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  1. 1. Developing Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge through Teacher Design Teams: The Case of pre-service Mathematics teachers in Ghana SITE 2010, SAN DIEGO <ul><li>Douglas D. Agyei & Joke Voogt </li></ul>
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Total area = 23,837,000 sq. km </li></ul><ul><li>Total population = 23,837,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Capital city = Accra </li></ul><ul><li>Official language = English </li></ul><ul><li>In Ghana technology in instruction is not practiced! </li></ul><ul><li>- Importance has not been placed on this practice </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Context (1): Feasibility of technology use in Ghanaian classrooms <ul><li>Barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of knowledge about ways to integrate technology in teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of pedagogical support ( like training) </li></ul><ul><li>Technology competencies are lacking </li></ul><ul><li>Availability and accessibility problems ( minimal ) </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional methods of teaching (Both at SHS’s and Teacher Education prog.) </li></ul><ul><li>No preparation ( of pre-service teachers )from teacher education programme </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Context (2) TPCK(TPACK)- Interconnection / intersection of content, pedagogy and technology (Mishra & Koehler,2006) <ul><li>Learning Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of ICT alternatives (appropriate ways of integrating ICT) </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to use ICT in mathematics teaching and learning </li></ul><ul><li>What Knowledge, skills and dispositions do teachers need? </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Context (3) <ul><li>A Professional Development Programme (PDP): Is a necessity! </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum and policy documents encourage it (MESS,2007; MOE, 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Institutions (teacher education and SHS’s) are open for such innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Readiness of participants to learn ICT skills (Possible attitudes & High perceptions) </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of computer labs in schools </li></ul><ul><li>Access to some ICT tools </li></ul>
  6. 6. Professional Development for Mathematics Pre- Service Teachers <ul><li>Intense summer program ( 8 weeks) </li></ul><ul><li>Exemplary materials (a major component) </li></ul><ul><li>Working in TDT’s (The PD approach) to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify mathematics topics (concept); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify appropriate technology resources for the topic; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design & develop appropriate activities; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporate activities in lesson & planning instructional strategy ; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach the lesson in a technology-based environment & </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>evaluate it. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Overview of professional support activities
  8. 9. Challenge of the study <ul><li>Measure the impact of the PDP </li></ul><ul><li>Describe teachers’ developing TPCK knowledge, beliefs and dispositions </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how components (TDT’s & Exemplary materials) influence teachers’ TPCK growth . </li></ul><ul><li>− Pre and Post technology competency </li></ul><ul><li>questionnaire/student questionnaire (125) </li></ul><ul><li>− Interview (teachers(4),student guided discussion) </li></ul><ul><li>− Observation </li></ul><ul><li>− Researchers’ logbook </li></ul>
  9. 10. Self-Efficacy/Outcome Expectancy 5pt Likert scale: SA-SD <ul><li>See page 2 of handout </li></ul><ul><li>Measures Spreadsheet Competencies </li></ul><ul><li>Shaded = Self Efficacy (Belief in ones’ own ability with </li></ul><ul><li>spreadsheet) </li></ul><ul><li>Clear = Outcome Expectancy (Outcome believed possible </li></ul><ul><li>given ones’ effective teaching) </li></ul>
  10. 11. Increasing developmental TPCK levels - Stages of Adoption ( SOA) <ul><li>Knezek, Christensen, Miyashita & Ropp, 2000 </li></ul>
  11. 12. Results (1): Growth in TPCK
  12. 13. Results (2): Student Experiences
  13. 14. Results (3): Teachers’Experiences <ul><li>Professional Skill </li></ul><ul><li>- Developing & teaching SSL lessons </li></ul><ul><li>- Blending components of TPCK effectively in lessons </li></ul><ul><li>- Guiding students to learn (effectively) in SSL environment </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>- Difficulty in making a link between lesson and real life situation (more time & practice needed) </li></ul><ul><li>- Problems in managing time allotted for various sections of the lesson ( was lesson overloaded?-more time & practice ) </li></ul>
  14. 15. Results (4): Teachers’Experiences with TDT’s <ul><li>Very Receptive </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity to support each other (via collaborations and free conversations ) </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced professional competencies </li></ul><ul><li>Increased output </li></ul><ul><li>Increased confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Information with holding (across teams) </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson design task itself </li></ul><ul><li>Different views </li></ul><ul><li>Lessons learnt </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss ideas for common understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance </li></ul>
  15. 16. Results (5):Experiences with Exempalary materials <ul><li>Opinions </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced TPCK </li></ul><ul><li>Improved knowledge on subject matter </li></ul><ul><li>Simplified lesson preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced their skill for teaching SSL </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitated step-by-step teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Suitable classroom activities </li></ul><ul><li>Student participation </li></ul><ul><li>Future use of Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Enthusiastic (Both teachers & student ) </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Promoted student participation </li></ul><ul><li>Sustains student interest in lesson </li></ul><ul><li>Helps students develop inquiry minds </li></ul><ul><li>Student – centred learning approach </li></ul>
  16. 17. What we learned... <ul><li>Developing & teaching SSL was key to teachers’ developing TPCK </li></ul><ul><li>Experience in learning their subject matter better (expanding own conceptions of teaching mathematics with SSL). </li></ul><ul><li>Extension of knowledge to developing other mathematics lessons with spreadsheet. </li></ul><ul><li>Support student understanding & interest in making connections among various representations (variables, equations, graphs ) </li></ul><ul><li>Support from TDT’s enhanced teachers’ TPCK </li></ul><ul><li>Working with (and developing) exemplary materials </li></ul><ul><li>supported teachers’ growth in their TPCK </li></ul>
  17. 18. Conclusions & Further study <ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The PDP enhanced teachers’ TPCK </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TDT’s and use of exemplary materials are promising strategies in TPCK development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future direction of research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extension of study (by exploring further topics and concepts). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A future study that follows the teachers into the field (as they contend with real school barriers of time, access and infrastructure) </li></ul></ul>

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