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Introduction to
the Netherlands
and the Dutch
public sector
|
Kingdom of The Netherlands
Constitutional Monarchy
- King Head of State
- Constitution
- Kingdom:
• The Netherlands, inc...
|
Role of King Willem-Alexander
- Head of State
- Signs laws with the responsible minister (ceremonial
function)
|
Basis of Dutch Democracy
TRIAS POLITICA (absolute separation of
powers
- Government governs
- Parliament verifies
- Judg...
|
Representative Democracy
- Dutch vote for the parliament, the
provincial council, the municipal council
and the European...
|
Major Dutch Political Parties
Name Seats in House of
Representatives
Liberal Party 41 -----------------------
Labour Par...
|
Dutch public law
- National government, provinces
and municipalities all have
their own responsibilities and
sphere of i...
|
Decentralised unitary state
3 major principles:
- Autonomy: municipalities have their own
regulations
- Shared governanc...
|
Government system
4 tiers + 1:
- Central government
- Provincial government
- Waterboards
- Municipalities
- + European ...
|
Government system
Three branches of government:
- Legislative: Second (150) and First Chamber (75)
(House of Representat...
|
Dutch government
- 11 ministries: 109,000 employees
- 147 autonomous administrative
authorities: 39,000 employees
- 12 p...
|
Political responsibility
- A minister is responsible for the formulation
and implementation of public policy
- Which ref...
|
12 Dutch provinces
Legislative
- Elected representatives at the Provincial State
- Every four years elections
- Provinci...
|
|
Dutch provinces
Main Tasks
- Responsible for regional development, environment
and public transport (tenders)
- Overseei...
|
Threats to Dutch provinces
- Less democratic legitimacy: provincial
elections attract less voters (no social economic
is...
|
Dutch municipalities
Legislative
- Elected representatives
- Every four years elections
Executive
- Mayor (appointed by ...
|
Dutch municipalities
- Merging of small municipalities into large ones
(1975: 842, now: 390)
- Average size: 37,000 peop...
|
Dutch municipalities: finances
- The total budget of all Dutch municipalities:
approx. 50 billion EURO
- For 80-85% fina...
|
Dutch municipalities: finances
- Ear-marked funds, these funds cannot be reallocated:
social services, primary education...
|
Revenue sources of municipalities
1-12-
2016
|
Comparison major cities and ministries
Amount of employees:
- Municipality of Amsterdam: 13,000
- Municipality of Rotter...
|
Checks and balances on four levels
- European law stands above Dutch law
- Central Dutch government can suspend
decision...
|
Relations between the 3 tiers
- No hierarchy between the 3
levels of government
- Hierarchy in laws (central laws
preced...
|
Relations between the 3 tiers
In practice:
- Distrust at central level in execution
- General funding accounts for 80-85...
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Introduction to NL and dutch public sector

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Introduction to NL and dutch public sector

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Introduction to NL and dutch public sector

  1. 1. Introduction to the Netherlands and the Dutch public sector
  2. 2. | Kingdom of The Netherlands Constitutional Monarchy - King Head of State - Constitution - Kingdom: • The Netherlands, including municipalities of Bonaire, St Eustatius and Saba on Netherlands Antilles • Countries: Aruba, Curacao and St Maarten on Netherlands Antilles
  3. 3. | Role of King Willem-Alexander - Head of State - Signs laws with the responsible minister (ceremonial function)
  4. 4. | Basis of Dutch Democracy TRIAS POLITICA (absolute separation of powers - Government governs - Parliament verifies - Judges are independent
  5. 5. | Representative Democracy - Dutch vote for the parliament, the provincial council, the municipal council and the European Parliament - Each party gets the number of seats that corresponds to its share of the votes received
  6. 6. | Major Dutch Political Parties Name Seats in House of Representatives Liberal Party 41 ----------------------- Labour Party 38 ----------------------- Party for Freedom 15 Socialist Party 15 Christian Democrats 13 Liberal Democrats 12 Small parties (5) 16
  7. 7. | Dutch public law - National government, provinces and municipalities all have their own responsibilities and sphere of influence - Pressure groups can oppose by legal action, lobbying and media attention
  8. 8. | Decentralised unitary state 3 major principles: - Autonomy: municipalities have their own regulations - Shared governance: national regulations give opportunity to implement specific measures at the local level - Unity of policy: local authorities can’t oppose national policy
  9. 9. | Government system 4 tiers + 1: - Central government - Provincial government - Waterboards - Municipalities - + European Union
  10. 10. | Government system Three branches of government: - Legislative: Second (150) and First Chamber (75) (House of Representatives and Senate) - Executive: Cabinet of ministers and Prime Minister (11 Ministries) - Judicial: Supreme Court appointed by the Crown, Divisionary Courts - State institutions - Council of State - National Court of Audit - National Ombudsman
  11. 11. | Dutch government - 11 ministries: 109,000 employees - 147 autonomous administrative authorities: 39,000 employees - 12 provinces: 11,000 employees - 390 municipalities: 155,000 employees
  12. 12. | Political responsibility - A minister is responsible for the formulation and implementation of public policy - Which refers to the actions and measures of his department and its executing authorities - But not to the actions of autonomous administrative authorities (for example Employee Insurance Agency, Agency for Asylum Seekers)
  13. 13. | 12 Dutch provinces Legislative - Elected representatives at the Provincial State - Every four years elections - Provincial States elect the Senate Executive - King´s Commissioner (appointed by the Crown) - Deputies (selected by the coalition)
  14. 14. |
  15. 15. | Dutch provinces Main Tasks - Responsible for regional development, environment and public transport (tenders) - Overseeing policy and finances of municipalities and waterboards Finances - They can impose taxes (limited) - Their revenues come from national government and EU funds, but not from municipalities
  16. 16. | Threats to Dutch provinces - Less democratic legitimacy: provincial elections attract less voters (no social economic issues) - Undermining of power position: the rise of city regions (cooperation between municipalities, for example Rotterdam-The Hague)
  17. 17. | Dutch municipalities Legislative - Elected representatives - Every four years elections Executive - Mayor (appointed by the Crown) - Alderman (selected by the coalition) 1-12- 2016
  18. 18. | Dutch municipalities - Merging of small municipalities into large ones (1975: 842, now: 390) - Average size: 37,000 people
  19. 19. | Dutch municipalities: finances - The total budget of all Dutch municipalities: approx. 50 billion EURO - For 80-85% financed by national government - For the execution of tasks resulting from national policy, municipalities are mostly compensated by contributions from national funds: • Ear-marked funds • General grant
  20. 20. | Dutch municipalities: finances - Ear-marked funds, these funds cannot be reallocated: social services, primary education and urban regeneration - General grant, the municipal council is free to decide on its precise allocation. To ensure equal level of services with an equal level of local taxes/charges for all municipalities. - Local taxes: property, dog ownership, tourists, land, administrative fees and charges - Various: municipal property, European subsidies
  21. 21. | Revenue sources of municipalities 1-12- 2016
  22. 22. | Comparison major cities and ministries Amount of employees: - Municipality of Amsterdam: 13,000 - Municipality of Rotterdam: 13,000 - Ministry of the Interior: 7,000 - Ministry of Justice: 30,000 - Ministry of Finance: 1,640 (without TO) - Tax Office: 32,000
  23. 23. | Checks and balances on four levels - European law stands above Dutch law - Central Dutch government can suspend decisions by a municipality - Local plans, which regulate how the land in each particular area may be used and what may be built there, must be consistent with provincial structure plans - A municipality’s budget must be approved by the provincial authorities
  24. 24. | Relations between the 3 tiers - No hierarchy between the 3 levels of government - Hierarchy in laws (central laws precede over provincial and local edicts) - Principle of decentralisation of tasks to local level unless impossible - Limited taxes at local level, most of funds received through general funding by central government
  25. 25. | Relations between the 3 tiers In practice: - Distrust at central level in execution - General funding accounts for 80-85% of budget for municipalities - Decentralisation of tasks, yes. But with extensive accounting and checks from central government - Code for interadministrative relations

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