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# Education In Korea (Ppt)

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• The Basics Understanding and Using Statistics by William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

1. The most common skill necessary for doing statistics is counting. For example:

a. the number of days a student is present or absent

b. the number of items correct or incorrect on a test

c. the number of discipline referrals

d. frequency of unacceptable or desirable behaviors

e. the number of attempts required to master a skill

2. The second most common skill used in statistics is measurement. For example, things we measure in education include:

a. achievement of individuals or achievement gaps between groups

b. aptitude

c. interest

d. skill level

e. knowledge

f. attitudes of teachers, parents, students toward specific thing

g. opinions of various constituencies

h. beliefs of important players in the organization

i. level and type of motivation

j. degree of improvement

k. progress

l. behaviors

3. The most frequently applied mathematical operations in statistics include addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

If you know how to count, measure, add, subtract, multiply, and divide, then you ALREADY possess the skills necessary to do statistics.

4. Many statistical concepts have become a part of our daily vocabulary.

We use these concepts without thinking. For example:

a. I am going to calculate the “average.” (statisticians call this the arithmetic mean or mean)

b. She is above average. (statisticians say more precisely that her performance on a measurement was one, two or three standard deviations above the mean.)

c. I am 99.9% sure. (statisticians call this p < .001 or confidence level; that is to say, these results were not due to accident or chance)

d. That information seems a bit “skewed.” (statisticians say that the mean and median are not equal and that the distribution is positively or negatively skewed)

e. There is a correlation between this and that. (statisticians say that there is a statistically significant relationship between this and that. The correlation is usually stated in numeric form, for example r=.34, p< .01)

5. Established research designs and procedures for calculating and thinking about statistics already exist. All you have to do is learn the directions and follow them. Making your easier are the facts that:

a. Research design tells you what data to gather.

b. Statistical procedures and formula already exist and can be used for calculating your data.

c. Statistical software such as the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (S.P.S.S.) and S.A.S. make the analysis of your data very systematic and complete including tables, graphs and charts.

1) SPSS is a quality software application for students in the initial stage of learning statistical analyses. In addition, SPSS is a low cost resources to students and it provides professional statistical analysis and tools in a user friendly software environment for both MAC and PC users. A list of resources for learning SPSS is provided at the end of the chapter.

2) SAS is a more complex package with high levels of statistical analysis capabilities. SAS handles a wide variety of specialized functions for data analysis and procedures. This software package is utilized extensively in business, industry as well as educational settings. tools for both specialized and enterprise-wide analytical needs. SAS is provided for PC, UNIX, and mainframe computer platforms. A list of resources for learning SAS is provided at the end of the chapter.

6. In a very short time you will realize that you can use your existing skills but will use them MORE skillfully when you do statistics.

a. By counting, measuring, comparing, and examining relationships of the RIGHT things you will be able to skillfully analyze data and draw accurate and MEANINGFUL conclusions.

b. You will learn to use your findings and conclusions to make better informed educational decisions.

Web Resources for SPSS

• http://www.utexas.edu/its/rc/tutorials/stat/spss/spss1/index.html

• http://www.ats.ucla.edu/STAT/mult_pkg/whatstat/default.htm

• http://www.stat.tamu.edu/spss.php

• http://www.spsstools.net/spss.htm

• http://cs.furman.edu/rushing/mellonj/spss1.htm

• http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/spss/examples/default.htm

• http://www.psych.utoronto.ca/courses/c1/spss/toc.htm

• http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/spss/modules/default.htm

• http://data.fas.harvard.edu/projects/SPSS_Tutorial/spsstut.shtml

• http://www.cas.lancs.ac.uk/short_courses/intro_spss.html

• http://www.cas.lancs.ac.uk/short_courses/notes/intro_spss/session1.pdf

• http://www.bris.ac.uk/is/learning/documentation/spss-t2/spss-t2.pdf

• http://calcnet.mth.cmich.edu/org/spss/toc.htm

• http://www.indiana.edu/~statmath/stat/spss/

• http://dl.lib.brown.edu/gateway/ssds/SPSS%202%20Hypothesis%20Testing%20and%20Inferential%20Statistics.pdf

• http://dl.lib.brown.edu/gateway/ssds/SPSS1%20Finding%20and%20Managing%20Data%20for%20the%20Social%20Sciences.pdf

• http://www.shef.ac.uk/scharr/spss/index2.htm

Web Resources for SAS

• http://www.itc.virginia.edu/research/sas/training/v8/

• http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/sas/sk/

• http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/sscc/pubs/stat.htm

• http://web.fccj.org/~jtrifile/SAS2.html

• http://www.utexas.edu/cc/stat/tutorials/sas8/sas8.html

• http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/sas/modules/

• http://www.psych.yorku.ca/lab/sas/

• http://instruct.uwo.ca/sociology/300a/SASintro.htm

• http://web.utk.edu/~leon/jmp/

• http://www.stat.unc.edu/students/owzar/stat101.html

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• ### Education In Korea (Ppt)

1. 3. <ul><li>Introduction of modern education system </li></ul><ul><li>1880s </li></ul><ul><li>1940s </li></ul><ul><li>1950s </li></ul>: introduced the first modern school system : established a modern education system : introduced compulsory education (Wonsan Academy 1883, Baejae Academy 1885) (single track system 6-3-3-4) (elementary education)
2. 4. <ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><li>National Level </li></ul>: the Ministry of Education and HRD (the Ministry of Education) : Headed by Deputy Prime Minister : 540 employees <ul><li>Local Level </li></ul>: Local Offices of Education (for elementary & secondary education) : Education Board : elected by members of each school council : Superintendent : serves four years
3. 5. <ul><li>Budget </li></ul><ul><li>One year budget (2006) : 29.1 trillion Korean won </li></ul>: 5.06% of the GNP : 19.7% of total Government budget <ul><li>the Biggest portion </li></ul>: E lementary & Secondary Education 86.2% : Higher Education 12.3%
4. 6. Elementary Education Special School <ul><li>School System </li></ul>Pre-school Education Secondary Education Miscellaneous School Civic High School Special Classes (Industrial Firms) Middle School Attached to Industrial Firms Middle School High School Trade High School Air&Correspondence High School High School Attached to Industrial Firms Higher Education College in the Company Cyber College and University Air&Correspondence University Junior College University of Education Graduate School Industrial University Technical College University Miscellaneous School Civic School Elementary School Kindergarten 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Schooling year Age
5. 8. <ul><li>Kindergarten </li></ul><ul><li>Carried out in national, public and private </li></ul><ul><li>545,812 children in 8,290 kindergartens (2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Government Project : </li></ul>“ Supporting kindergarten tuition for children for low-income families ” Since 1999 <ul><li>Aged 3 to 5 </li></ul>
6. 9. <ul><li>Elementary Education </li></ul><ul><li>Free and Compulsory </li></ul><ul><li>Enrollment rate </li></ul><ul><li>Early entering into Elementary school : </li></ul><ul><li>3,295,043 Children in 5,733 schools (2006) </li></ul>64%(1945) 5 years old <ul><li>Teaching English in Elementary school since 1997 </li></ul>3rd grade of school        ► 98.8%(2005)
7. 10. <ul><li>Middle School </li></ul><ul><li>2,075,311 students in 2,999 middle schools (2006) </li></ul>1985 :in farming and fishing areas <ul><li>99% enrollment rate from elementary school </li></ul><ul><li>Free compulsory middle school education </li></ul>2002 :nationwide <ul><li>High School </li></ul><ul><li>1,775,857 students in 2,144 high schools (2006) </li></ul><ul><li>99.7% enrollment rate from middle school </li></ul><ul><li>Kinds of high schools </li></ul>General, Vocational, Science, Special high schools
8. 11. <ul><li>Curriculum & Textbooks </li></ul><ul><li>7th Curriculum (Current Curriculum) </li></ul>devised by the Ministry of Education revised every 5 to 7 years providing basic education fostering initiative guaranteeing learner-centered education ensuring autonomy <ul><li>National Curriculum (by Education Law 155) </li></ul>.
9. 12. <ul><li>Curriculum & Textbooks </li></ul><ul><li>Textbook </li></ul>1st Type : Copyrights are held by the Ministry of Education. 2nd Type : Published by private publishers & authorized by the Ministry of Education. 3rd Type : Recognized as relevant and useful by the Ministry, local education offices.
10. 13. <ul><li>Teachers and Teachers’ Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Classification of Teachers </li></ul>Teacher Grade l and ll ⓐ Assistant Teacher ⓑ Counselor ⓒ Librarian ⓓ Field Training Teacher ⓔ Nursing Teacher ⓕ
11. 14. <ul><li>Teachers and Teachers’ Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers’ Organization </li></ul>T hree Teachers’ Unions : Korean Teachers & Educational Workers’ Union : Korea Union of Teaching & Educational Workers : Korea Liberal Teacher’s Union Teachers’ Association : Korean Federation of Teachers Association
12. 16. <ul><li>Types of Higher Educational Institutions </li></ul><ul><li>University </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial University </li></ul><ul><li>University of Education </li></ul><ul><li>Junior College </li></ul><ul><li>Air & Correspondence University </li></ul><ul><li>Technical College </li></ul><ul><li>College in the Company </li></ul><ul><li>Cyber College & University </li></ul><ul><li>Miscellaneous Schools </li></ul><ul><li>Enrollment rate 82.1% (2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul>
13. 17. <ul><li>Junior College </li></ul><ul><li>2 or 3 years </li></ul><ul><li>13 national/public, 139 private </li></ul>817,994 students in 152 Junior colleges (2006) ■
14. 18. <ul><li>University </li></ul><ul><li>4 years </li></ul>2,434,112 students <ul><li>43 national/public, 178 private </li></ul><ul><li>6 year program : medicine, oriental medicine, dentistry </li></ul>■ in 221 colleges and universities (2006)
15. 19. Cultivate high-quality research human resources by nurturing world class research universities and regional graduate schools of excellence <ul><li>Goal </li></ul><ul><li>Brain Korea 21 Project </li></ul>: efforts for improving the quality of higher education <ul><li>Outline </li></ul>. 147,000 students, 569 project teams in 74 universities 79,680 students, 564 project teams in 166 universities 2.03 trillion KRW 1.4 trillion KRW 2006 ~ 2012 1999 ~ 2005 Phase Ⅱ Phase Ⅰ
16. 20. <ul><li>Brain Korea 21 Project </li></ul>: efforts for improving the quality of higher education <ul><li>Visible result : Research atmosphere </li></ul>. World Ranking The number of articles registered in SCI 18 3,765 Before BK21 10 (Goal) 12 7,281 (2005) Phase Ⅱ Phase Ⅰ
17. 21. Give a boost to regional economy by nurtur ing qualified human resources of regional university graduates through specialized education programs <ul><li>Goal </li></ul><ul><li>NURI Project </li></ul>: New University for Regional Innovation 1.2 trillion KRW is to be invested over a period of five years (2004~2008) <ul><li>Outline </li></ul>131 project teams, 190,000 students 109 regional universities are currently participating as of 2006
18. 23. <ul><li>Institutionalization of lifelong Education </li></ul><ul><li>Air & Correspondence High school </li></ul><ul><li>Air & Correspondence University </li></ul>5,700 students in 11 schools(1974) Established in 1972 <ul><li>Distance University Education </li></ul>15 Universities & 2 Junior Colleges To working adolescents, laborers, housewives and etc. 273,417 students (2006) Opened March, 2001        ► 13,448 in 39 schools (2006) .
19. 25. <ul><li>ICT Infrastructure in Schools and Classrooms </li></ul><ul><li>All K-12 school classrooms connected to Internet in 2000. </li></ul><ul><li>1 PC per 5.6 students </li></ul><ul><li>Educational Information Services </li></ul><ul><li>EDUNET: National Teaching-Learning Center </li></ul>: Comprehensive education information service launched in 1996 <ul><li>Cyber Home Learning System & EBSi </li></ul>: Internet-based learning service to complement school education at home : To enhance self-directed learning capabilities : 5.6 million members as of 2006 : 25.6 million materials are registered. <ul><li>Korea Education & Research Information Service, 1999 </li></ul>
20. 26. <ul><li>National Education Information System (NEIS) </li></ul><ul><li>National Education Information System </li></ul>: launched in 2002 to improve efficiency and transparency <ul><li>Service areas </li></ul>: General affairs – Accounting & HR managements : School affairs – Student record : connected with MOE&HRD, offices of education and all schools <ul><li>To contribute to narrowing down the digital divide in education </li></ul>: Provision of refurbished PCs and teacher training <ul><li>e-Learning Globalization since 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Seminars, joint research, and e-Learning consulting </li></ul>(17 developing countries, 2006) : Civil service - Certifications
21. 28. 3. Educational Policy Advisory Councils 2. National HRD Committee 1. Ministry of Education and HRD <ul><li>Elevated to the Ministry headed by a Deputy Prime Minster </li></ul><ul><li>Oversee & coordinate policies </li></ul><ul><li>Ministerial Education Policy Council </li></ul><ul><li>Presidential Commission on Educational Innovation Council </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of 14 line ministries (sub-cabinet meeting) </li></ul><ul><li>Since 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor and evaluate the implementation of HRD policies </li></ul>
22. 30. <ul><li>Reforming Educational System </li></ul><ul><li>Change current subject-centered curriculum </li></ul>to competency-based curriculum - Develop the Basic Competency Skills for All <ul><li>Enhance and evaluate teacher’s ability </li></ul>- Promote autonomy and accountability in the school system
23. 31. <ul><li>Reforming Educational System </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen the support system to promote LLL </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance quality of higher education up to global level </li></ul>- Set up ubiquitous learning system (e-Learning) - Support LLL by financial aids (Loan, Tax Credits, ILA) - Innovate role and function of universities as new engine for sustainable economic growth - Expand cooperative system among industries, universities, and research institutes
24. 32. Thank You