </li></ul><ul><li>increased cholesterol , </li></ul><ul><li>bone demineralization , </li></ul><ul><li>poor nerve conductivity , </li></ul><ul><li>increased infection rate , </li></ul>
  95. 97. Microminerals – Copper – Deficiency 2 <ul><ul><li>anemia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>malnourished infants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prominently dilated veins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pale hair or skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>poorly formed bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nervous system disorders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>high cholesterol levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>heart disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>loss of taste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increased susceptibility to infections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>infertility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>birth defects </li></ul></ul>
  96. 98. Microminerals – Copper – Requirements <ul><li>The RDA for copper in adults is 2 mg </li></ul>
  97. 99. Microminerals – Iodine – Function <ul><li>Thyroid hormones and thyroid function. </li></ul><ul><li>Basal metabolic rate (BMR)-that is, the body's use of energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Cell respiration and the production of energy as ATP and further increases oxygen consumption and general metabolism. </li></ul><ul><li>Normal growth and development, protein synthesis, and energy metabolism. </li></ul><ul><li>Nerve and bone formation, </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction, </li></ul><ul><li>The condition of the skin, </li></ul><ul><li>Hair, </li></ul><ul><li>Nails, </li></ul><ul><li>Teeth, </li></ul><ul><li>Our speech and mental state are all influenced by thyroid as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Thyroid and, thus, iodine also affect the conversion of carotene to vitamin A and carbohydrate absorption. </li></ul><ul><li>Iodine produces the hormones T3 and T4. </li></ul>
  98. 100. Microminerals – Iodine – Sources <ul><li>Seafood and sea vegetables: canned sardines, canned tuna, clams, cod, haddock, halibut, herring, lobster, oyster, perch, salmon, sea bass, and shrimp. Dulse, kelp , and seaweed are also sources of dietary iodine. </li></ul><ul><li>beef , beef liver, butter, cheddar cheese, cottage cheese, cream, eggs, lamb, milk, and pork. Some foods such as breads may contain iodine additives. </li></ul><ul><li>Another source of dietary iodine is iodized salt </li></ul>
  99. 101. Microminerals – Iodine – Uses <ul><li>Iodine may be used to treat goiter (an enlargement of the Thyroid gland), </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms of hypothyroidism (diminished production of thyroid hormone), </li></ul><ul><li>hyperthyroidism (increased production of the thyroid gland). </li></ul><ul><li>It may also be used as an expectorant in cough medications. </li></ul><ul><li>Applications of iodine to conditions including arteriosclerosis, </li></ul><ul><li>Iodine tinctures (dilute mixtures of alcohol and iodine) or Betadyne are used as antiseptics to kill bacteria in skin cuts. </li></ul><ul><li>Some research has shown that oral iodine supplements have antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects. </li></ul><ul><li>Iodine is used for a variety of medical testing. </li></ul><ul><li>it may be used in x-raying the gallbladder or kidneys or in cardiac imaging. </li></ul><ul><li>It is used as a diagnostic tool to examine the thyroid gland's output. A common test measures thyroid radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU). Trace amounts of radioactive iodine (123I or 131 I) are used to test thyroid function. </li></ul>
  100. 102. Microminerals – Iodine – Requirements <ul><li>RDA for Iodine (in mcg.) 50-200 per day </li></ul>
  101. 103. Microminerals – Iodine – Deficiency 1 <ul><li>Brain damage and mental retardation stunted growth) </li></ul><ul><li>Problems in movement, speech , and hearing . </li></ul><ul><li>A pregnant woman with an iodine deficiency risks miscarriage , </li></ul><ul><li>Mental retardation of the baby . </li></ul><ul><li>1.6 billion people worldwide at risk for IDD s , and 50 million children suffering from some degree of IDD . </li></ul>
  102. 104. Microminerals – Iodine – Deficiency 2 <ul><li>Too little iodine intake can result in cold feet, </li></ul><ul><li>fatigue , </li></ul><ul><li>insomnia , </li></ul><ul><li>problems with skin , </li></ul><ul><li>nails and hair , </li></ul><ul><li>weight gain , </li></ul><ul><li>Goiter can result from iodine deficiency, </li></ul>