Nutrition 2


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Introduction to Nutrition and six essential nutrients.

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Nutrition 2

  2. 2. COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES <ul><li>FUNCTION – </li></ul><ul><li>Main energy source, breaks down slowly and a steady stream of energy </li></ul><ul><li>SHORTAGES – </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness </li></ul><ul><li>Tiredness </li></ul><ul><li>Interesting Fact – </li></ul><ul><li>4 calories per gram </li></ul><ul><li>Best type of carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>American diet should be more than 60% complex carbos </li></ul><ul><li>SOURCES – </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetables </li></ul><ul><li>Fruits </li></ul><ul><li>Whole-grain breads and cereals </li></ul><ul><li>Brown rice </li></ul><ul><li>Pastas </li></ul><ul><li>Baked potatoes </li></ul><ul><li>Salads </li></ul>
  3. 3. Fiber/Roughage <ul><li>Functions – </li></ul><ul><li>Helps with constipation </li></ul><ul><li>Keeps our system clean </li></ul><ul><li>Shortage – </li></ul><ul><li>Constipation </li></ul><ul><li>Sources – </li></ul><ul><li>Fruits w/ skins on </li></ul><ul><li>Oranges </li></ul><ul><li>Whole-grain breads </li></ul><ul><li>Brown rice </li></ul><ul><li>Baked potatoes w/ skin </li></ul><ul><li>Bran Cereals </li></ul>
  4. 4. PROTIEN <ul><li>FUNCTIONS – </li></ul><ul><li>Helps maintain and repair body tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><li>INTERESTING FACTS – </li></ul><ul><li>Body produces all but 14 amino acids we need </li></ul><ul><li>4 calories per gram </li></ul><ul><li>TYPES – </li></ul><ul><li>Complete Proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Incomplete Proteins </li></ul><ul><li>SOURCES – </li></ul><ul><li>Beef </li></ul><ul><li>Chicken </li></ul><ul><li>Fish and seafood </li></ul><ul><li>Tofu (only vegetable gives us complete proteins) </li></ul><ul><li>Beans & rice together </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetables </li></ul><ul><li>Grains </li></ul><ul><li>DEFICEINCIES – </li></ul><ul><li>Kwashiorkor </li></ul><ul><li>Iron Anemia </li></ul>
  5. 5. WATER <ul><li>FUNCTION – </li></ul><ul><li>Needed for proper digestion </li></ul><ul><li>Cell growth </li></ul><ul><li>Body maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Lubricates joints and body cells </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates body temperature </li></ul><ul><li>INTERESTING FACTS – </li></ul><ul><li>Can only live w/o water for 2-3 days </li></ul><ul><li>Need at least eight 12 oz. glasses of water daily </li></ul><ul><li>Our bodies are about 75-80% water </li></ul><ul><li>SOURCES – </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Fruit juices </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetables </li></ul><ul><li>Fruits </li></ul><ul><li>Milk </li></ul><ul><li>DEFICIENCIES – </li></ul><ul><li>Death!!! </li></ul>
  6. 6. FATS? Which one? <ul><li>Fat is a necessary nutrient </li></ul><ul><li>Need to know what are the different types of fats </li></ul><ul><li>Which are the good fats and bad fats? </li></ul><ul><li>Fat helps with growth and body development </li></ul><ul><li>Necessary to protect your major organs </li></ul><ul><li>9 calories per gram </li></ul>
  7. 7. FATS Functions -- Protects vital organs Insulate and retain heat -- Supply of stored energy Excessive -- Obesity -- Related heart diseases Shortages <ul><ul><li>-- Retarded Growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-- Unhealthy Skin </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. SATURATED FATS <ul><li>Produces LDL cholesterol (low-density lipoproteins), which is the “bad” cholesterol </li></ul><ul><li>LDL lipoprotein deposits cholesterol on the artery walls, causing the formation of a hard, thick substance called cholesterol plaque </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of saturated fats – butter, fat in meats, dairy products, lard </li></ul>
  9. 9. UNSATURATED FATS <ul><li>Good fat </li></ul><ul><li>Helps produce HDL cholesterol (high-density lipoproteins) which helps take out LDL cholesterol from the artery walls and disposing of them through the liver </li></ul><ul><li>Two types – Polyunsaturated (Okay) and Monounsaturated (BEST) </li></ul><ul><li>Sources – Olive oil and canola oil </li></ul>
  10. 10. OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS <ul><li>Help balance the body by keeping inflammation in check </li></ul><ul><li>By helping mental function, vision, blood pressure, immunity, metabolism and cell-membrane health </li></ul><ul><li>Some research shows that omega-3’s might prevent cardiac death and nonfatal myocardial infarction </li></ul><ul><li>Great sources for Omega-3’s – flex seed, cod liver oil, halibut, mackerel, herring, albacore tuna and salmon </li></ul><ul><li>By eating fish once a week you decrease your chance of CHD (coronary heart disease) </li></ul>
  11. 11. TRANS-FATS <ul><li>trans fat is made when manufacturers add hydrogen to vegetable oil--a process called hydrogenation </li></ul><ul><li>The majority of trans fat is put into the products we eat </li></ul><ul><li>A small amount of trans fat is found naturally, primarily in dairy products, some meat, and other animal-based foods </li></ul><ul><li>Trans fat, like saturated fat and dietary cholesterol, raises the LDL cholesterol that increases your risk for CHD. </li></ul><ul><li>Americans consume on average 4 to 5 times as much saturated fat as trans fat in their diets </li></ul><ul><li>Companies have till January 2006 to include trans fats on the label </li></ul>
  12. 12. Major Food Sources of Trans Fat for American Adults (Average Daily Trans Fat Intake is 5.8 Grams or 2.6 Percent of Calories)
  13. 13. Cholesterol plaque causes thickening of the artery walls and narrowing of the arteries. Arteries that supply blood and oxygen to the heart muscles are called coronary arteries. When coronary arteries are narrowed, they are incapable of supplying enough blood and oxygen to the heart muscle during exertion. Lack of oxygen to the heart muscle causes chest pain, also formation of a blood clot in the artery can clause complete blockage of the artery, leading to death of heart muscle (heart attack).
  14. 14. VITAMINS <ul><li>VITAMIN A – helps keep skin clear and smooth. Keeps mucus membranes healthy, helps night blindness, and promotes growth. Sources – carrots, green & yellow fruits and veggies, liver, egg yolks, milk. Deficiencies – eyes become sensitive to light, skin becomes rough and chances of getting diseases increases. </li></ul><ul><li>VITAMIN D – promotes growth and helps with teeth and bones. Sources – egg yolk, liver, sardines, tuna, fish liver oil, milk. Deficiencies – Rickets (in children0 and bone abnormalities (in adults) </li></ul><ul><li>VITAMIN C – promotes healthy gums and tissues, helps mend broken bones, and fights infections. Sources – oranges, strawberries, citrus fruits, melons, tomatoes. Deficiencies – poor appetite, weight loss, soreness in joints, bleeding gums, bruising, and teeth loss (scurvy). </li></ul><ul><li>VITAMIN K – necessary for blood to clot normally. Sources – kale, cabbage, cauliflower, spinach. </li></ul><ul><li>VITAMIN E – works as an antioxidant. Sources – nuts, seeds, green leafy vegetables, wheat germ, and vegetables oils </li></ul>
  15. 15. VITAMINS <ul><li>FOLIC ACID – very important for pregnant women to have in their diet. The unborn baby needs the vitamin. Helps in the formation of red blood cells and neural tubes. </li></ul><ul><li>Sources – leafy green vegetables like kale and spinach, orange juice, and enriched grains (such as cereals). </li></ul><ul><li>Deficiencies – risk that their baby will be born with a serious neural tube defect (a defect involving incomplete development of the brain and spinal cord) e.g. Spina Bifida (an incomplete closure of the spinal cord and spinal column), Anencephaly (severe underdevelopment of the brain), and Encephalocele (when brain tissue protrudes out of the skin from an abnormal opening in the skull) </li></ul><ul><li>VITAMIN B-complex – promotes healthy gums and tissues, helps mend broken bones, and fights infections. </li></ul><ul><li>Sources – almonds, yeast, cheese, eggs, chicken, beef, kidney, liver, and wheat germ </li></ul><ul><li>Deficiencies – promotes normal growth, helps with the breakdown of fat, and assists in the synthesis of steroids, red blood cells, and glycogen. </li></ul>
  16. 16. MINERALS <ul><li>CALCIUM – builds bone and teeth, helps blood clot, and helps muscles and nerves to work. Sources – dairy and meat products. Deficiencies – osteoporsis (especially women) </li></ul><ul><li>IRON – combines w/ protein to make hemoglobin and helps cells use oxygen. Sources – liver, lean meats, leafy green vegetables, dried fruit. Deficiencies – anemia. Excesses – usually from pill form, and especially dangerous for young children if they eat iron pills can be fatal. </li></ul><ul><li>MAGNESIUM -- regulating the neuromuscular activity of the heart. Sources – whole grain breads and cerals, nuts, peanut butter, green leafy vegetables, seeds, tofu, fish. Deficiencies -- calcium depletion, heart spasms, nervousness, muscular excitability, confusion; kidney stones. </li></ul><ul><li>SODIUM – helps maintain fluid balance in body, muscle and nerve action, and regulate blood pressure. Sources – table salt and processed food. </li></ul>
  17. 17. MINERALS <ul><li>ZINC – helps body make proteins, heal wounds, and form blood. Helps your body use carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Sources – Meat, liver, poultry, fish and shellfish, dairy products, dry beans and peas, peanuts. Deficiencies – prolonged healing wounds, white spots on finger nails, retarded growth, stretch marks, fatigue, decreased alertness, susceptibility to infections </li></ul><ul><li>COPPER – Helps iron make red blood cells, heart work properly, and keep bones, blood vessels, and nerves healthy. Sources – Whole-grain products, seafood, organ meats, dry beans and peas, nuts and seeds Deficiencies – weakness, impaired respiration, skin sores. </li></ul><ul><li>POTASSIUM – Helps maintain fluid balance in body, heartbeat, muscle and nerve action, and normal blood pressure. Sources – Fruits (bananas & oranges), vegetables, meat, poultry, fish, dry beans and peas, dairy products Deficiencies -- poor reflexes, nervous disorders, respiratory failure, cardiac arrest, muscle damage </li></ul><ul><li>FLUORIDE – helps strengthen teeth and prevent cavities. Sources – in many communities, small amounts are added to the water supply to help improve dental health, toothpaste </li></ul>
  18. 18. DIGESTION <ul><li>Mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Salivary Glands </li></ul><ul><li>Tongue </li></ul><ul><li>Esophagus </li></ul><ul><li>Stomach </li></ul><ul><li>Liver </li></ul><ul><li>Gall Bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Bile Duct </li></ul><ul><li>Pancreas </li></ul><ul><li>Small Intestines </li></ul><ul><li>Large Intestines </li></ul><ul><li>Rectum </li></ul>
  20. 20. FOOD GUIDE PYRAMID <ul><li>Carbohydrates are found in the Bread, Cereal Group, Fruit Group, and Vegetable Group </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins are found in the Milk & Cheese Group, Meat, Poultry, and Fish Group </li></ul><ul><li>Water, Vitamins, & Minerals are found in all the Food Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Fats are found in the Milk & Cheese Group, Meat, Poultry, & Fish Group </li></ul>
  21. 21. NUTRITION FACTS LABELS <ul><li>New Heading </li></ul><ul><li>Serving Sizes </li></ul><ul><li>Calories from Fat </li></ul><ul><li>The % Daily Value </li></ul><ul><li>The List of Nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Daily Values </li></ul>
  22. 22. Figuring Out Food Labels <ul><li>The Nutrition Facts food label is a lot like the table of contents </li></ul><ul><li>Tells you all the parts that make up the whole </li></ul><ul><li>The Nutrients Facts food label is usually easy to find </li></ul><ul><li>Most nutrients are measured in grams (g) and milligrams (mg) </li></ul><ul><li>Other information is given in percentages, and this information is based on eating 2000 calories a day </li></ul><ul><li>This is the amount of calories that most students eat. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Serving Size <ul><li>Serving size corresponds with the amounts of the nutrients listed </li></ul><ul><li>Serving sizes are measured in a variety of ways, such as cups or numbers (two cookies or five pretzels) </li></ul><ul><li>The company determines what the serving size will be </li></ul><ul><li>For example, a serving of cereal can vary from ¾ cup to </li></ul><ul><li>1¼ cups. Depending on the company who is producing the food product </li></ul>Always check out the serving size before digging in!!!!
  24. 24. Servings per Container or Package <ul><li>A serving is the measure of how much food you’re supposed to eat </li></ul><ul><li>to get the amounts of nutrients listed </li></ul><ul><li>The servings per container or package tells you how many </li></ul><ul><li>servings are in the whole package </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. -- if a box of cookies has 21 cookies and the cookie maker’s </li></ul><ul><li>serving size is 3 cookies then there are 7 servings in the box. </li></ul>You can see why math comes in handy with food labels!!!
  25. 25. Calories and Calories from Fat <ul><li>Number on the left of the label tells you how many calories </li></ul><ul><li>are in a single serving of this food </li></ul><ul><li>Calories tells you the amount of energy in the food </li></ul><ul><li>Number on the right tells you how many calories come from fat </li></ul><ul><li>Calories also come from protein and carbohydrates, as well as </li></ul><ul><li>fat </li></ul><ul><li>The label lists calories from fat, because many people are </li></ul><ul><li>concerned with their fat intake </li></ul>
  26. 26. Percent Daily Value <ul><li>Percent daily value tells you what percentage of a nutrient </li></ul><ul><li>you get from one serving </li></ul><ul><li>This is in relation to everything the average person needs </li></ul><ul><li>Some percent daily values are based on the amount of </li></ul><ul><li>calories and energy you need </li></ul><ul><li>Percent daily values include the macro-nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>(Carbohydrates, Protein, and Fats) and micro-nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>(vitamins and minerals) </li></ul><ul><li>How to read the percent daily value – e.g., a food has 25% </li></ul><ul><li>carbohydrate, based on a 2,000 calorie diet. In a day you will </li></ul><ul><li>get 25% of the carbohydrate you need on that day. The </li></ul><ul><li>other 75% must come from other foods to get 100% </li></ul>
  27. 27. INFORMATION ON THE LABEL <ul><li>Fat -- is actually an important nutrient the body uses </li></ul><ul><li>for growth and development </li></ul><ul><li>Cholesterol -- is listed for those who might have heart </li></ul><ul><li>problems they need their cholesterol intake </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium --is listed for those who need to watch how m </li></ul><ul><li>much salt they eat for medical reasons (hypertension) </li></ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates -- are your body’s primary source of </li></ul><ul><li>energy </li></ul><ul><li>The more active you are, the more carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>you need! </li></ul>
  28. 28. INFORMATION ON THE LABEL <ul><li>Protein -- can be used as energy, but it is usually used </li></ul><ul><li>to build muscle, keep organs strong and fight off disease </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium and iron -- must be listed on labels </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamins A and C -- must be listed on labels </li></ul><ul><li>If they want to, they can also list the amounts of other </li></ul><ul><li>vitamins. </li></ul>
  29. 29. FAST-FOOD (How to choose wisely!) <ul><li>There are more than 300,000 fast food restaurants in the US </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t assume it is healthy, look at the labels </li></ul><ul><li>Most menus for children are high in saturated and trans fats </li></ul><ul><li>By knowing what is in foods, you can make wise choices </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition facts labels for most national chain fast-food restaurants is available on-line or at the store </li></ul>
  30. 30. SERVING SIZES ** Most Americans don’t eat normal serving sizes. They usually eat 2 – 3 serving sizes at one sitting. This is one reason why we consume more servings than what the Food Guide Pyramid recommends. If you followed the recommended servings per group and ate the right serving size, you would either maintain a healthy weight or lose weight in a healthy manner.
  31. 31. Internet Links <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>