The perception that all colonists were united in their desire for independence is not historically accurate. There were regional differences that were not easily overcome. These incidents are examples of those differences.
The Gaspee was a customs vessel that had become stuck on a sandbar while pursuing a supposed smuggler. Colonists rowed to the Gaspee and set her on fire. An investigation was later called off because of lack of witnesses. Lord North attempted to lower the tax on tea while at the same time requiring that only British tea be purchased. Colonists feared that allowing one monopoly would pave the way for even more. The Tea Party was the end result.
The Coercive Acts were designed to force the colonies to behave. No longer would government officials be tried in the colonies for acts committed there, as they were following the Boston Massacre. Now they would be tried in Britain. Massachusetts Bay was closed as a port until all of the tea was paid for. British redcoats would be stationed in citizens’ homes if necessary, and finally, all officials in Massachusetts were to be appointed by the crown, instead of elected. In 1774 the first Continental Congress was held and the Suffolk Resolves, which declared the Coercive Acts null and void, was approved.
Hearing of a supply depot in Concord, Massachusetts, the Redcoats were charged with seizing it before it could be used against them. Thanks to the midnight ride of Paul Revere and William Dawes, the redcoats were met in Lexington by colonial Minutemen. Whoever fired first will never be known, but the redcoats were forced to retreat back to Boston under sniper fire. After the Battle of Lexington and Concord, Washington was made commander of the Continental Army. On the same day, the Battle of Bunker Hill occurred. Although a win for the redcoats, it was so costly that no British general would again launch such an assault.
Written by Thomas Paine, Common Sense argued that the fault of the American Revolution lay at the feet of King George III and his advisors, and that the colonies, as a result, should consider independence.
Richard Henry Lee introduced to the Second Continental Congress a resolution calling for the independence of the American Colonies. Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence read as a list of charges against the actions of King George III that had led to the Revolution. In conclusion, it declared that the colonies were free and independent of British rule and were now a league of United States.
His 121 chapter 5 from empire to independence
Chapter 5From Empire to Independence
Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest, "Declaration Of Independence", accessed 20 Jan 2013,http://quest.eb.com/images/139_1924487
British PoliticsWestern Lands in North AmericaGrenville and the Stamp ActColonial Response
American Perspectives Following the French & Indian War• Colonists believed they had proved their ability to protect themselves• Cultural differences within the British and Colonial Militias ▫ Rough manners of British soldiers ▫ Harsh punishments ▫ Inexperienced in wilderness tactics• Victory meant that British soldiers not needed because the French threat was gone
British Perspectives• British forces had borne the brunt of the war and had won it for the colonists.• Resentment that Colonists continued to trade with the enemy in the West Indies.• Policy Questions: ▫ How should British manage defense and governance of global possessions? ▫ How to manage North American lands claimed by Indians and coveted by colonists? ▫ How to pay for war debt and additional costs of expanded colonial administration and defense? ▫ What role should colonies have in decisions and government?
British Politics• Whigs ▫ Opposed King James II ▫ Victorious in the Glorious Revolution of 1688 ▫ Secured Protestant succession to throne in 1714• King George III ▫ Colonial policy marginal before 1760‟w ▫ Royal Proclamation of 1763 Imaginary line along the crest of the Appalachians Colonists could not settle West of the Appalachians
King George IIIEncyclopædia Britannica Image Quest,"King George III Studio Of Sir WilliamBeechey", accessed 20 Jan 2013,http://quest.eb.com/images/114_941150
George Grenville, British Prime Minister1763 - 1765
Grenville’s Fiscal Policy• Grenville‟s mission ▫ Cut expenses ▫ Raise revenue from the colonies ▫ Reduce the National Debt (Interest=60% of annual budget) ▫ Reduce colonial smuggling business
Grenville’s Acts• Maritime Court in Halifax (Canada) 1763 ▫ Avoid sympathetic colonial juries• Sugar Act of 1764 ▫ Cut the duty on molasses in half ▫ New duties on textiles, wine, coffee, indigo and sugar ▫ Intended to raise revenues and regulate trade• Currency Act of 1764 ▫ Forbade colonists from printing money ▫ Caused wide-spread deflation because colonial bills became worthless
The Stamp Act of 1765• Created revenue stamps• Required revenue stamps to be purchased and affixed to printed matter and legal documents ▫ Newspapers, broadsides, pamphlets, leases, deeds, licenses, ship clearances, college diplomas
The Quartering Act• Required colonists to supply British troops with provisions• Required colonists to provide barracks or quarter them in inns and vacant buildings.
Virginia Resolves• Rights of Englishmen belonged to the colonists• Englishmen could only be taxed by their elected representatives• Modern Tea Party Issue with U.S. History ▫ If congress is elected and congress passes a tax, people are not taxed without representation!
Stamp Act Congress of 1765• Massachusetts House of Representatives invited other colonial assemblies to send delegates to confer in New York about their opposition to the Stamp Act ▫ 9 colonies sent delegates ▫ October 7-25, 1765 ▫ Declaration of the Rights and Grievances of the Colonies
Stamp Act Repeal• Grenville dismissed by King George III ▫ Not due to colonial turmoil over the Stamp Act ▫ Disagreement over appointment of Catholics in the military
Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest, "STAMP ACT: REPEAL, 1766. - The Repeal Of The Stamp Act: English Cartoon Engraving, 1766.",accessed 20 Jan 2013,http://quest.eb.com/images/140_1636381
Declaratory Act of 1766• Passed at same time Stamp Act repealed ▫ Full power of Parliament to make laws binding the colonies, “in all cases whatsoever” ▫ Face-saving for Britain ▫ Colonists thought they had won
Charles TownsendChancellor of the Exchequer1767 Americans: “Factious and Turbulent”
Townsend Acts: Tough Love• Colonists had been too long indulged and encouraged in their bad behavior ▫ New York Colonial Assembly refused to provide quarters for British Troops ▫ Parliament suspended all acts of New York Assembly ▫ New York caved• Revenue Act of 1767 (Just say “No” to smuggling) ▫ Duties on colonial imports of lead, paper, tea ▫ Board of Customs Commissioners at Boston ▫ 4 new Vice Admiralty Courts: Boston, Halifax, Philadelphia and Charleston
Townsend Acts: Unintended Consequences• Revenue intended to pay colonial Governors and appointed officials ▫ Colonial assemblies had raised revenues to pay these officials in the past ▫ Intended to make Colonial Governors independent of Colonial Assemblies• Daughters of Liberty ▫ Women colonists who refused to buy British goodsJohn Dickinson “Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania”
Samuel Adams and the Sons of Liberty• Samuel Adams: ▫ Born 1722 ▫ Harvard College graduate ▫ Inherited family brewery ▫ Taverns & Politics ▫ Adams-Otis Letter; Taxation without representation is tyranny Massachusetts Assembly dissolved when it refused to withdraw the Adams-Otis letter
Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest,"Samuel Adams ", accessed 20 Jan 2013,http://quest.eb.com/images/108_265973 Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest, "Front Page Of The Boston Gazette Containing A Circular Letter By Samuel Adams To A Massachusetts Legislature, 14th March, 1768 (print) ", accessed 20 Jan 2013,http://quest.eb.com/images/108_4085349
The Boston Massacre• The presence of British troops in Boston was a constant provocation to the inhabitants. ▫ British troops harassed and intimidated colonists ▫ Colonists heckled and ridiculed British troops.• March 5, 1770 ▫ Crispus Attucks ▫ Captain Prescott ▫ John Adams: “a motley rabble of saucy boys, negroes and mulattos, Irish teagues and outlandish „Jack tars‟”• April, 1770 Parliament repealed all Townsend duties except the Tea tax (a token of parliamentary authority).
Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest,"Boston Massacre 1770 / Revere",accessed 28 Jan 2013,http://quest.eb.com/images/109_122432
Discontent on the Frontier• Creation of Vermont• The Paxton Boys• South Carolina Regulators• North Carolina and Eastern “Abuses”
A Worsening Crisis• The Burning of the Gaspee• Creation of Committees of Correspondence• Lord North and His Tea Act of 1773• The Boston Tea Party
Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest,"BOSTON TEA PARTY, 1773.- American Broadside With Verses- About The Boston Tea Party, C1773.",- accessed 28 Jan 2013,- http://quest.eb.com/images/140_1692037
The British Response to the Tea Party• The Coercive Acts ▫ Government officials to be tried in Britain ▫ New Quartering Act• The Continental Congress ▫ Endorsed the Suffolk Resolves
Shifting Authority• Lexington and Concord• Paul Revere• The Spreading Conflict• George Washington• Battle of Bunker Hill
Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest, "BATTLE OF LEXINGTON, 1775. - Battle Of Lexington During The American Revolution,19 April 1775. Line Engraving, 1798, By Cornelius Tiebout.", accessed 28 Jan 2013, http://quest.eb.com/images/140_1661824
Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest, "THE BATTLE OF CONCORD, 1775. - A View Of Concord As The British Troops Enter,19 April 1775: Line Engraving, 1775, By Amos Doolittle.", accessed 28 Jan 2013, http://quest.eb.com/images/140_1641821
Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest, "Paul Revere",accessed 28 Jan 2013,http://quest.eb.com/images/115_889573
Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest, "BATTLE OF BUNKERS HILL, 1775. - The Battle Of Bunkers (Breeds) Hill, 17 June 1775[at Left Is The Mortally Wounded Joseph Warren; At Right Are The American Lt. Grosvenor And His Servant Peter Salem].Oil On Canvas, 1786, By John Trumbull.", accessed 28 Jan 2013, http://quest.eb.com/images/140_1647185
Shifting Authority • Common SenseEncyclopædia Britannica Image Quest,"PAINE: COMMON SENSE, 1776.Title-page Of The Second Edition Of Thomas Paines PamphletCommon Sense, Owned By John Adams.", accessed 28 Jan 2013, http://quest.eb.com/images/140_1698405