Higher Education Reform Ministry Of Education

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  • Higher Education Reform Ministry Of Education

    1. 1. July 5, 2005 Higher Education Reform in South Korea - Policy Responses to a Changing World - Gwang-Jo Kim, Ed.D Ministry of Education & Human Resources Development Republic of Korea
    2. 2. Contents <ul><li>Overview </li></ul><ul><li>State of Higher Education </li></ul><ul><li>Issues and Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Reform Initiatives </li></ul>
    3. 3. I . OVERVIEW
    4. 4. South Korea at a Glance <ul><li>About 100 thousand sq kms </li></ul><ul><li>48 Million People </li></ul><ul><li>7 metropolitan cities & 9 provinces </li></ul><ul><li>GNI: US$ 576.4 Bil.(per capita GNI US$12,020 as of FY03) </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment: 3.5% in 2004(Youth unemployment 7.9%) </li></ul>Seoul Busan P’yongyang Kwangju Korea Chongjin Daegu Taech’on
    5. 5. <ul><li>Brief History </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 Kingdoms (BC 1C–AD 7C) – Shilla(7-10C) - Koryo(10-14C) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Chosun(1392-1910)“Country of Morning Calm”, “Hermit Nation” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese Colonial Rule (1910-1945) - Korean War (1950-’53) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authoritarian Regime (until 1980s) - Democratization (1990s~) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cultural Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Homogeneous people & language: prevalence of egalitarianism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tradition of Confucianism: high regard for learning & zeal for education  excessive demand for education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education ideal: Broadly Benefiting All Human Being (“Hong-ik In-gan”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional hierarchy of professions: scholars – farmers –engineers /scientists – merchants; preference for “generalists” </li></ul></ul>Brief history and culture
    6. 6. Economic development 61.4 (2003) 60.7 60.5 62.2 60.0 59.0 47.6 Labor force Participation rate (%) 23 (2003) 22 21 21 19 14 10 Labor force (Millions) 3.5 4.1 6.8 2.6 2.4 5.2 4.4 Unemployment rate (%) 12,646 9,675 6,843 10,363 7,751 2,324 650 GNI per capita (US$) 48 47 46 46 43 38 32 Population (Millions) 2004 2000 1998 1997 1990 1980 1970
    7. 7. Economy and education (’60s-’70s) <ul><li>Emphasis on VET(late ‘60s) </li></ul><ul><li>Separate VET track </li></ul><ul><li>Limited access to university education </li></ul>VET/HE <ul><li>Expansion of primary & lower secondary education </li></ul><ul><li>School equalization policy </li></ul>General Education <ul><li>Light manufacturing goods (clothing, textile, shoes, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic goods (television, radios) </li></ul>Major Industry/ Exports <ul><li>Take-off & export-driven in ‘60s; export acceleration in early ‘70s </li></ul>Economy 1960s – mid-1970s
    8. 8. Economy and education (’70s-’80s) <ul><li>Strengthening Junior College & Open University </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion of HE (Graduation enrollment quota) </li></ul>VET/HE <ul><li>Expansion of upper secondary education </li></ul>General Education <ul><li>Heavy & Chemical industry </li></ul><ul><li>Iron industry, shipyard, precision manufacture </li></ul>Major Industry/ Exports <ul><li>Structural adjustments in late ‘70s: from imitation to innovation in ‘80s </li></ul>Economy mid-1970s – 1980s
    9. 9. Economy and education (’90s ~) <ul><li>Curriculum integration & School diversification </li></ul><ul><li>Employment Insurance system </li></ul><ul><li>Cyber university, credit bank system, etc. </li></ul>VET/HE <ul><li>Establish life-long learning infra-structure </li></ul><ul><li>Promote deregulation & diversity </li></ul>General Education <ul><li>Semiconductor, Information & communication technology </li></ul><ul><li>Computer, Cellular phone, Memory chips </li></ul>Major Industry/ Exports <ul><li>National competitiveness in early ‘90s; Knowledge-based economy in mid-’90s </li></ul>Economy 1990s through the present
    10. 10. II. STATE OF HIGHER EDUCATION
    11. 11. Formal education system Age 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 Kindergarten Elementary School Middle School General High School College/University (4-year College, University of Technology, Industrial University) Graduate School Vocational High School (agricultural, technical, industrial, commercial, fishery, home, economies) Junior College
    12. 12. Education Finance (Public Investment)
    13. 13.   (Source : Education at a Glance, 2004) Public educational expenditures (% GDP)
    14. 14. <ul><li>Ministry of Education & Human Resources Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for policies related to human resources development including school education, higher education , and lifelong learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Headed by Deputy Prime Minister: Super-Ministry status, the national coordinating authority for human resources development (HRD) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>National HRD Committee </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Composed of 14 line ministries (sub-cabinet meeting) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor and evaluate the implementation of HRD policies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Educational Policy Advisory Councils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ministrerial Education Policy Council </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presidential Commission on Educational Innovation Council </li></ul></ul>Governance of education
    15. 15. Higher education sector is divided into the following segments : <ul><li>Universities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>182 universities (1.8 million enrolments each year) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Polytechnics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>18 Industrial Universities (200,000 enrolments each year) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 technical college (196 enrolments) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Junior Colleges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>158 junior colleges (900,000 enrolments each year) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 Air & corr. University (300,000 enrolments each year) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>17 Cyber Colleges & Universities (40,000 enrolments each year) </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Qualification framework <ul><li>Industrial Engineer </li></ul><ul><li>Associate Degree </li></ul>Junior College <ul><li>Engineer </li></ul><ul><li>Master Craftsman </li></ul><ul><li>Bachelor’s Degree </li></ul>University <ul><li>Professional Engineer </li></ul><ul><li>Master’s Degree </li></ul><ul><li>Doctoral Degree </li></ul>Graduate School Vocational Qualifications Academic Qualifications HE Type
    17. 17. Financial and human resources invested in HE <ul><li>Source : Education at a Glance (OECD Indicators, 2004) (PPP $) </li></ul>Note) *Type A : University, Graduate School **Type B : Junior college, Technical college Type B** Type A * 94 66 70 79 $ 26,636 $ 35,179 $ 26,685 $ 15,916 GDP per capita(’01) 0.5 1.5 1.3 0.5 Public expenditure on HE as a percentage of GDP 62 17.1 $ 22,234 US 73 15.4 $ 12,319 OECD 11.2 - Ratio of students to teaching staff 86 74 Survival rates in tertiary education $11,164 $ 6,618 Expenditure per student(’01) Japan Korea
    18. 18. University Graduates by Field of Study (%) <ul><li>* Source : Education at a Glance (OECD Indicators, 2002) </li></ul>1.2 1.9 1.7 7.3 3.6 40.0 6.5 11.5 Poland 0.7 8.5 3.7 9.1 8.4 38.7 8.7 20.0 Hungary 5.0 15.2 1.9 17.6 1.8 27.4 14.7 8.0 Germany 1.4 9.6 2.3 6.3 3.5 41.4 14.4 13.2 U.S.A. 3.5 7.1 2.6 27.4 2.9 22.3 21.4 5.2 Korea Physical sciences Health & Welfare Agri-culture Engineer-ing, Manu-facturing Services Social Sciences, Business, Law Humanities & Art Education
    19. 19. Expansion of higher education ’ 70 ’ 80 ’ 90 ’ 00 ’ 04 5.4% 11.4% 23.6% 61.7% 52.5% Elite Mass Universal (Trow) ※ The Percentage of Higher Education Attendance = (enrolled students/school age population)
    20. 20. School leavers choice 2002 (1990) Graduation from Year 12 Secondary School 4 year Universities 2 year Jr. Colleges 18.1% (33.7%) Post Grad Study 8.6% (7.7%) of Graduates 56.4% (52.3%) of Graduates Non-economic activity population Work 9.7% (37.8%) 23.9% (11.7%) 54.3% (20.0%) 37.7% (48.2%) of Graduates 12.4% (7.4%) of Graduates 25.0% (22.4%) of Graduates 31.1% (37.0%) of Graduates
    21. 21. Employment rate by education level
    22. 22. Earnings differentials
    23. 23. III. ISSUES AND CHALLENGES
    24. 24. College admission dominates k-12 education <ul><li>Dominance of prestigious institutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ministers graduated from ‘SKY University’: 68.4%, 288/421(1980~2002) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chief public prosecutors graduated from ‘SNU’ : 72.5%(2002) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CEO graduated from ‘SKY University’ : 39.8%, 1,703/4,281(2002) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congressmen graduated from ‘SKY University’ : 57.1%, 156/273(2002) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Severe competition to get into prestigious colleges </li></ul><ul><li>: “exam hell” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers: Pressure to focus on test-taking skills rather than life skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students: Learning burden, lack of motivation to learn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents : Private costs of education (2% of GDP on private tutoring) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Policies to subdue excess competition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ban on private tutoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High School Leveling Policy for last 30 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Debate between egalitarianism and elitism </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Concentration in Seoul metropolitan area poses another problem <ul><li>* Source : National Census Data (%) </li></ul>47.5 49.2 43.4 48.7 42.0   Hospitals 39.8 41.5 48.6 69.1 55.8 Enrollments 41.8 45.8 49.4 56.3 52.9 # Institutions   Universities 62.2 62.9 69.2 67.1 44.5 Loans 67.9 65.5 69.8 68.2 59.7 Deposits Financial Institutions 36.8 43.7 38.6 46.3 41.2 Outputs 56.6 58.1 43.8 32.8 26.7 # Firms   Business Firms 2000 1990 1980 1970 1960
    26. 26. Relative performance of HE is not as good as.. Science Citation Index <ul><li>GER as of 2001 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary: 98%, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary: 96%, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tertiary: 84%. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PISA 2003 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2nd in total rank, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1st in problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>solving abilities, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2nd in reading, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3rd in math, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4th in science </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. <ul><li>No differences among universities  monotonous system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the Number of programs per university : 38 (’90)  57 (’04) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Excess supply in graduate students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unemployment rate (engineering) : 9.8%(’97)  16.6%(’03) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>139 of 200 4-year universities offer doctoral degree </li></ul></ul>Extent of specialization is too low Korea U S Associate Bachelor Master Doctorate 53% 19% 20% 8% 44% 4% 13% 39%
    28. 28. <ul><li>Extent of dissatisfaction: CEO’s view on HE </li></ul>HE is not pertinent enough <ul><li>Mismatch between jobs and majors </li></ul>87% Practice&field exp 75% Creativity 68% Field experience of faculty 70% instructions 72% Curriculum Federation of Korean Industries, 2002. 24.1 31.6 26.7 27.9 15.8 15.0 33.3 25.4 Jr.College University Well Matched Matched Mismatched Badly Mismatched Source: Office of Statistics, 2003 (%)
    29. 29. Stakeholders are disconnected <ul><li>Limited university-industry partnership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low mobility between academia and business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>University portion of industry's R&D investment: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.4%(’00) -> 1.7% (’03) (MOST, ‘04) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low commercialization of university-based IPRs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patent share (90~’01) : universities 0.5%, companies 78.8%, research institutes 2.9%, individuals 17.8% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Un-coordinated financial support to universities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Duplication of funding for the same purpose by several line ministries </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. HE is not prepared for an aging population <Source : National Statistical Office>
    31. 31. Nor is it matched up to a structural change in the economy
    32. 32. Knowledge workers are in great demand (Unit : thousands) Classification 1993 1998 2000 2002 Change (02~93) Legislators, senior official and managers 523 (2.6) 494 (2.5) 465 (2.2) 570 (2.6) 47 (0) Professionals, technicians & associate professionals 2,417 (12.6) 3,254 (16.3) 3,477 (16.4) 3,692 (16.7) 1,275 (4.1) Clerks 2,474 (12.9) 2,481 (12.4) 2,512 (11.9) 2,822 (12.7) 348 ( ▽ 0.2) Service workers and shop and market sales workers 4,053 (21.1) 4,712 (23.6) 5,501 (26.0) 5,795 (26.1) 1,742 (5.0) Skilled agricultural and fishery workers 2,322 (12.1) 2,284 (11.5) 2,115 (10.0) 1,964 (8.9) ▽ 358 ( ▽ 3.2) Craft, machine operators and assemblers 5,341 (27.8) 4,643 (23.3) 4,980 (23.5) 5,070 (22.9) ▽ 271 ( ▽ 4.9) Elementary occupations 2,105 (10.9) 2,069 (10.4) 2,107 (10.0) 2,255 (10.2) 150 ( ▽ 0.7) Total Employed Persons 19,234 (100) 19,938 (100) 21,156 (100) 22,169 (100) 2,935 (0)
    33. 33. The trend of knowledge-based economy is accelerating < Source : MOCIE>
    34. 34. IV. REFORM INITIATIVES
    35. 35. Globally Competetive Higher Education LB information Restructuring & competition Partnerships Selected funding for specialization Top-notch professionals (Graduate Schools) Regional innovation initiators (Universities) Industrial engineers (Junior Colleges )
    36. 36. <ul><li>Minimum regulations to maintain social solidarity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>college admission policies with the “three-Nos” policy (no entrance exam, no use of HS ranking, no admission with donations) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Promotion of restructuring and competition through market discipline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>use of various incentives and disincentives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Funding based on “selection and concentration” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>targeted funding for specialization and regional parity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Financing learners rather than providers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>learner-oriented/demand-side financing (student loans) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improvement of HE/labor market information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>manpower forcasting and assessment of skill requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enhancement of networking and partnerships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>with local governments and business community </li></ul></ul>Major strategies
    37. 37. Reform of college admission policy <ul><li>Raw Scores </li></ul><ul><li>with Mean and SD </li></ul><ul><li>Letter Grade (A,B,C..) </li></ul>GPA (HS grade point average) <ul><li>More important </li></ul><ul><li>Less Important </li></ul>Interview <ul><li>More portion </li></ul><ul><li>Small portion </li></ul>Admission based on residence, SES.. <ul><li>Ranking (1-9th grade) </li></ul><ul><li>Item pools </li></ul><ul><li>Test scores </li></ul><ul><li>Annual preparation of </li></ul><ul><li>test items </li></ul>SAT (Scholastic Aptitude Test) 2008 NOW
    38. 38. <ul><li>Internalization of professional programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage collaboration with world-class institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide financial incentives (e.g., BK21) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Institutionalization of professional schools in high value-added service sector </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Law, medicine, MBA, international finance, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote training at graduate level rather than at undergraduate level </li></ul></ul>Improvement of professional training
    39. 39. <ul><li>Brain Korea 21 (BK21) Project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals: 1) to develop a world class R&D Manpower; 2) to reform university education and R&D </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Funding based on “performance contracts”: Invest $1.2billions for 7 years(1999-2005) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major outputs: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SCI : 4,414 (1999) -> 7,477(2003) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Patent : 103(1999) -> 261(2003) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prof. Whang Woo-suk (SNU) : stem cell research </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Preparation of a 2nd stage BK21 (2006-2013) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building on the successful features of BK21 and scaling up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Selection and Concentration” on a few key areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengthen industry-university partnerships </li></ul></ul>Strengthening of research training
    40. 40. <ul><li>New University for Regional Innovation(NURI) Project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal: Capacity building of regional universities to promote innovation and HRD at regional level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Target: Universities located outside the Seoul metropolitan area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance based funding: Invest US $ 1.4 billions for 5 years (US $ 0.24 billions in 2005) </li></ul></ul>Universities for regional innovation <ul><li>Lack of investment </li></ul><ul><li>& innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Low productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Low RGDP, limited </li></ul><ul><li>job opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Investment & high </li></ul><ul><li>competitiveness </li></ul><ul><li>RGDP growth & Job </li></ul><ul><li>creation </li></ul><ul><li>Balanced national </li></ul><ul><li>development </li></ul>Vicious Cycle Virtuous Cycle NURI
    41. 41. <ul><li>Introduction of a new HE quality assurance system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>External review of institutional performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overhaul the quality assurance system including the accreditation and certification process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial provisions aligned with institutional evaluations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create a buffer body between government and university </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disclosure of information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data on key inputs: PT ratio, unit expenditure, occupancy/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>enrollment rate, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outcome measures: persistence/graduation rate, employment rate, reputation of graduates, customer satisfaction, IPRs, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Financial incentives for reform and restructuring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subsidies linked to M&A among institutions </li></ul></ul>Creation of external pressure
    42. 42. <ul><li>Increasing the role of National HRD Committee </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public expenditure review of HE investment projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordination and prioritization of various HE projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing policy linkage for synergy effects (e.g., R&D and HRD) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Realignment of role division between line Ministries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MOE&HRD focuses on HRD and basic research training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ministry of Science & Technology specializes in university based R&D and applied research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other Ministries finances sector-specific investment projects (e.g., IT, BT) </li></ul></ul>Improving HE policy coordination
    43. 43. <ul><li>“ Connect Korea” Project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishing Consortium between TLOs (Technology Licensing Offices) in Universities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connection between Demand (Industry) and Supply (University) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R&D and Tech. Development -> Transfer Results/Products -> Commercialization -> Reinvest in Technology Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissemination of best practices </li></ul></ul>Facilitation of university-industry partnerships Firms, Investors Researchers Prospective R&D Results Purchase R&D Products Connect (TLO)
    44. 44. <ul><li>Improvement of LB information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Periodic skill/manpower projections: by industry, occupation and educational attainment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investment in data collection, analysis and forecasting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provision of LB data to stakeholders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HE institutions use information for adjustment of programs and curricula </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student/parents make “informed decision” on career paths </li></ul></ul>Linking LB information to HE
    45. 45. [email_address] Thank You !

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