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His 121 chapter 9 the early republic


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His 121 chapter 9 the early republic

  1. 1. The Early Republic CHAPTER 9
  2. 2. Election Results of 1800US NationalArchives:Tally of ElectoralVotesFebruary 11, 1801
  3. 3. Deficiencies in Election Procedures Distinction between votes for President & Vice President Constitution calls for a vote in the House of Representatives in case of a tie House voted 36 times over 5 days: all votes tied Hamilton encouraged legislators to vote for Jefferson as “lesser of two evils” On February 17,1801 on the 37th vote Jefferson was elected President
  4. 4. Jeffersonian Simplicity New President walked from his lodgings to the Senate on Capitol Hill Administered oath by Chief Justice John Marshall Read his inaugural address Returned to boardinghouse for dinner
  5. 5. Peaceful Transition of PowerWe are all Republicans, we are all Federalists. If there be any among us who wouldwish to dissolve this Union or to change its republican form, let them standundisturbed as monuments of the safety with which error of opinion may be toleratedwhere reason is left free to combat it. I know, indeed, that some honest men fear that arepublican government can not be strong, that this Government is not strong enough;but would the honest patriot, in the full tide of successful experiment, abandon agovernment which has so far kept us free and firm on the theoretic and visionary fearthat this Government, the worlds best hope, may by possibility want energy topreserve itself? I trust not. I believe this, on the contrary, the strongest Governmenton earth. I believe it the only one where every man, at the call of the law, would fly tothe standard of the law, and would meet invasions of the public order as his ownpersonal concern. Sometimes it is said that man can not be trusted with thegovernment of himself. Can he, then, be trusted with the government of others? Orhave we found angels in the forms of kings to govern him? Let history answer thisquestion. --Thomas Jefferson, First Inaugural Address, March 4, 1801
  6. 6. Jefferson in Office Adams’s Midnight Appointments  Federalists wanted Federalist Judges  Appointed Federalist Judges to positions before midnight on Adams’s last day in office Marbury v. Madison  Jefferson’s administration refused to deliver the appointments  Marbury requested Mandamus  Court ruled:  Jefferson could not withhold appointment  Court had no jurisdiction to hear the case under the Constitution  Supreme Court assumed the right of “Judicial Review”
  7. 7. One of Lewis and Clark’s journals America, 8th Edition Copyright © 2010 W.W. Norton & Company
  8. 8. One of Lewis and Clark’s maps America, 8th Edition Copyright © 2010 W.W. Norton & Company
  9. 9. Divisions in the Democratic-Republican Party John Randolph and the Old Republicans  States rights  Strict construction  No tariffs  No compromise—ever The Burr conspiracy  Burr and General James Wilkinson  Louisiana territory secede and rule  Jefferson had him arrested for treason  Executive Privilege  Strict Construction of Treason as a crime  Burr was aquitted
  10. 10. War in Europe Harassment by Britain and France  Trade with one led to harassment by the other  Impressment The embargo 1807  Commerce clause  Hurt only U.S. Shipping (repealed in 1809) The drift to war  The Chesapeake  “…a dish of skim milk curdling at the head of our nation.”
  11. 11. Election of 1808James Madison Charles PinckneyDemocratic-Republican Federalist Electoral Vote 122 67 States Carried 12 5 Popular Vote 124,732 62,431 Percentage 64.7% 32.4%
  12. 12. War of 1812
  13. 13. The War of 1812 Causes  Violation of American shipping rights  Seizure of cargo  Impressment of seamen  Incitement of Indians along the border with Canada  Supported by the Northern States  Opposed by the South who relied on British purchases Preparations  Congress adjourned without providing for payment  Madison unprepared for fight over whether to go to war
  14. 14. The War of 1812 The war in the south  General Andrew Jackson fought the Cherokees and broke their power at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend.
  15. 15. The War of 1812 British strategy  Invasion from Canada stopped by Naval battle on Lake Champlain Fighting in the Chesapeake  British invaded and burned Washington D.C.  Battle of Baltimore: Fort McHenry 1814  “The Star Spangled Banner”
  16. 16. The War of 1812 The Battle of New Orleans  Jackson outnumbered 2:1  “The Rifles of Kentucky” The Treaty of Ghent  1814
  17. 17. The War of 1812 The Hartford Convention  Federalists and “Democrats” proposed demands that if not met would result in New England’s secession from the Union.  Demands arrived at the same time as news of the victory at the Battle of New Orleans  Federalist Party did not survive the embarrassment The aftermath  2nd War for Independence  Demonstrated that small nation could defeat a great power  Spurred industrialization  US could depend on internal rather than international markets  Era of Good Feeling