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His 122 ch 25 fall 2013


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The Roaring Twenties

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His 122 ch 25 fall 2013

  1. 1. The ModernTemper Chapter 25
  2. 2. The Reactionary Twenties  Nativism  Over half of the white men and a third of white women working in industry were immigrants.  Socialism and Anarchism were popular in Eastern Europe as a reaction to autocratic governments and wide disparities in wealth.  Nativists viewed immigrants as potential anarchists and socialists  Demands for limits to immigration and laws limited number of immigrants per country per year.  Sacco and Vanzetti  Self-described anarchists arrested in connection with a robbery and murder of a pay master  Stolen money never recovered  Sacco and Vanzetti found guilty and executed
  3. 3. Franco and Vanzetti
  4. 4. The Reactionary Twenties  Immigration Restriction  Chinese immigration limits vetoed by President Arthur but Congress overturned his veto  The Klan  Grew beyond the South
  5. 5. The Reactionary Twenties  Fundamentalism  View that the Bible should be taken literally  Scientific scholarship that contradicted literal fundamental interpretation of the Bible should not be considered  Darwinism on Trial  Scopes Trial in Tennessee  Tennessee outlawed the teaching of evolution in schools (Butler Act)  Show trial  Scopes a substitute teacher agree to be the defendant  Clarence Darrow (Defense)  William Jennings Bryan (Prosecution)  Scopes found guilty but conviction overturned
  6. 6. ScopesTrial, Dayton Tennesse ScopesTrial in Dayton: Most attendees were reporters: July 1925
  7. 7. Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan
  8. 8. The Reactionary Twenties  Prohibition  Ratified in 1918 (18th Amendment)  Section 1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.  Section 2.The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.  Section 3.This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.
  9. 9. Prohibition  Consuming alcohol was not illegal  House: 282 to 128,  Democrats voting 146 in favor and 64 in opposition;  Republicans voting 137 in favor and 62 in opposition.  Ratified in 1919 by 46 states
  10. 10. Women’s Suffrage before 1920 Full suffrage—green Presidential suffrage-orange Primary suffrage- blue Municipal suffrage—yellow School, bond, or tax suffrage—light blue Municipal suffrage in some cities--maroon Primary suffrage in some cities--pink No suffrage—dark red
  11. 11. “Roaring Twenties”  The “New Negro”  Great Migration  Occurred during WWI when white men were drafted for the war.  African American men encouraged to move to the Midwest to take jobs that soldiers had left  Part of “Total War”  Over 323,000 people moved North  By 1930 615,00 more African Americans moved away from the South
  12. 12. Harlem Renaissance  Cultural movement amongAfrican Americans  Centered in Harlem in NewYork City but also involved Caribbean- Africans and Africans in Paris  Opportunity: AJournal of Negro Life published by the National Urban League  Harlem became a black neighborhood in NewYork in 1900  1910, a large block along 135th Street and Fifth Avenue was bought by various African-American realtors and a church group.  Three Plays for a NegroTheatre RidgeleyTorrence  Harlem Stride Style combined brass with piano  Innovation and liveliness important characteristics in the beginnings of jazz.  Racial pride: modern African American
  13. 13. Frankie “Half Pint” Jackson & band at the Sunset Café 1920
  14. 14. Harlem Renaissance  “New Negro”  Intellect and production of literature, art, and music could challenge racism to promote progressive or socialist politics, racial and social integration  Creation of art and literature would serve to "uplift" the race.
  15. 15. Marcus Garvey Langston Hughes
  16. 16. Harlem Renaissance  Garveyism: movement founded by Marcus Garvey:  Africans in the Diaspora should return to their African heritage  UNIA: Universal Negro Improvement Association  NegroWorld newspaper used to promote UNIA membership and ideas  June 1919 (2 Million members of UNIA)  Garvey emphasized his belief in the One God, the God of Africa, who should be visualized through black eyes.  He preached that black people needed to become familiar with their ancient history and their rich cultural heritage.  He called for pride in the black race—for example; he made black dolls for black children.  "A race without authority and power is a race without respect."
  17. 17. National Journal of the NAACP
  18. 18. Mass Culture  The Growing Consumer Culture promoted more homogenous society  new products, lower prices  Mass communications: radios and movies  Airplanes, Automobiles, and the Economy  1927 Charles Lindbergh’s flight across the Atlantic proved the feasibility of air travel.  Post war “boom” affluence and Model T’s
  19. 19. Mass Culture  Spectator Sports  Availability of mass transportation made spectator sports more popular  Baseball, football and prize fights
  20. 20. The Modernist Revolt  Science and Social Thought  Albert Einstein announced theory of Relativity  Awarded Nobel Prize in 1921  Birth of the Modern Physics movement  Modernist Art and Literature  The Armory Show: traveling exhibit of modernist artists’ work  Ezra Pound; T.S. Eliot; Gertrude Stein
  21. 21. GertrudeStein, Pablo Picasso, 1906
  22. 22. The Modernist Revolt  The “Lost Generation”  Generation of adults who came of age during WWI