Theories of Communication


Published on

Published in: Technology, Spiritual
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • My five favorite theories are based in theories that are observed, experience and contain disapproving judgments. (empirical and critical)Although I wrote research paper on the Rhetoric theory, my favorite of all theories, in this presentation only summaries of each theory and how they interrelate with my world-view will be examined.Standpoint Theory – is deemed to be both empirical and critical. As will be described in following slide(s).Muted Group Theory – rests on three assumptions and five hypotheses about male/female language and interactions. I deem this theory to be empirical, interpretive and critical. Groupthink – is deemed empirical and interpretive as it speaks to the symptoms of Groupthink (overestimation, closed mindedness, and pressure toward uniformity) and how they lead to defective decisions rather than valued resolve of dilemmas.Face-Negotiation Theory- involves the interpretation of the dynamics of intercultural communication.Rhetoric Theory – I deemed mostly empirical and critical in that it speaks to all methods of the act of persuasion, which also should be used in conjunction with rhetorical proofs like logical, emotional and ethical to appeal to the audience’s sensitivities. As you advance through each slide a comprehensive meaning of each theory will unfold along with my world-view that will become apparent by the end of the presentation.
  • *There is a strong similarity between Standpoint and Muted Group theories. As they both examine/explain differing points of view, language type, experiences of genders and racial/ethnic groups. These inferences in said theory are made through observations and empirical interpretations.
  • Hartsock Harding in “Feminist” notes that “strong objectivity” that examines our own beliefs and values should be looked in analyzing how they impact research questions, interests and practices.**According to Harding, biases should be acknowledged in an effort to produce less partial and distortion in the world-view.
  • The theory is said to be critical because it speaks to power and the influence of a particular group (white men) over language, expression of ideas and creation.It is said the the Muted Group theory was first proposed by Edwin Ardener to explain why certain groups in society are not heard. I decided to use the gender perspective, which demonstrates the power play between men and women because women are perceived to be less powerful. Baer, J. (1998). Muted Group Theory by Cheris Kramarae.
  • According to the theory, since men have preserved the right to create language they are the ones to benefit most by the way it is constructed.From my perspective, this theory studies knowledge and knowing (epistemology) and as such is mostly critical in comparison to empirical and interpretive. The criticalness of the theory is demonstrated in many examples:Women make approximately 75 cents for every male made $1 to perform equal tasks.Men sustain their power, to an extent, by suppressing women’s positions on issues within the organization.Of the Fortune 500 company heads female CEOs represent about 3%In 2009, women held 15.2% of Fortune 500 board seatsIn 2009 and 2010, 12% of Fortune 500 companies had no women serving on their boards. (USA Today, 2011)
  • The above noted are explanation are by Warner & Turner of Groupthink (242-243) who also argues a point that groups are usually better problem solvers than solitary individuals.Cohesion differs from one group to another and can produce varying results (245).
  • Groupthink is said to be in existence for 40 years with 24 models and experimental studies limited to a few of those models. When symptoms are present it is highly probable that groupthink has occurred.
  • Groupthink, from my perspective, is epistemology in that it studies knowledge as it relates to methods of human behavior. ***Groupthink is said to have occurred when decisions are made against an individual’s better judgment.Some suggestion that may prevent groupthink:An open climate of giving and accepting criticism should be encouragedLeaders should refrain from stating personal preferences and should foster open inquiry.Bring in outside experts from time to time to challenge views.There should be a few devil’s advocates during every group meeting.Reconsider the decision before going public
  • First conceived by Stella Ting-Toomey (1985), was born from frustration with interpersonal conflict communication theories of the era.
  • Face is the image of one’s self that people display during conversations with others. According to this theory it is maintained, lost or strengthened (West & Turner, 450).A model of face-negotiation that I ascribe most to is that of ‘Approbation Facework’ where there is more focus on the positive aspects of another than the negative aspects (452). It reminds me of the song lyrics, ‘Ac-cent-Tchu-ate the positive’ by Harold Arlen and Johnny Mercer. In short it speaks to putting all differences aside by focusing on the positive to build towards resolution.
  • I simply understand Rhetoric in this way it uses all available means of language to make an argument more effective. The tools of rhetoric known as logos ethos, and pathos help to make your point. Further I believe that it is both an art and a gift and all persons taught the concepts of rhetoric may not be successful in effective persuasion. Hence the need for professional speech writers or writers.
  • In pulling it all together it is noted that some theories had similarities.Standpoint and Muted Group theories had similarities on how different experiences/situations influences relationshipsThese theories are also noted to be similar in how they focus on dissimilar groups communications namely male/femaleGroupthink and Face negotiation are similar when noting how factors in both theories lend to probable outcomes. Additionally, the core concept of Groupthink is to save the face of the group where the concept of Face negotiation, depending on the culture, is to save face of individual or the face of the group.
  • The theories selected are closely aligned with my valued beliefs and my method of learning. Adverse or disapproving judgments do not matter in as much as experience or observed occurring. However if the an empirical matter is critical it is accepted based on the logical proofs within context. Interpretive theories are valued as being an expansion of knowledge spread through models, concepts, beliefs, experiences, understanding, etc. for one and all to glean from and pass down the line.
  • The theories selected are closely aligned with my valued beliefs and my method of learning. Adverse or disapproving judgments do not matter in as much as experience or observed occurring. However if the an empirical matter is critical it is accepted based on the logical proofs within context. Interpretive theories are valued as being an expansion of knowledge spread through models, concepts, beliefs, experiences, understanding, etc. for one and all to glean from and pass down the line.
  • Theories of Communication

    1. 1. Deborah AdamsTheories of CommunicationMutedGroup
    2. 2. Disciplines that studies principles of transmiting informationIntroductionGroupthinkCohesive groups mayfail to consideralternatives.Muted Group TheoryLanguage serves certaingroups better than others.StandpointTheoryPeople occupydifferent places insocial hierarchy.Face-NegotiationVaious cultures manageconflict/negotiationdifferently.RhetoricBased on means ofpersuasion.
    3. 3. Women’s and Men’s Standpoint differsStandpoint Theory – People are situated in specific social standpointsWhat does it mean?Because individuals view thingsfrom particular vantagepoints, each vantage point onlyprovides a partial understandingof the social whole.It’s about the differentways that peopleexperience situationsQuestions thenotion ofobjectivityFocuses on livedexperiencesLike other theoriesproposes thatdifferences are to beembraced rather thanconformities.People view socialsituations fromparticular vantagepoints
    4. 4. Women’s and Men’s Standpoint differsStandpoint Theory – People are situated in specific social standpointsWhere did it come from?Theory grew from notions aboutpower and power in societyPeople’s lives aresources of“expertise”Members ofmarginalized groupshave experiencesdifferent from thoseof mainstream group
    5. 5. Language serves men better than womenMuted Group Theory – Why some are better served than othersThe barriersWhite men are named clearly inlanguage, whereas theexperiences of women are not.A critical theoryconcerned with howpower is used againstpeople.Language is a culturebound resulting in male-bias language.Women are mutedgroup, left out ofthe creation ofwords.Men create words andmeaning for culture.Women are left withoutmeans to express whatis unique to them.
    6. 6. Language serves men better than womenMuted Group Theory – Why some are better served than othersThe Assumptions:• Men/Women have differentworld views• These different experiencesresults in the performance ofdifferent societial tasksMen enact powerpolitically.Women must convert theiruniqueideas, experiences, andmeanings into malelanguage.Women understandmen’s meaning, but mendon’t understandwomen’s meaning.Women have a moredifficult time expressingthemselves.Women create words toprovide special andunique meanings towomen.
    7. 7. Muted Group Theory – Why some are better served than others”Women perceive the worlddifferently from men because ofwomen’s and men’s differentexperience and activities rooted inthe division of labor”(Kramarae, 1981).Muted Group Theory Video, 2010Male titles are not determinedby his relationship, incomparison a woman’s titles(Mrs. and Miss) are reflectiveof relationship status.
    8. 8. S a unFail to consider alternativesGroupthink – Share dissimilar ideasPhenomenon•Conditions in groups promotecohesiveness•Problem solving in groups is aunified process•Groups and group decisionmaking are complexCohesiveness is thefoundation of groupswhich may hinderalternative viewpointsWhen striving to ‘get along’in groups, there is not apredisposition to disrupt byoffering ‘out the box’suggestionsProblem –solving and task-oriented groups are complexThe similarity ofcharacteristics in groupmembers can fosterGroupthink
    9. 9. S a unFail to consider alternativesGroupthink – Share dissimilar ideasSymptoms•Overestimation•Closed-mindedness•Uniformity Pressures•Out-Group Stereotypes•Inherent Morality BeliefBehaviors suggesting thegroup is more than it is.Group ignores differencesin people and warningsabout poor group decisionsMembers go along to get alongInfluence on memberswho provide thoughtscontrary to the group’s
    10. 10. S a unGroupthink VideoGroupthink – Share dissimilar ideasDefinedA mode of thinking people engage inwhen they are deeply involved in acohesive group, the strive forunanimity overrides the realisticappraise of alternative actions (Janis1982)“Groups bring about theworst as well as thebest” (Janis, 1982)Variables ofgroupthink: cohesion,insulation, andimpartial leadership
    11. 11. Face-Negotiation Theory- Manage conflict differentlyConcerns & Conflict NegotiationSaving FaceIntercultural communicationsare dynamicIndividualistic culture, and peoplefrom collectivistic cultures usedifferent ways to resolve conflict.What seems right and naturalto one culture may seeminappropriate to members ofanother.Seen as conflictresolution betweencultures with differingstyles.Different viewpoints ofmembers of collectivistand individualisticcultures.
    12. 12. Face-Negotiation Theory- Manage conflict differentlyConcerns & Conflict NegotiationCriticism• Some collectivistic culturesvalue egalitarianism• Theory ignored or viewedas ineffectiveCollectivist cultures emphasizecollective and avoid things thatmight damage the group.To collectivist savinggroup’s face is primary. The theory has beencriticized since itsintroductionIndividualisticcultures emphasizeindividual membersthe face of group issecondary.
    13. 13. Rhetoric Theory – Blast from the PastRhetoric VideoAristotle•Rhetoric was a teachable skill•Established in Athens•Rhetoric could make theweaker argument the strongerAssumptions of Rhetoric:1. Consider the audience2. Use proofs in thepresentationDefined by Aristotle asthe available means ofpersuasionDefined by Farrellasproductive, constitutive andinventional art.Brings theaudience directlyinto the pictureas co-participant
    14. 14. World-viewThe DynamicsGenderDifferencesOntologyEpistemologyEmpiricalInterpretiveCritical
    15. 15. CommunciationfostersunderstandingPerspectives onthe five-favoritesare that thesetheories arealigned with myvalue ofquantiativemeasures.ConclusionWord-viewSystematicempirical researchas related to thelearning andteaching ofknowledge &knowing is, in part,my world-view.
    16. 16. CommunciationfostersunderstandingConclusion cont‘dWord-viewPerspectives on the five-favorites are that thesetheories are aligned withmy value of quantitativemeasures.Systematic empiricalresearch as related to thelearning and teaching ofknowledge & knowing is, inpart, my world-view.
    17. 17. CommunciationfostersunderstandingConclusion cont‘dWord-viewThe theories selected areclosely aligned with my valuedbeliefs and valued technique oflearning. Adverse ordisapproving judgments do notmatter in as much asexperience or observations.If an empirical matter is critical, it isaccepted based on the logical proofswithin context.Interpretive theories are valued asbeing an expansion of knowledgespread through models, concepts,beliefs, experiences, understanding,etc. for one and all to glean fromand pass down the line.
    18. 18. Works CitedCIM601 18Farrell, Thomas. Rhetoric in History as Theory and Praxis: A Blast from the Past. University Park,PA: Philosophy and Rhetoric, Vol. 41, No. 4 2008. Print.Turner, Lynn, et al. Introducing Communication Theory: Analysis and Application. McGraw-Hill: New York, 2010. Print.Barnett, B. (2009). From Theory to Classroom: Some Practical Applications of Standpoint Theory.Feminist Teacher. Muse.jhu.eduBaer, J. (1998, Spring). Muted Group Theory by Cheris Kramarae. University of Colorado at Boulder.Rose, J. (n.d.). Diverse Perspectives on the Groupthink Theory – A Literary Review. Regent University.(2013). Face Negotiation Theory. Communication Studies.