Unity and Conformity


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Unity and Conformity

  1. 1. Unity and Conformity Qin Dynasty (256-202 B.C.E) Han Dynasty (206-220 C.E.) Buddhism Sui Dynasty (589-618 C.E.) Text book pages 86-92
  2. 2. Qin Dynasty (256-202 B.C.E)• Qin prince defeated last Zhou king- 256 B.C.E.• Prince called himselfShi Huangdi (means 1st emperor) • Ended feudal government too much power to nobles • Established new government that lasted until 1911
  3. 3. Shi Huangdi
  4. 4. Qin Dynasty• Shi Huangdi • Created strong, central government • Created 36 districts • official appointed for each based on loyalty to Shi Huangdi • Inspectors toured districts
  5. 5. Nobles and Peasants• Nobles: • Nobles forced to live in the capital• Peasants • land divided among peasants • Equal land to support family and pay taxes • Public labour & serve in army (still)
  6. 6. Qui Accomplishments• Shi Huangdi fought wars to expand China• Improved economy & defenses • Built more roads • Standardized system of money, weights, and measures easier trade • Standardized writing characters easier communication • Constructed the Great Wall linked earlier walls together project lasted 2000 years
  7. 7. Shi Huangdi• Despite accomplishments, Shi Huangdi was not a popular emperor • Legalist • Nobles resented losing power and land • Peasants resented public work projects inhumane conditions• Disagreed with Confucianism thought it would weaken the newly established government • Thousands of classis books burned • Scholars and families killed
  8. 8. Shi Huangdi• Suspicious man • Feared for his life • Moved frequently • Executed his son • Ordered servants to search for life-preserving potions• 210 B.C.E- Shi Huangdi died • Buried in a great tomb with terra cotta warriors to guard his body • After the death, people revolted against Qin • Generals fought each other, until eventually the Han Dynasty was founded
  9. 9. Han Dynasty (206- 220 C.E)• Gaozu- 1st Han emperor • Established capital at Chang’an • Kept centralized Qin system • Eased Qin harsh Legalist policies • Confucian scholars hired as advisors to the emperor • Some Legalist ideas maintained • Government opposition not allowed • Laws remained strict
  10. 10. Han Officials• Officials could win positions through merit, not birth • Had to pass difficult exams • Had to show appreciation for art and literature• Sima Qian- government official • Wrote first major Chinese history
  11. 11. China Expands• Han waged military campaigns to enlarge the empire • Expanded in the south • Grew to include Manchuria and Korea • Expanded far into central Asia• Expansion into central Asia • Contact with India, Middle East, Africa, and Europe • Silk Road constucted • Trade route linked China with distant lands
  12. 12. How do you think the Silk Road affected China?
  13. 13. Chinese Economy• Silk Road- economy boomed • Chinese exports: mainly silk increased artisans and merchants • Chinese imports: raw materials• Han emperors continued public works • Roads, canals, irrigation, flood-control, granaries
  14. 14. Agriculture• Farmers • Lived in small villages near farms • Market town close by to sell and buy products • Still owed taxes to labour government and participated in public works & army
  15. 15. Family• Several generations lived together• Elder male (grandfather)- head of family • Powerful choose children’s spouses and career path • Respected without question• asdf
  16. 16. Inventions and Art• Inventions • Paper • Breast-strap harnesses • stirrups • Rudder • compass• Art • Dishes and sculptures out of bronze, gold, and silver
  17. 17. Han- Mandate of Heaven Lost• Han lost the Mandate of Heaven • Later emperors were less capable • Natural disasters • some government factions undermined government work• Rebellions broke out • Han Dynasty overthrown • Replaced by “Period of Chaos (220- 589 C.E.) • China fragmented into small kingdoms that competed in trying to form a new dynasty
  18. 18. Buddhism• What is Buddhism? • Does not include worship of god(s) • Based on teachings of Siddartha (Indian prince)• Siddartha • Gave up wealth & family • Goal: solve misery of the world • Received enlightenment became Buddha
  19. 19. Buddhism- Beliefs• Suffering existed when people were too involved in the physical world• Focus mind to find higher truths • monastery • meditation• Reincarnations • Soul reborn until it finds enlightenment • Enlightenment= seeing the light of truth
  20. 20. Buddhism in China• Spread quickly in China• Wealthy & influential people• Appealing faith during political unrest
  21. 21. Sui Dynasty (589-618 C.E)• After Han- numerous small kingdoms• 589- kingdom official tried to reunite China defeated other kingdoms• Wendi (emperor)- founded Sui Dynasty• Short, but accomplished a lot
  22. 22. Sui Dynasty- Accomplishments• Reunited China• Rebuilt sections of the Great Wall• Revived examination system to elect government officials• ***Constructed the Grand Canal able to ship food from Chang Jiang region north• Chang’an (capital)- became largest city in the world
  23. 23. Sui Rule• Cruel • Tried to do too much, too soon • Harsh working conditions• People rebelled Tang Dynasty founded