MS1: Representations and Responses Examination Revision GuideWe have not covered all the topics for the exam yet but below are the topicsand texts you will need to revise. You really need to be doing this NOW.This is strongly recommended as you have no study leave before the exam.Look over your essays and feedback as part of your revision and look at thecase studies on the media blog www.smcmedia.blogspot.comand on my ASblog, which can be accessed from the main web-page.The revision sessions for MS1 will take place between 4-5pm on Thursdaysafter Easter in room 405.Genre: - What is genre? - What are the conventions of a genre? - Why do audiences and producers like genre and use them often in the media to create media texts? - Hybridity and why this is popular with audiences and producers of media texts? - The idea that all genre texts combine the ‘same but different’ a new twist on the old conventions to offer the audience something new. - We do not know what genres you could get in the exam but look over these genres that we have covered (or will be covering after Easter) - trailers, film genres e.g. Thrillers, news, advertising, magazine conventions.Narrative: - That media texts all have a narrative (print and video.) - That they are created with familiar narrative patterns that audiences like as they are familiar and understand - The main narrative theories (be able to apply these to an analysis of a media text) Propp, Todorov, Levi-Strauss, Barthes. - We have also looked at the standard narratives of trailers, opening sequences of films/TV programmes also.Visual,Audio, Technical and Written Codes:Remember question 1 in the exam is a straight analysis looking at generalconnotations and will be focus on 1 or more of the VAT codes. - To be able to apply and analyse media texts using these. - To know your terminology - To be able to analyse print and video texts using the VAT codes.
Representation Topics: - Gender – (Men and Women) - Regional Identity (London) - National Identity (India) - Age (Old People and Teenagers) - Ethnicity (Asian Stereotypes) - Issues(Sexualisation of Children/ Poverty) - Events (Riots/ Royal Wedding)Audience Topics: - How audiences ‘read’ and interpret media texts differently (audience theories – Stuart Hall’s Reception theory etc…) - Target audiences (demographic and psychographic profiling.) Defining audiences for media texts. - How producers of media texts target this audience. - How media texts attract/ appeal to their audiences (through genre, narrative, VAT codes and representations.)Your 3 audience case studies to use on the exam are... - Rule the World (Girls) Music Video – Beyonce - FHM Cover - Slumdog Millionaire - Four Lions (this will be covered after Easter) To be fair, we have touched on audience issues with most texts, so you could probably use many more to illustrate how different audiences respond to different texts etc. Case Studies For The Exam Remember in the exam you must use at least 2 or 3 different case studies to answer the questions and they must represent at least 2 different media (e.g. film and TV/ TV and advert would do but not both examples from TV) You must also know the dates of release and directors (for films)GENDER:Representation of Women:A lot of these focus on whether we are seeing a traditional patriarchal view of women (sex object/domesticized/ weak/ portrayed in a role that supports but doesn’t challenge male superiority) or amore empowered one that reflects traditional male elements (action/ independence/ strength),reflecting greater equality.
- Bride Wars (2009 Gary Winnick) – modern twist on traditional female representation – the have-it-all girl - Salt (2010 Philip Noyce) – modern action heroine – glamour in a traditionally male role - 2 print ads – Miss Dior Cherie perfume and Breil watch ad – one typically feminine and the other more aggressive and independent - Beyonce – Run The World (Girls) Music Video (2011) - Taylor Swift CD cover for Beautiful Eyes – traditionally feminine - FHM Cover (November 2011) – the sex object – typical patriarchal roleRepresentation of Men:These also focus on whether we are getting a traditional alpha male representation or somethingmore modern – adding in more feminised characteristics (sex object/ domesticity/emotionality/physical weakness etc) - Scott Pilgrim Vs The World (fight scene)(2010 Edgar Wright) – the nerd as hero - 2011 adverts – Magazine ads: Ariel Sensitive (new man/ family man), Marlboro retro ad (touch, macho outdoors man)/ TV ads: Aero Bubbles (sex object – taking the female role) and Excel Gel(active man with domestic traits) and Strongbow (disempowered men reclaiming their macho) TV advert. - Captain America (zero to hero – modern men getting macho again) - Call of Duty game cover (action hero man – traditional)Representation of National Identity: IndiaThe focus here is on whether we are being given a stereotypical view of India or something a littlemore unexpected or a mixture of both. - Slumdog Millionaire - Incredible India advertising campaign– ads aimed at both Western and Indian audeinces - Bride and Prejudice clip - Times of India webpage for December 29 2011Representation of Regional Identity – LondonAgain, the focus is on whether we are seeing one of the stereotypes (tourist London, successfulLondon or problem London)or something that is a little more alternative. - Wimbledon (2004) Richard Loncraine - Attack The Block Trailer (2011) Joe Cornish - Free-range Londoner tourist board advertising campaign (2008) - Visit Britain 2011 ad (does not just feature London but London is heavily promoted)
Representation of Ethnicity in the MediaAs well as knowing about general stereotypes for ethnic minorities and how these are oftennegative or limited, we focussed on Asian representation and whether we were offered astereotype or something more alternative. - Four Lions (2010) Chris Morris (the terrorist) - Article from The Daily Mail about The Blackburn Resistance (the terrorist) - Two covers for Asian Woman magazine from 2011(the modern British Asian woman) - Yasmin (2004) Kenneth Glenaan (the modern British Asian woman who becomes more traditional) - Extract from Eastenders – Syed Masood (the gay Asian) -Representation of Age:This focused on looking at whether we were presented with stereotypes or representations thatchallenged how age is normally shown. - Harry Brown (2009) Daniel Barber (the hoody youths v the weak, lonely man who becomes more empowered and in control) - Eastenders sceneBBC 1 (2009) (frail old age v caring youth) - Teenage Meets Old Age (BBC3 ) 2011(stereotypical youths who develop a caring side; frail old age who can live a full life and have some surprisingly significant past lives)Representation of an Issue– The Sexualisation of ChildrenThis looked at concern over how overly sexualised images of women may adversely affect youngchildren - Various music videos – Rihanna’s S and M; Shakira She Wolf; Miley Cyrus Can’t be Tamed - Beyonce’s Who Rules The World (Girls) – all promoting this as a positive role model for children - News articles from BBC website – Don’t Sexualise Children and Daily Mail How Pop became Porn (both outraged at the negative effect of such videos)Representation of Issue– Third World PovertyYou could also sue this as an issue – are the third world poor helpless victims in need of the Westor can they sort their own problems out for themselves? - Web-Page for Save the Children East Africa Appeal page – helpless victims in need of the West – tries to arouse pity and guilt – a sad picture of the poor - Web-page for Self-Help Africa charity campaign – west can support Africans to help themselves – the poor have more dignity – a more positive picture of Africa
- Slumdog Millionaire – shows the poor but shows that Indians may cause their own poverty (the gangsters control the slums) and that luck can bring about a happy ending (winning the lottery), so the West aren’t really needed; also shows that poverty need not make everyone miserable – the boys smile and play cricket and there is a school….Representation of Events– The Royal Wedding (2011) and The UK Riots (2011)This focuses on different perspectives on each event.The Royal Wedding: - Official coverage from the BBC – best of British, important national event we are allowed to share, a unifying event - Tabloid front pages – the fairy-tale romance of commoner and prince - Lancashire Evening Telegraph – local perspective; unites a multicultural town - Grazia magazine cover – fashion event - OK magazine cover – celebrity eventThe Riots: - Daily Express front page (August 2011) – the dominant view – youths out of control - Manchester Evening News front page (August 2011) – as above - Milton Keynes Citizen front page (August 2011) Local view – alternative view of Rioting Britain - BBC Newsnight (BBC 2 Aug 2011) – we only hear the experts? - BBC News report (Aug 2011) SKY News report – as above – a limited view is allowedWith all of these, you need to know how each text represents the issue/ group,have some evidence from each text to illustrate what you will say and havesome ideas about why each text has adopted the representation it has (oftenlinks to the type of institution producing the text and the audience it is aimedat and their expectations). Could also consider different responses to therepresentation and what effect it might have on people – positive andnegative.