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Rabindrik psychotherapy


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This slide gives you insight about uses of Rabindranath Tagore's work in formulation therapeautic procedures.

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Rabindrik psychotherapy

  1. 1. RABINDRIK PSYCHOTHERAPY Dr. D. Dutta Roy, Ph.D. (Psy.) Psychology Research Unit INDIAN STATISTICAL INSTITUTE Kolkata – 700 108 Venue: MIND INDIA, Guwahati, Assam Date: 1. 10.2011
  2. 2. What is Psychotherapy? <ul><li>The term psychotherapy refers to the treatment of psychological disorders through the use of psychological methods rather than physical means like drugs or surgery. </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal communication between therapist and client is the most significant element of psychotherapy. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be carried out individually or in groups. </li></ul><ul><li>It is concerned with the evaluation of problems and possible solutions as well as with the encouragement of more adaptive ways of thinking and behaving. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Models of Psychotherapy MODELS APPROACHES PSYCHODYNAMIC Unconscious, Pre and Conscious ID,EGO and Superego Defense mechanisms Free association Interpreting unconscious Transference and Countertransference BEHAVIOUR THERAPY   Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Reinforcement Response modification EXISTENTIAL   The self concept Ideal and real self discrepancy Need hierarchy Empathy and unconditioned positive regard GESTALT   Figure-ground perception Language analysis Empty chair techniques RATIONAL EMOTIVE THERAPY   Rational and Irrational thinking The ABC model TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS   Parent, Adult and Child Ego states Transactional analysis RABINDRIK PSYCHOTHERAPY   Dynamics of consciousness layers The great journey Layer analysis   Self-awakening
  4. 4. RABINDRIK PSYCHOTHERAPY <ul><li>Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>What is Rabindrik Psychotherapy ? How does it differ from other therapies ? </li></ul><ul><li>What is postulate ? Describe some therapeautic postulates of Rabindrik psychotherapy ? </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is Rabindrik Psychotherapy? <ul><li>Rabindrik psychotherapy refers to the way of self-awakening through the use of therapeautic postulates extracted from the literary works of Rabindranath Tagore. It can be used for treatment of psychological disorders. Postulate refers to theoretical assumption. Theory is composed of postulate. </li></ul><ul><li>Here, therapist acts as facilitator. Therapist creates the environment through performing arts of Tagore that leads client to understand own conflict and its management. </li></ul><ul><li>Both verbal and non-verbal communication between therapist and the client are followed. </li></ul><ul><li>Therapist must have adequate knowledge about therapeautic postulates extracted from the literary works of Rabindranath Tagore. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Similarities and dissimilarities with other psychotherapies <ul><li>Other Psychotherapies </li></ul><ul><li>All psychotherapies aim at treatment of psychological disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>Here, mind is divided into three layers as unconscious, pre and conscious. </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of unconscious mind is assumed </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal communication between therapist and client is the most significant element of psychotherapy. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be carried out individually or in groups. </li></ul><ul><li>It is concerned with the evaluation of problems and possible solutions as well as with the encouragement of more adaptive ways of thinking and behaving. </li></ul><ul><li>Rabindrik Psychothearpy </li></ul><ul><li>Rabindrik psychotherapy does not accept labeling one as suffering from psychological disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>Mind is divided into three layers of consciousness as Murta, Raaga and Saraswat. </li></ul><ul><li>Therapist can follow both verbal and non verbal communication. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be carried out individually or in groups. </li></ul><ul><li>It is concerned with self-evaluation and possible solutions to overcome the conflict of layer dynamics. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Therapeautic postulates <ul><li>Do not label rather understand other’s consciousness. </li></ul><ul><li>Consciousness is free floating. Look at it as detached being. </li></ul><ul><li>Make the consciousness unbounded and experience it. </li></ul><ul><li>Experience of consciousness is like a journey from incomplete to complete across its layers– Murta, Raaga and Saraswat. </li></ul><ul><li>Man is the pursuer of completeness and newness. </li></ul><ul><li>Searching newness makes man incomplete that acts as the drive to find out completeness. Incomplete to complete is a cycling process. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Therapeutic assessment <ul><li>In Rabindrik psychotherapy, therapeutic assessment is important to find out one’s position across three layers of consciousness. </li></ul><ul><li>Consciousness is the immediate awareness of thoughts, sensations, memories, and the world around us. Experience of consciousness varies from moment to moment. Just like a river, it is changing. </li></ul><ul><li>Individual’s behaviour is guided by his or her mental state position and its flow at the different layers of consciousness. </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding about one’s state at the different layers of consciousness and its flowing pattern is prelude of Rabindrik psychotherapy. This helps the therapist in comprehending individual’s characteristics, reasons for present behaviour and in predicting one’s future psychological functioning or behaviour. </li></ul>These three layers are Murta, Raaga and Saraswat. When our mental state lies at the layer of murta, we are aware of morphology or the structural properties of the object in our surroundings. When our mental state lies at the layer of raaga, we associate morphology of the object with feeling of pleasantness or unpleasantness. This provides some meaning about object. And finally, when our mental state is in the saraswat layer, we experience harmony between the object and the environment. In this layer, our own existence is mixed with the surroundings. But such experience does not happen in murta and raaga layer.
  9. 9. Therapeutic assessment <ul><li>Characteristics of three layers are given below. </li></ul><ul><li>Murta (The outer layer) : What we sense through our five sensory organs. </li></ul><ul><li>Raaga (The inner layer) : The meaning carried by the sensory stimuli. It is attached with affect or feeling of pleasant or unpleasantness. When perception is attached with affect, it is called apperception. </li></ul><ul><li>Saraswat layer (The inner core) : The feeling of harmony, the existence of truth, the feeling of white. </li></ul><ul><li>By using performing art, one can </li></ul><ul><li>diagnose extent of malfunctions in the consciousness; </li></ul><ul><li>locate one’s mental state across layers of consciousness; </li></ul><ul><li>estimate possible flow of mental functions across layers. </li></ul><ul><li>After taking case history and mental state examination, therapist will explore modes of performing arts to assess consciousness layers. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Therapeutic assessment <ul><li>There are different approaches to administer performing art for assessing layers of consciousness. </li></ul><ul><li>Altered state of consciousness: It differs from normal waking consciousness. In this state, consciousness is split into two simultaneous streams of mental activity. One stream of mental activity remains conscious. But a second stream of mental activity-the one responding to the performing art is dissociated from awareness. This state is almost similar to hypnotic state. In hypnosis, suggestion is given by therapist. But in using performing art, client gets suggestion from the art itself. </li></ul><ul><li>Using picture drawing test, it is noted that Murta layer is related to raga, and raga is related to saraswat. Murta is not related to saraswat layer. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>There are different approaches to assess functioning of consciousness. Following approaches are related to performing art therapy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Altered consciousness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of Geetbitan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-report </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Do not label rather understand other’s consciousness.
  13. 13. Do not say anything when one calls on you mad Je tore pagol bole tare tui bolis ne kichu. Ajke tore kemon vebe ange je tor dhulo debe Kal se prate mala hate asbe re tor pichu pichu. Ajke apan maner vare thak se bose gadir pare Kalke preme asbe neme, karbe se tar matha nichu. Do not say anything when one calls on you mad Assuming you as abnormal, one can throw dust on you today. Tomorrow he will come to you with garland Today, due to self-pride, he sits on high chair. Tomorrow, he will get down and bow his head.
  14. 14. Each one is unique <ul><li>Each individual is unique in perceiving, thinking and in adjusting with his or her surroundings. </li></ul><ul><li>Uniqueness is guided by the dynamics of consciousness layers. </li></ul><ul><li>Case study : One lady came to me with the complain of self-talking. Class teacher and friends labeled her as mad. Her academic performance in school deteriorated. Parents were worried. By careful examining her words, I noted that she had lot of interpersonal conflicts with peers and she always tried to analyze them. Through self-talking, she analyzed her problems. </li></ul><ul><li> So, before classification it is important to examine dynamicity in other’s consciousness. </li></ul><ul><li>Uniqueness is supported by the widely recognized definition of personality stated by Allport. Allport defined personality as dynamic organization of those psychophysical systems that determine one’s unique adjustment with environment. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Consciousness is free floating. Look at it as detached being.
  16. 16. Je ami bhese chale kaler dheue akash tale (Detached being) “ Je ami bhese chale kaler dheue akash tale ori pane dekhchi ami cheye. …… o je sachal chabir mato ami nirab kabir mato- ori pane dekhchi ami cheye . Ei je ami oi ami noi, apan-majhe apni je roi, Jai na bhese marandhara beye- Mukto ami, tripto ami, shanto ami, dipto ami, ori pane dekhchi ami cheye.” The ‘I’ that floats on the waves of time under the sky, I am watching at it. …..That ‘I’ moves like moving picture and I am watching at it as silent poet. This ‘I’ is not that ‘I’. I am within me. I am not floating like dead. I am free, satisfied, peaceful and lighted. I am watching at it.
  17. 17. <ul><li>Here, author has pointed at two beings – free floated real being and detached being. As detached being, man can understand own consciousness when he follows each free floating movement of real being. Detachment helps man to understand all the incompleteness in consciousness by removing all the emotions intertwined with sensory images. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Make the consciousness unbounded and experience it.
  19. 19. Ei akashe amar mukti aloy aloy <ul><li>Create the environment where in client can float all the imaginations . Here the medium of expression will be unstructured performing arts (songs, dance, drama, painting, sculpture etc.). </li></ul><ul><li>Let the consciousness unbounded so that all the feelings, emotions can be expressed to therapist. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage client to feel all the desires of sensory organs, different body parts (murta layer) through performing arts. (Amar ange ange ke bajay banshi). </li></ul><ul><li>This will open door of raaga and saraswat layers successively. </li></ul><ul><li>Function of therapist will understand dynamics and conflicts among changes in different consciousness layers. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Experience of consciousness is like a journey from incomplete to complete across its layers– Murta, Raaga and Saraswat.
  21. 21. CONSCIOUSNESS LAYERS Outer Layer: -Missing -Anomalies Inner Layer -Vividness -Orderliness -Complexity <ul><li>Inner Core Layer </li></ul><ul><li>Harmony with Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetics </li></ul><ul><li>Cleanliness </li></ul>
  22. 22. Characteristics of 3 layers <ul><li>Murta (The outer layer) : What we sense through our five sensory organs. </li></ul><ul><li>Raaga (The inner layer) : The meaning carried by the sensory stimuli. It is attached with affect or feeling of pleasant or unpleasantness. When perception is attached with affect, it is called apperception. </li></ul><ul><li>Saraswat layer (The inner core) : The feeling of harmony, the existence of truth, the feeling of white. </li></ul><ul><li>Activities within the layers of consciousness can be understood through performing art (songs, music, drama, poetry, drawing, sculpture) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Psychological faculties in three layers <ul><li>Sensation and its attributes, Thresholds of sensation, Perception, Imagery process. </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling, emotion, thinking, learning, memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminative learning, Imagery of truth, feeling of harmony with the environment. </li></ul>Outer Layer Inner Layer Inner Layer
  24. 24. Experience how one finds out Raaga and Saraswat layers across the great journey
  25. 25. A Journey <ul><li>Rabindrasangeet is a journey from Murta to Saraswat layer through Raaga layer of consciousness. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Chokher aloy dekhechilem chokher bahire&quot;; (outer layer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Antare aaj dekhbo, jakhan alok nahi re&quot; (inner layer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Dharay jakhan dao na dhara hriday takhan tomay bhara, ekhon tomar apan aloy tomay chahi re&quot; (innercore layer) </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Playing in the outer layer <ul><li>“ Ami keboli swapan karechi bapan batase- </li></ul><ul><li>Tai akashkusum karinu chayan hatashe </li></ul><ul><li>Chayar matan milay dharani, kul nahi pay ashar tarani, </li></ul><ul><li>Manaspratima bhasia beray akashe” </li></ul>I only sow my dreams in air, so I collect day-dreams in despair. Like shadow, it vanishes, I cannot find its end. My mental images are floating in the air.
  27. 27. First stage of the journey <ul><li>Outer layer properties suddenly find the existence of inner layer; </li></ul><ul><li>“ Amar hiyar majhe lukiye chile </li></ul><ul><li>Dekhte ami pai ni, tomay dekhte ami pai ni. </li></ul><ul><li>Bahir-pane chokh melechi, amar hriday-pane chai ni…..” </li></ul>
  28. 28. The Second stage <ul><li>The journey is not very smooth. Lot of ideas are broken, built and rebuilt. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Tomay niye khelechilem khelar gharete khelar putul bhenge geche pralayy jhaarete Thak tabe sei kebol khela, hok -na ekhon praner mela- tarer bina bhanglo, hriday-binay gahi re. &quot; </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Mixing with inner core/Saraswat layer <ul><li>“ Amar poran jaha chay tumi tai, tumi tai Go toma chhara ar e jogote mor keho nai, keho nai Go. </li></ul><ul><li>Tumi sukh jodi nahi pao, jao sukher sondhane jao ami tomare peyechhi hridhoymajhe, ar kichhu nahi chai go. </li></ul><ul><li>Ami tomar birohe rohibo bileen, tomate koribo baas dhirgho dibos dhirgho rojoni, dirgho borosh-maas.” </li></ul>
  30. 30. Changes in stimulus properties across layers <ul><li>When stimulus is in outer layer (Murta), individual perceives its physical characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>When it is in inner layer (Raaga), individual experiences it with set of adjectives. </li></ul><ul><li>When it is in inner core layer (Saraswat), only selective and reliable characteristics are organized and develops symbol. In future, individual will relate this stimulus symbol with other stimuli in order to make harmony between own feelings and environment. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Conflict in Saraswat layer <ul><li>Conflict occurs when individual perceives the elements in saraswat layer are not true. </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict is the cognitive appraisal of being pulled in two or more directions by opposing motives. </li></ul>Conflict within inner core layer Bajrasen Shyama Non-cruel & Cruel conflict
  32. 32. Man is the pursuer of completeness and newness.
  33. 33. Searching Principle : Growth of inquisitiveness Feeling of scattered impulses,needs etc. Searching cues Does it give meaningful pattern ? N Y “ Tomay Natun kare pabo bole harai khane khane .”
  34. 34. Searching newness makes man incomplete that acts as the drive to find out completeness. Incomplete to complete is a cycling process.
  35. 35. Case Study 1: Where all fail, Rabindrasangeet acts
  36. 36. Response control of OCD <ul><li>A woman of 52 years old came to me with complaint of OCD to dirt. Patient reported her inability to control washing compulsion. For last 30 years, she regularly went to toilet for washing and cleaning hands. She always closed her hands tightly so that her hands would be completely cleaned. Before visit to me, she was treated by many psychiatrists and one psychologist. No notable changes are noticed except long time sleep. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Patient’s behaviour <ul><li>Very inhibitive; </li></ul><ul><li>Hand clasping tightly; </li></ul><ul><li>Strong resistance to open clasping; </li></ul><ul><li>Non-cooperative to participate; </li></ul><ul><li>Not able to administer any available psychological tests. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Analysis of patient <ul><li>Patient is searching for dirt in the outer layer. </li></ul><ul><li>In the inner layer, dirt is perceived as threatening; </li></ul><ul><li>Patient wants to move away from inner to inner core layer. For the same, she spends most of the time in worshipping the God and keeping cleanliness. </li></ul><ul><li>She is not happy with soaping hands as this can not help her to reach at the innercore layer of consciousness. </li></ul><ul><li>This results approach – avoidance conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>(Approaching to the soap in order to avoid dirt, again few soaping is not sufficient, so more soaping is required ). </li></ul>
  39. 39. Analysis of family <ul><li>Repeated soaping consumes more water; </li></ul><ul><li>Family assumes that it is unreasonable but patient assumes it as reasonable ; </li></ul><ul><li>Family member is not aware of consciousness dynamics playing inside the patient. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Therpeautic analysis <ul><li>Target: Preventing clasping hands; </li></ul><ul><li>Consciousness model: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outer layer (Murta) : Dirt perception; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inner layer (Raaga): Dirt as threat; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Innercore (Saraswat) : Feeling of cleanliness; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Currently, patient is moving around outer and inner layers only. </li></ul><ul><li>Therapeautic target: Providing her Feeling of cleanliness. </li></ul><ul><li>Rabindrasangeet is non-dirt area; </li></ul><ul><li>Explore the song suitable for feeling of non-dirt area; </li></ul>
  41. 41. Session-1 <ul><li>In the first session , patient was highly inhibitive to reveal herself. Due to difficulty in rapport establishment. I started singing - &quot;Ananda loke, mangala loke&quot; (moving to spiritual land). </li></ul><ul><li>Suddenly, she started singing with me in very low voice; </li></ul><ul><li>I paid my attention to her and started moving the hands keeping with the rhythm and waves of the song loudly. She participated into my hand movement and sang the song loudly. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Session-2 <ul><li>In the 2nd session after 6 days, the client sang with me same song by standing. She moved her hands above head when she sang &quot; Grahataraka chandra tapana byakula drutabege&quot; (the planets, satellites are moving speedily). It is noted that her hands now completely opened. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Session-3 <ul><li>In the 3rd sitting, patient reported that she alone practiced two songs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Ektuku chona lage....&quot; (feeling light touch), and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Eto din je bosechinu&quot; (waiting for long days) at home. Finally, she sang with me both songs alongwith Ananda loke, danced and she never closed her hands. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Termination : Patient herself is able to prevent stopping hand clasping. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Case Study 2: Geetbitan as Projective test.
  45. 45. The Variables Agent Host Environment
  46. 46. Dynamics of latent variables Initial E X P R E S S I O n Middle Terminal A E H H H
  47. 47. Johari Window INVESTIGATOR C L I E N T Known Known Unknown Unknown OPEN DARK BLIND FAÇADE Rabindrasangeet
  48. 48. Exploring techniques <ul><li>FACADE </li></ul><ul><li>DARK </li></ul><ul><li>OBSERVATION </li></ul><ul><li>PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION </li></ul><ul><li>INTERVIEW </li></ul><ul><li>FOCUSED GROUP DISCUSSION </li></ul><ul><li>FREE ASSOCIATION </li></ul><ul><li>PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUE </li></ul><ul><li>DATA MINING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MAPPING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PROFILING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CAUSAL RELATIONS </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Probability for variable exploration Structured Unstructured High prob. Low prob
  50. 50. Projective test <ul><li>Individual projects own feelings, conflict and desires on others; </li></ul><ul><li>Psychologists use several projective tests for analysis of projection of the patient. Some widely used tests are : Rorschach, TAT, Sentence completion test, Word association test etc. </li></ul><ul><li>They explore set of inner dynamics playing latent role in causation of mental illness by analyzing test responses. Later the findings are used for psychotherapy. </li></ul><ul><li>When patient is non-cooperative, it becomes difficult to administer projective tests. </li></ul><ul><li>Rabindrasangeet acts there. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Theories of hierarchy <ul><li>Individual by singing, listening develops hierarchy of songs; </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy depends upon one’s understanding about capability of the song to achieve feeling of completeness. </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy can be measured using rank order scale. Here is a study: </li></ul>
  52. 52. Analysis of Projection <ul><li>A neurotic depressed patient came to me with complaints of suicidal desires. She was co-operative. In stead of using common psychodiagnostic test, I used Geetbitan She was asked to select 10 songs from Geetbitan, the famous Book of songs composed by Rabindranath Tagore. </li></ul><ul><li>Patient selected following 10 songs: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Akash bhara surya tara 2. Aloker ei jharna dharay 3. Ananda dhara bahiche bhubane 4. Ananda loke mangala loke 5. Aji jato tara tabo 6. Amar mukti aloy aloy 7. Ami chini go chini 8. Aro aro prabhu aro aro 9. Alo amar alo ogo 10. E ki labonye punya </li></ul><ul><li>Next, I told her to rank them. Her rank was :First : 3, Second : 10, Third : 4 </li></ul>
  53. 53. <ul><li>Finally, she sang the first rank song (Ananda dhara bohiche bhubane). I followed her in singing.I have noticed that each line of this song reflects her current mental state and it is interesting to note that the song also provides the answer as how to recover from such problems. </li></ul><ul><li>I have used that song for her psychological counseling.Therefore, I have developed following assumptions: 1. Geetbitan as Psychological test; 2. The words of Geetbitan advances knowledge of psychotherapy. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Anandadhara bahiche bhubane, dinarajani kato amritarasa uthali jay ananta gagane. </li></ul><ul><li>Pan kare rabi shashi anjali bhariya- sada dipta rahe akshyaya jyoti- nitya purna dhara jibone kirane. </li></ul><ul><li>Bosiya acho keno apanmone, swarthanimagana ki karane? </li></ul><ul><li>Chari dike dekho chahi hridaya prasari, khudra dukhosab tuchcha mani </li></ul><ul><li>Prem bhariya laho shunya jibone. “ </li></ul>
  54. 54. Case Study 3: Self-understanding
  55. 55. Complaints <ul><li>Over learning </li></ul><ul><li>Poor academic performance </li></ul><ul><li>Apprehension of danger </li></ul>
  56. 56. Analysis of client <ul><li>Layer dynamics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outer layer (Murta) : Perceiving the book; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inner layer (Raaga) : Book is perceived as source of completeness; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Innercore (Saraswat) : Feeling of completeness; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reason for over learning: He tends to be complete being. </li></ul><ul><li>Problem lies on over study due to extrinsic reading motivation (reading to get other’s affection, recognition and to avoid punishment); </li></ul><ul><li>Target of change : Study for intrinsic motivation (reading to acquire and to apply knowledge, to develop mastery over reading); This helps man to be complete. </li></ul><ul><li>Case history : He can play tabla and can sing Rabindrasangeet. It is practiced in family. </li></ul>
  57. 57. Session <ul><li>Requesting him to sing any song of Tagore; </li></ul><ul><li>He selected “Jadi tare nai chini go se ki amay nebe chine ei naba falguner dine---- jani ne, jani ne”. </li></ul><ul><li>I asked if your book asked you the same what would be your answer ? </li></ul><ul><li>He: Jani ne (I do not know)….after brooding…he said that from today I would study the lesson to understand it. </li></ul><ul><li>Termination: Client is able to understand how to be complete. </li></ul>
  58. 58. Acknowledgement <ul><li>Subir Bose, Sudipta, Susmita of Srijon o Gunjan, Orkut </li></ul><ul><li>Ms. Sahana Roy, Dept. Applied Psychology, C.U. , Kathak dancer </li></ul><ul><li>Available: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  59. 59. References <ul><li>Dutta Roy,D.(2006). Development of picture drawing test to assess consciousness layers of tribal children of Tripura, Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology ,Vol. 32, No. 1, 20-25 </li></ul><ul><li>Dutta Roy, D. (2004). Analysis of drawing of tribal children in Tripura to understand different patterns of consciousness levels. A Quarterly Research Journal on Tribal life and Culture, 13, 45,17-23. </li></ul><ul><li>Dutta Roy, D. (2008). Sustainable Reading Motivation. Pratyay, 3, 1, 6-12 </li></ul>
  60. 60. NAMASKAR