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Romanticism,Revolution,Repression1830-1871
ROMANTIC POLITICS1830 - 1848
• Romantic politics: liberty, history, and nation  • Victor Hugo (1802–1885)     • Dealt sympathetically with the experien...
• Romantic politics: liberty, history, and nation  • The Romantic uniqueness of cultures     • Johann von Herder (1744–180...
• Orientalism  • Napoleon’s invasion of Egypt (1798)    • Brought back the Rosetta stone    • Establishment of the Egyptia...
Women of Algiers, Eugene Delcroix
• The 1830 Revolution in France  • Louis XVIII succeeded by Charles X (1757–1836, r. 1824–    1830)    • Determined to rev...
• The 1830 Revolution in France  • Charles called new elections, then tried to overthrow the    parliamentary regime  • Th...
• The 1830 Revolution in France  • Revolution    • Paris took to the streets for three days of battles    • The abdication...
Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix
• Belgium and Poland in 1830  • Belgium    •   Congress of Vienna joined Belgium to Holland    •   Never popular in Belgiu...
• Belgium and Poland in 1830  • Poland    • Not an independent state—under Russian governance    • Polish parliament, cons...
• Reform in Great Britain  • The end of the Napoleonic Wars     • Agricultural depression, low wages, unemployment, and ba...
• Reform in Great Britain  • Parliament passed the Six Acts (1819)     • Outlawed ―seditious and blasphemous‖ literature  ...
William Hogarth, Canvassing for Votes, 1754-1755. Oil on Canvass, Sir John Sloane’s Muesum, London.
• Reform in Great Britain  • The repeal of the Corn Laws (1846)     • Corn Laws protected British landlords from foreign  ...
• British radicalism and the Chartist Movement  • The six points of the ―People’s Charter‖     •   1.universal male suffra...
• British radicalism and the Chartist Movement  • Chartists presented petitions to Parliament in 1839 and    1842—both rej...
Chartist Meeting of 1848 on Kensington Common
• The French Revolution of 1848  • Provisional government    • A combination of liberals, republicans, and socialists    •...
Horace Vernet, Barricade rue Soufflot, Oil on Canvass. Paris.
• The French Revolution of 1848  • Provisional government    • A combination of liberals, republicans, and socialists    •...
• The French Revolution of 1848  • Popular politics    • Provisional government lifted restrictions on freedom of speech  ...
• The French Revolution of 1848  • Repression  • The government of Louis Napoleon Bonaparte (1808–1873)    •   Spent most ...
• The French Revolution of 1848  • The Second Empire of Napoleon III (1852–1870)  • Significance of the 1848 Revolution in...
• The French Revolution of 1848 as the opening act of a  larger drama  • Broad revolutionary alliances were broken apart b...
Territories, States & Citizens, 1848-1871   Chapter 21
• Key themes  •   1848 as high point of the age of revolution  •   Nationalism and nation building  •   Political reform: ...
• What makes a nation? Germany in 1848  • The German Confederation    • Created at the Congress of Vienna    • Loose organ...
• What makes a nation? Germany in 1848  • The German Confederation    • Created at the Congress of Vienna    • Loose organ...
• What makes a nation? Germany in 1848  • Reforms    • The reconstitution of the army    • Officer recruitment based on me...
• What makes a nation? Germany in 1848  • Prussia    • Tried to establish itself as the leading independent national      ...
• What makes a nation? Germany in 1848  • Prussia    • Political clubs      • Students and other radicals joined with midd...
Friedrich Wilhelm IVOf Prussia
―No Piece of Paper will Come Between myself andmy People‖ (1848)
• The Frankfurt Assembly and German nationhood  • Most delegates represented the professional classes  • Most were moderat...
• The Frankfurt Assembly and German nationhood  • The nationalist question    • The ―Great German‖ position and ―Small Ger...
• The Frankfurt Assembly and German nationhood  • The nationalist question    • The delegates left the Assembly disillusio...
The Barricades at Alexander Platz 1848
Germania, Philipp Veithung inside the Paulskirchewhere the Frankfurt Parliamentassembled, covering the organ.
• Peoples against empire: the Habsburg lands  • Ethnic and language groups     • Germans, Czechs, Magyars, Poles, Slovaks,...
• Peoples against empire: the Habsburg lands  • Hungarian nationalist claims advanced by the small Magyar    aristocracy  ...
Hungarian Revolutionary Lajos Kossuth, 1851
• Peoples against empire: the Habsburg lands  • Pan-Slavism     • Desire for a union of Slavic-speaking people     • Resen...
• Austria and Hungary in 1848: springtime of peoples and  autumn of empire  • Kossuth stepped up his campaigns against the...
• Austria and Hungary in 1848: springtime of peoples and  autumn of empire  • Vienna: popular movement of students and art...
The First Uncensored Newspaper after the Revolution inVienna, January 1848
• Austria and Hungary in 1848: springtime of peoples and  autumn of empire  • The March Laws     • Hungarian parliament ab...
• Austria and Hungary in 1848: springtime of peoples and  autumn of empire  • Franz Joseph asked Nicholas I of Russia for ...
Emperor Franz Josef ofAustria r. December 1848– November 1916
• Austria and Hungary in 1848: springtime of peoples and  autumn of empire  • Liberal government capitulated on October 31...
Languages of Central and Eastern Europe
• The early stages of Italian unification in 1848  • A patchwork of small states     • Piedmont-Sardinia, the Papal States...
• The early stages of Italian unification in 1848  • Giuseppi Mazzini (1805–1872)     • Former member of the Carbonari    ...
Giuseppi Mazzini
• The early stages of Italian unification in 1848  • The liberal impulse     • Many shared Mazzini’s commitment but not hi...
• Nationalism after 1848  • States and governments took the initiative  • Alarmed by revolutionary ferment  • Promoted eco...
• France under Napoleon III  • Believed in personal rule and a centralized state    •   Control of finances, the army, and...
Napoleon III of France20 December 1848 –2 December 1852
• France under Napoleon III  • Economic changes    • Faith in the ability of industrial expansion to bring prosperity     ...
• France under Napoleon III  • Paris and Napoleon III    •   Massive rebuilding of the medieval infrastructure    •   Fina...
Paris Rebuilt
• Victorian England and the Second Reform Bill (1867)  • British government faced demands to extend the franchise    beyon...
• Victorian England and the Second Reform Bill (1867)  • Industrial expansion had created a ―labor aristocracy‖ of    skil...
• Victorian England and the Second Reform Bill (1867)  • The Dissenters    • Denied civil and political rights    • Could ...
• Victorian England and the Second Reform Bill (1867)  • Great Reform Bill (1867)    • Doubled the franchise       • Men w...
• Italian unification: Cavour and Garibaldi  • Two visions of Italian statehood     • Giuseppi Garibaldi (1807–1882)      ...
Giuseppe Garibaldi
• Italian unification: Cavour and Garibaldi  • Count Camillo Benso di Cavour (1810–1861)     • Promoted economic expansion...
Count Camillo Benso di Cavour
• Italian unification: Cavour and Garibaldi  • Cavour and Italy     • Piedmont-Sardinia annexed Lombardy     • Joined by T...
• Italian unification: Cavour and Garibaldi  • Garibaldi and Cavour     • Cavour worried that Garibaldi would bring French...
The Unification of Italy
• Italian unification: Cavour and Garibaldi  • Final gains     • Venetia remained in Austrian hands until 1866, then becam...
• The unification of Germany: Realpolitik  • Frederick William of Prussia     • Granted a Prussian constitution     • Esta...
• The unification of Germany: Realpolitik  • Growth of the Prussian middle class     • Active liberal intelligentsia     •...
• The unification of Germany: Realpolitik  • Liberalism and Frederick William IV (1840–1861)     • Opponents saw the king ...
• The unification of Germany: Realpolitik  • Otto von Bismarck (1815–1898)     • Prussian Junker and defender of the monar...
Otto von Bismark
• The unification of Germany: Realpolitik  • Bismarck and foreign policy     • Played the ―nationalist card‖ to preempt hi...
• The unification of Germany: Realpolitik  • Bismarck and foreign policy     • Bismarck created the Northern German Confed...
• State derives its legitimacy as an organic (natural)  consequence of the unity of those whom it governs  • Includes lang...
• In 1868, Prince Leopold Hohenzollern was offered the throne  of Spain following the overthrow of Queen Isabella.• France...
Leopold, Prince of Hohenzollern
Kaiser Wilhelm & VincentBenedetti at Ems: 13 July 1870
Count Benedetti intercepted me on the    promenade and ended by demanding of me, in    a very importunate manner, that I s...
After the news of the renunciation of the Prince    von Hohenzollern had been communicated to    the Imperial French gover...
• The unification of Germany: Realpolitik  • Bismarck and The Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871)     • A conflict with France...
• France had a volunteer army of 400,000 men.  • Inefficient mobilization• Prussia and allies had a conscript army of over...
• The unification of Germany: Realpolitik  • The German empire was proclaimed in the Hall of Mirrors    at Versailles on J...
• The state and nationality: centrifugal forces in the  Austrian empire  • The Habsburgs abolished serfdom but made few ot...
• The state and nationality: centrifugal forces in the  Austrian empire  • Ethnic relations     • Grew more tense     • Th...
• The state and nationality: centrifugal forces in the  Austrian empire  • The Dual Monarchy (Austria-Hungary)     • Commo...
• Russia: Territory, the state, and serfdom  • Abolition of serfdom as part of a project to rebuild Russia    as a modern ...
• Territory, the state, and serfdom: Russia  • The Emancipation Decree of 1861     •   Massive in scope, limited in change...
American Expansion in the Late Nineteenth Century
Manifest Destiny by John Gast, Library of Congress LC-USZC4-668
• Territory and the Nation: the United States  • Territorial expansion—the Louisiana Purchase (1803)     • Added millions ...
• Territory and the Nation: the United States  • Andrew Jackson (1829–1837)     • All officeholders should be elected and ...
• The Politics of Slavery  • 1838–1848: abolition of slavery in Great Britain and France  • Latin America     • Nationalis...
• The Politics of Slavery  • The legality of slavery     • Southern United States, Brazil, Cuba, most of Africa, parts of ...
• The Politics of Slavery  • Why did attempts to abolish slavery occur?     •   Less profitable     •   Adam Smith and fre...
• The American Civil War, 1861–1865  • Consequences of the Civil War    • The abolition of slavery    • Established the pr...
Civil War Recruiting Poster, public domain
• The Eastern Question• Ottoman empire lost its grip on provinces in southeastern  Europe• Strategic interest, systems of ...
• The Crimean War  • Russia invaded Ottoman territories of Moldavia and    Walachia  • Austria garrisoned its troops  • Ru...
The Crimean War
• Importance of the war  •   Peace settlement was a setback for Russia  •   Romania becomes an independent nation  •   Emb...
Half a league half a league, Half a league onward,           Flashd all their sabres bare, Flashd as they turnd in airAll ...
•   1850–1870 as decades of intense nation building•   Unifications of Italy and Germany•   The rise of the United States•...
His 102 chapter 21 romanticism, revolution, repression -nation building in the 19th century
His 102 chapter 21 romanticism, revolution, repression -nation building in the 19th century
His 102 chapter 21 romanticism, revolution, repression -nation building in the 19th century
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His 102 chapter 21 romanticism, revolution, repression -nation building in the 19th century

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His 102 chapter 21 romanticism, revolution, repression -nation building in the 19th century

  1. 1. Romanticism,Revolution,Repression1830-1871
  2. 2. ROMANTIC POLITICS1830 - 1848
  3. 3. • Romantic politics: liberty, history, and nation • Victor Hugo (1802–1885) • Dealt sympathetically with the experience of the common people • François de Chateaubriand (1768–1848) • Religious experiences of the national past are woven into the present • Accent on religious emotion, feeling, and subjectivity
  4. 4. • Romantic politics: liberty, history, and nation • The Romantic uniqueness of cultures • Johann von Herder (1744–1803) • Civilization arises out of the Volk (common people), not elites • The Volkgeist—spirit or genius of the people • Brothers Grimm • Collected German folktales
  5. 5. • Orientalism • Napoleon’s invasion of Egypt (1798) • Brought back the Rosetta stone • Establishment of the Egyptian Institute • Defined Europe by looking at the Orient • A fascination with ethnography and new regions
  6. 6. Women of Algiers, Eugene Delcroix
  7. 7. • The 1830 Revolution in France • Louis XVIII succeeded by Charles X (1757–1836, r. 1824– 1830) • Determined to reverse the legacies of the Revolution and Napoleon • Appeased the ultraroyalists by compensating nobility whose land had been confiscated during the Revolution • Restored the Catholic Church to its traditional place • Provoked widespread discontent
  8. 8. • The 1830 Revolution in France • Charles called new elections, then tried to overthrow the parliamentary regime • The July Ordinances (1830) • Dissolved the newly elected chamber before it had even met • Imposed strict censorship of the press • Further restricted suffrage to exclude all non-nobles • Called for new elections
  9. 9. • The 1830 Revolution in France • Revolution • Paris took to the streets for three days of battles • The abdication of Charles • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FgQgzKVX9jc
  10. 10. Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix
  11. 11. • Belgium and Poland in 1830 • Belgium • Congress of Vienna joined Belgium to Holland • Never popular in Belgium • News of the July Revolution catalyzed Belgian opposition • Brussels rebelled, and the great powers guaranteed Belgian neutrality (in force until 1914)
  12. 12. • Belgium and Poland in 1830 • Poland • Not an independent state—under Russian governance • Polish parliament, constitution, guarantees of basic liberties were ignored by Russian-imposed head of state, Constantine • People favored independence from Russia in 1830 • Drove Constantine out • 1831: Russian forces retook Warsaw • Poland placed under Russian military rule
  13. 13. • Reform in Great Britain • The end of the Napoleonic Wars • Agricultural depression, low wages, unemployment, and bad harvests • Social unrest • Peterloo (1819) • Demonstration against the Corn Laws • Manchester Patriotic Union advocating for universal male suffrage • Radical Orator Henry Hunt to speak • Fearing unrest, local magistrates called on military to arrest Hunt • Military fired on crowd—15 killed; 700+ wounded
  14. 14. • Reform in Great Britain • Parliament passed the Six Acts (1819) • Outlawed ―seditious and blasphemous‖ literature • Increased stamp tax • Restricted the right of public meeting • Refused to reform political representation in the House of Commons
  15. 15. William Hogarth, Canvassing for Votes, 1754-1755. Oil on Canvass, Sir John Sloane’s Muesum, London.
  16. 16. • Reform in Great Britain • The repeal of the Corn Laws (1846) • Corn Laws protected British landlords from foreign competition • Kept the price of bread artificially high • The Anti–Corn Law League • Held large meetings throughout northern England • Lobbied members in Parliament • Persuaded Prime Minister Peel to repeal the Corn Laws
  17. 17. • British radicalism and the Chartist Movement • The six points of the ―People’s Charter‖ • 1.universal male suffrage; • 2.a secret ballot; • 3.no property qualification for members of Parliament; • 4.pay members of Parliament (so poor men could serve); • 5.constituencies of equal size; • 6.annual elections for Parliament. • As economic conditions deteriorated, Chartism spread in the 1840s • Chartists disagreed about tactics and goals • William Lovett • Self-improvement • Education of artisans was the answer
  18. 18. • British radicalism and the Chartist Movement • Chartists presented petitions to Parliament in 1839 and 1842—both rejected • April 1848: Chartists planned a major demonstration and show of force in London • Twenty-five thousand workers marched to Parliament with a petition of 6 million signatures demanding the six points • The failure of Chartism • Accusations of radicalism • Reforms enacted • Faded in times of prosperity
  19. 19. Chartist Meeting of 1848 on Kensington Common
  20. 20. • The French Revolution of 1848 • Provisional government • A combination of liberals, republicans, and socialists • A new constitution based on universal male suffrage • Tensions between middle-class republicans and socialists
  21. 21. Horace Vernet, Barricade rue Soufflot, Oil on Canvass. Paris.
  22. 22. • The French Revolution of 1848 • Provisional government • A combination of liberals, republicans, and socialists • A new constitution based on universal male suffrage • Tensions between middle-class republicans and socialists
  23. 23. • The French Revolution of 1848 • Popular politics • Provisional government lifted restrictions on freedom of speech and political activity • Women’s clubs and newspapers appeared • The end of the National Workshops • French assembly decided the Workshops were a financial drain • The June Days (June 23–26): Parisian workers barricade the streets
  24. 24. • The French Revolution of 1848 • Repression • The government of Louis Napoleon Bonaparte (1808–1873) • Spent most of his life in exile • Used his position to consolidate his power • Permitted Catholics to regain control of the schools • Banned meetings, workers’ associations • Asked the people to grant him the power to draw up a new constitution (1851)
  25. 25. • The French Revolution of 1848 • The Second Empire of Napoleon III (1852–1870) • Significance of the 1848 Revolution in France • Its dynamics would be repeated elsewhere • The pivotal role of the middle classes • Many saw the June Days as naked class struggle • Middle-class and working-class politics were more sharply differentiated
  26. 26. • The French Revolution of 1848 as the opening act of a larger drama • Broad revolutionary alliances were broken apart by class politics • Earlier forms of utopian socialism gave way to Marxism • Romanticism lost appeal and gave way to Realism • Nationalism contextualizes political attitudes of conservatism, liberalism, and socialism
  27. 27. Territories, States & Citizens, 1848-1871 Chapter 21
  28. 28. • Key themes • 1848 as high point of the age of revolution • Nationalism and nation building • Political reform: government and citizens • American Civil War • Unification of Italy and GermanyIntroduction
  29. 29. • What makes a nation? Germany in 1848 • The German Confederation • Created at the Congress of Vienna • Loose organization of thirty-eight states, including Austria and Prussia • Intended to provide common defense but no executive powerNationalism andRevolution in 1848
  30. 30. • What makes a nation? Germany in 1848 • The German Confederation • Created at the Congress of Vienna • Loose organization of thirty-eight states, including Austria and Prussia • Intended to provide common defense but no executive powerNationalism andRevolution in 1848
  31. 31. • What makes a nation? Germany in 1848 • Reforms • The reconstitution of the army • Officer recruitment based on merit (still drawn from the Junkers) • The abolition of serfdom and the estate system (1807) • Expanded facilities for primary and secondary educationNationalism andRevolution in 1848
  32. 32. • What makes a nation? Germany in 1848 • Prussia • Tried to establish itself as the leading independent national power • Zollverein (1834) • Established as a customs union • Established free trade among German states • By the 1840s, it included all German states except Austria • A potential market of 34 million peopleNationalism andRevolution in 1848
  33. 33. • What makes a nation? Germany in 1848 • Prussia • Political clubs • Students and other radicals joined with middle-class reform groups • New demands for representative government • Frederick Wilhelm IV (1795–1861, r. 1840–1861) • Made gestures toward the liberal cause • His regime reverted to authoritarianism • Openly opposed constitutionalism • Shaken by violence, the Kaiser finally capitulatedNationalism andRevolution in 1848
  34. 34. Friedrich Wilhelm IVOf Prussia
  35. 35. ―No Piece of Paper will Come Between myself andmy People‖ (1848)
  36. 36. • The Frankfurt Assembly and German nationhood • Most delegates represented the professional classes • Most were moderate liberals • Desired a constitution for a liberal, unified GermanyNationalism andRevolution in 1848
  37. 37. • The Frankfurt Assembly and German nationhood • The nationalist question • The ―Great German‖ position and ―Small Germany‖ • Great Germany included all former principalities and Austria even though Austria had non-German ethnic minorities • Small Germany included only the German principalities under the leadership of Prussia and excluded Austria • The Assembly accepted the ―Small Germany‖ solution • Kaiser wanted the crown and larger state on his terms aloneNationalism andRevolution in 1848
  38. 38. • The Frankfurt Assembly and German nationhood • The nationalist question • The delegates left the Assembly disillusioned • Perhaps liberal and nationalist goals were incompatible • Popular revolution • Peasants ransacked tax offices and burned castles • Workers smashed machines • Formation of citizen militiasNationalism andRevolution in 1848
  39. 39. The Barricades at Alexander Platz 1848
  40. 40. Germania, Philipp Veithung inside the Paulskirchewhere the Frankfurt Parliamentassembled, covering the organ.
  41. 41. • Peoples against empire: the Habsburg lands • Ethnic and language groups • Germans, Czechs, Magyars, Poles, Slovaks, Serbs, and Italians • Nationalist sentiment strongest among Polish aristocrats • Habsburgs played Polish serfs against Polish lordsNationalism andRevolution in 1848
  42. 42. • Peoples against empire: the Habsburg lands • Hungarian nationalist claims advanced by the small Magyar aristocracy • Lajos Kossuth (1802–1894) • Member of the lower nobility • Published transcripts of parliamentary debates • Campaigned for independence and a separate Hungarian parliamentNationalism andRevolution in 1848
  43. 43. Hungarian Revolutionary Lajos Kossuth, 1851
  44. 44. • Peoples against empire: the Habsburg lands • Pan-Slavism • Desire for a union of Slavic-speaking people • Resented oppressive Russian ruleNationalism andRevolution in 1848
  45. 45. • Austria and Hungary in 1848: springtime of peoples and autumn of empire • Kossuth stepped up his campaigns against the Metternich system of Habsburg autocracy and control • Demanded representative institutionsNationalism andRevolution in 1848
  46. 46. • Austria and Hungary in 1848: springtime of peoples and autumn of empire • Vienna: popular movement of students and artisans • Demanded political and social reforms • Built barricades and attacked imperial palace • Metternich fled to BritainNationalism andRevolution in 1848
  47. 47. The First Uncensored Newspaper after the Revolution inVienna, January 1848
  48. 48. • Austria and Hungary in 1848: springtime of peoples and autumn of empire • The March Laws • Hungarian parliament abolished serfdom and noble privilege • Established freedom of the press and of religion • Changed suffrage requirements, enfranchised small-property holders • Kossuth severed all ties between Hungary and AustriaNationalism andRevolution in 1848
  49. 49. • Austria and Hungary in 1848: springtime of peoples and autumn of empire • Franz Joseph asked Nicholas I of Russia for military support • The Hungarian revolt was crushed (August 1849)Nationalism andRevolution in 1848
  50. 50. Emperor Franz Josef ofAustria r. December 1848– November 1916
  51. 51. • Austria and Hungary in 1848: springtime of peoples and autumn of empire • Liberal government capitulated on October 31, 1849 • Reestablished censorship • Disbanded the National Guard and student organizations • Twenty-five revolutionary leaders went to the firing squad • Kossuth exiled himself to TurkeyNationalism andRevolution in 1848
  52. 52. Languages of Central and Eastern Europe
  53. 53. • The early stages of Italian unification in 1848 • A patchwork of small states • Piedmont-Sardinia, the Papal States, and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies • Lombard and Venetia controlled by Austria • Tuscany, Parma, and Modena ruled by the HabsburgsNationalism andRevolution in 1848
  54. 54. • The early stages of Italian unification in 1848 • Giuseppi Mazzini (1805–1872) • Former member of the Carbonari • Founded the Young Italy Society (1831) • Mission was to bring democracy to the worldNationalism andRevolution in 1848
  55. 55. Giuseppi Mazzini
  56. 56. • The early stages of Italian unification in 1848 • The liberal impulse • Many shared Mazzini’s commitment but not his methods • Hoped for a merger of existing governments into a constitutional monarchy • 1848 raised hopes for political and social change and Italian unification • The risorgimento—Italian resurgenceNationalism andRevolution in 1848
  57. 57. • Nationalism after 1848 • States and governments took the initiative • Alarmed by revolutionary ferment • Promoted economic development and social and political reformBuilding the Nation-State
  58. 58. • France under Napoleon III • Believed in personal rule and a centralized state • Control of finances, the army, and foreign affairs • An elected Assembly had no real power • Aimed to put the countryside under the rule of the modern state • Undermined traditional elites, fashioned a new relationship with the peopleBuilding the Nation-State
  59. 59. Napoleon III of France20 December 1848 –2 December 1852
  60. 60. • France under Napoleon III • Economic changes • Faith in the ability of industrial expansion to bring prosperity and national glory • Passed new limited-liability laws • Signed a free-trade agreement with England (1860) • Founded the Crédit Mobilier • Reluctantly permitted trade unions and the legalization of strikesBuilding the Nation-State
  61. 61. • France under Napoleon III • Paris and Napoleon III • Massive rebuilding of the medieval infrastructure • Financed by the Crédit Mobilier • New water pipes and sewer lines • Wholesale renovation did not benefit everyone • Aggressive foreign policyBuilding the Nation-State
  62. 62. Paris Rebuilt
  63. 63. • Victorian England and the Second Reform Bill (1867) • British government faced demands to extend the franchise beyond the middle classes • Industrial expansion had created a ―labor aristocracy‖ of skilled workers • Building, engineering, and textile industries • Favored collective self-help through cooperative societies and trade unions • Collected funds against old age and unemploymentBuilding the Nation-State
  64. 64. • Victorian England and the Second Reform Bill (1867) • Industrial expansion had created a ―labor aristocracy‖ of skilled workers • Education as a tool for advancement • The need to vote • Championed by middle-class reformersBuilding the Nation-State
  65. 65. • Victorian England and the Second Reform Bill (1867) • The Dissenters • Denied civil and political rights • Could not attend Oxford or Cambridge • Resented paying taxes to the Church of EnglandBuilding the Nation-State
  66. 66. • Victorian England and the Second Reform Bill (1867) • Great Reform Bill (1867) • Doubled the franchise • Men who paid poor rates or rent of £10 per year in urban areas • Rural tenants paying rent of £12 or more • Large northern cities gained representationBuilding the Nation-State
  67. 67. • Italian unification: Cavour and Garibaldi • Two visions of Italian statehood • Giuseppi Garibaldi (1807–1882) • Achieving national unification through a popular movement • A constitutional monarchy as favored by conservative nationalists • Pinned their hopes on Victor Emmanuel II the new king of Piedmont-SardiniaBuilding the Nation-State
  68. 68. Giuseppe Garibaldi
  69. 69. • Italian unification: Cavour and Garibaldi • Count Camillo Benso di Cavour (1810–1861) • Promoted economic expansion and raising Piedmont Sardinias profile • Cavour and Italy • Relied on diplomacy • Cultivated an alliance with France in order to drive the Austrians from Italy • France provoked war with Austria (1859)Building the Nation-State
  70. 70. Count Camillo Benso di Cavour
  71. 71. • Italian unification: Cavour and Garibaldi • Cavour and Italy • Piedmont-Sardinia annexed Lombardy • Joined by Tuscany, Parma, and Modena • The southern states • Francis II (1859–1860) faced a peasant revolt in the Two Sicilies • Garibaldi landed in Sicily (1860) • Garibaldi took Sicily in the name of King Victor Emmanuel • Garibaldi marched on RomeBuilding the Nation-State
  72. 72. • Italian unification: Cavour and Garibaldi • Garibaldi and Cavour • Cavour worried that Garibaldi would bring French or Austrian intervention • Cavour preferred that unification take place quickly, without domestic turmoil • The king ordered Garibaldi to cede military authorityBuilding the Nation-State
  73. 73. The Unification of Italy
  74. 74. • Italian unification: Cavour and Garibaldi • Final gains • Venetia remained in Austrian hands until 1866, then became part of Italy • Italian soldiers occupied Rome in September 1870 • Rome became the capital of a united Italian kingdom in July 1871 • Widening gap between industrial north and rural southBuilding the Nation-State
  75. 75. • The unification of Germany: Realpolitik • Frederick William of Prussia • Granted a Prussian constitution • Established a bicameral parliament • Modified electoral system to reinforce hierarchies of wealth and power • A large landowner or industrialist had a hundred times the voting power of a common working manBuilding the Nation-State
  76. 76. • The unification of Germany: Realpolitik • Growth of the Prussian middle class • Active liberal intelligentsia • Liberal civil service; dedicated to political modernization • Liberalism and Frederick William IV (1840–1861) • King wanted to expand the standing army and take military matters out of parliamentary controlBuilding the Nation-State
  77. 77. • The unification of Germany: Realpolitik • Liberalism and Frederick William IV (1840–1861) • Opponents saw the king perhaps creating a personal army • Frederick William IV named Bismarck minister-president of Prussia (1862)Building the Nation-State
  78. 78. • The unification of Germany: Realpolitik • Otto von Bismarck (1815–1898) • Prussian Junker and defender of the monarchy • Opposed liberalism and nationalism • Believed that some sort of union was inevitable and that Prussia ought to take the initiative • Bismarck and the opposition • Defied parliamentary opposition • Dissolved Parliament over the levy of taxesBuilding the Nation-State
  79. 79. Otto von Bismark
  80. 80. • The unification of Germany: Realpolitik • Bismarck and foreign policy • Played the ―nationalist card‖ to preempt his liberal opponents • The dispute over Schleswig-Holstein • Outbreak of War • Austria gave up Schleswig-Holstein and surrendered Venetia to the Italians • Austria agreed to dissolve the ConfederationBuilding the Nation-State
  81. 81. • The unification of Germany: Realpolitik • Bismarck and foreign policy • Bismarck created the Northern German Confederation • Prussian victories weakened liberal opposition • Hoped to include the southern German states of Bavaria, Wurttemberg, Baden, and Hesse- Darmstadt • France opposed unification because it would create a state that was too powerful on its eastern border.Building the Nation-State
  82. 82. • State derives its legitimacy as an organic (natural) consequence of the unity of those whom it governs • Includes language, culture, religion, customs of the nation • Race is often a component• Zeitgeist—spirit of the age Romantic Nationalism
  83. 83. • In 1868, Prince Leopold Hohenzollern was offered the throne of Spain following the overthrow of Queen Isabella.• France feared encirclement with a Prussian Confederation to her east and a Hohenzollern monarch on the Spanish throne and threatened war.• Leopold forced to decline Spanish throne• France wanted Kaiser Wilhelm to promise that a Hohenzollern Prince would never make a claim to the Spanish throne again.• Wilhelm refused.• Diplomatic dispute over communication between the Kaiser and the French diplomat.Franco - Prussian War
  84. 84. Leopold, Prince of Hohenzollern
  85. 85. Kaiser Wilhelm & VincentBenedetti at Ems: 13 July 1870
  86. 86. Count Benedetti intercepted me on the promenade and ended by demanding of me, in a very importunate manner, that I should authorize him to telegraph at once that I bound myself in perpetuity never again to give my consent if the Hohenzollerns renewed their candidature. I rejected this demand somewhat sternly, as it is neither right nor possible to undertake engagements of this kind [for ever and ever]. Naturally, I told him that I had not yet received any news and, since he had been better informed via Paris and Madrid than I was, he must surely see that my government was not concerned in the matter.Franco-Prussian War- EmsTelegram
  87. 87. After the news of the renunciation of the Prince von Hohenzollern had been communicated to the Imperial French government by the Royal Spanish government, the French Ambassador in Ems made a further demand on His Majesty the King that he should authorize him to telegraph to Paris that His Majesty the King undertook for all time never again to give his assent should the Hohenzollerns once more take up their candidature. His Majesty the King thereupon refused to receive the Ambassador again and had the latter informed by the Adjutant of the day that His Majesty had no further communication to make to the Ambassador.Franco-Prussian War
  88. 88. • The unification of Germany: Realpolitik • Bismarck and The Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871) • A conflict with France would aid German nationalism in Bavaria, Württemberg, and other southern states • Skillful propagandist—played off public opinion • France declared war with Prussia • German states rallied to Prussia’s side • No European powers came to the aid of FranceBuilding the Nation-State
  89. 89. • France had a volunteer army of 400,000 men. • Inefficient mobilization• Prussia and allies had a conscript army of over a million men. • Efficient mobilization • Better technology • Prussian General Staff • Direct operational movement • Organize logistics and communications • Oversee overall strategyFranco-Prussian War
  90. 90. • The unification of Germany: Realpolitik • The German empire was proclaimed in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles on January 18, 1871 • A ―revolution from above‖Building the Nation-State
  91. 91. • The state and nationality: centrifugal forces in the Austrian empire • The Habsburgs abolished serfdom but made few other reforms • The Hungarians were essentially reconquered • Administrative reforms • New and more uniform legal system • Rationalized taxationBuilding the Nation-State
  92. 92. • The state and nationality: centrifugal forces in the Austrian empire • Ethnic relations • Grew more tense • The ―nationalities‖ protested the powerlessness of their Diets, military repression, and cultural disenfranchisement • Franz Joseph (1848–1916, emperor of Austria) • Agreed to the new federal structureBuilding the Nation-State
  93. 93. • The state and nationality: centrifugal forces in the Austrian empire • The Dual Monarchy (Austria-Hungary) • Common system of taxation, common army, made foreign and military policy together • Internal and constitutional affairs were separated • No national unification in Habsburg landsBuilding the Nation-State
  94. 94. • Russia: Territory, the state, and serfdom • Abolition of serfdom as part of a project to rebuild Russia as a modern state • ―Slavophiles‖ • Preserving Russia’s distinctive features • Idealized traditional Russian cultureNation & State Building:Russia, United States,Canada
  95. 95. • Territory, the state, and serfdom: Russia • The Emancipation Decree of 1861 • Massive in scope, limited in change • Granted legal rights to 22 million serfs • Gave former serfs title to a portion of the land • Required the state to compensate landownersNation & State Building:Russia, United States,Canada
  96. 96. American Expansion in the Late Nineteenth Century
  97. 97. Manifest Destiny by John Gast, Library of Congress LC-USZC4-668
  98. 98. • Territory and the Nation: the United States • Territorial expansion—the Louisiana Purchase (1803) • Added millions of acres of prime cotton land • Extended the empire of slavery • Andrew Jackson (1829–1837) • Transformed Jeffersonian liberalism • Campaigned to extend suffrage to all white males • ―continent‖Nation & State Building:Russia, United States,Canada
  99. 99. • Territory and the Nation: the United States • Andrew Jackson (1829–1837) • All officeholders should be elected and not appointed • Frequent rotation of men in power • Manifest Destiny—―to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federated self-government entrusted to us.‖ John O’Sullivan, 1845.Nation & State Building: Russia,United States, Canada
  100. 100. • The Politics of Slavery • 1838–1848: abolition of slavery in Great Britain and France • Latin America • Nationalist leaders recruited slaves to fight the Spanish • Simón de BolívarNation & State Building:Russia, United States,Canada
  101. 101. • The Politics of Slavery • The legality of slavery • Southern United States, Brazil, Cuba, most of Africa, parts of India and the Islamic world • Slavery and the Enlightenment • Slavery contradicted natural law and natural freedom • Slavery as metaphor for everything that was bad • England and the abolition of the slave tradeNation & State Building:Russia, UnitedStates, Canada
  102. 102. • The Politics of Slavery • Why did attempts to abolish slavery occur? • Less profitable • Adam Smith and free trade • Religious revivalism • Appealed to women reformers • The working classes • Slave rebellionsNation & State Building:Russia, United States,Canada
  103. 103. • The American Civil War, 1861–1865 • Consequences of the Civil War • The abolition of slavery • Established the preeminence of the national government over states’ rights • The Fourteenth Amendment • Due process defined by the national not state government • The expansion of the U.S. economy • War laid the foundations for the modern American nation- stateNation & State Building: Russia,United States, Canada
  104. 104. Civil War Recruiting Poster, public domain
  105. 105. • The Eastern Question• Ottoman empire lost its grip on provinces in southeastern Europe• Strategic interest, systems of alliances, and the balance of power in EuropeThe Decline of OttomanPower and InternationalRelations
  106. 106. • The Crimean War • Russia invaded Ottoman territories of Moldavia and Walachia • Austria garrisoned its troops • Russia turned on the Turks • Provoked French and British fears of Russian expansionThe Decline of Ottoman Powerand International Relations
  107. 107. The Crimean War
  108. 108. • Importance of the war • Peace settlement was a setback for Russia • Romania becomes an independent nation • Embarrassed French prestige • Innovations in warfare • Correspondents and photojournalists—a ―public‖ war • Florence Nightingale (1820–1910)The Decline of Ottoman Powerand International Relations
  109. 109. Half a league half a league, Half a league onward, Flashd all their sabres bare, Flashd as they turnd in airAll in the valley of Death Rode the six hundred: Sabring the gunners there, Charging an army whileForward, the Light Brigade! Charge for the guns he said: All the world wonderd: Plunged in the battery-smokeInto the valley of Death Rode the six hundred Right thro the line they broke; Cossack & RussianForward, the Light Brigade! Was there a man dismayd ? Reeld from the sabre-stroke, Shatterd & sunderd.Not tho the soldier knew some one had blunderd: Then they rode back, but not Not the six hundred.Theirs not to make reply, theirs not to reason why,Theirs but to do & die, Cannon to right of them, Cannon to left of them,Into the valley of Death Rode the six hundred. Cannon behind them Volleyd and thunderd;Cannon to right of them, Cannon to left of them, Stormd at with shot and shell, While horse & hero fell,Cannon in front of them Volleyd & thunderd; They that had fought so well Came thro the jaws of Death,Stormd at with shot and shell, Boldly they rode and well, Back from the mouth of Hell, All that was left of them,Into the jaws of Death, Into the mouth of Hell Left of six hundred.Rode the six hundred. When can their glory fade? O the wild charge they made! All the world wonderd. Honour the charge they made! Honour the Light Brigade, Noble six hundred! “The Charge of the Light Brigade,” Alfred Lord Tennyson
  110. 110. • 1850–1870 as decades of intense nation building• Unifications of Italy and Germany• The rise of the United States• Nationalism as an erratic and malleable force • Enlightened Nationalism • Realpolitik • Romantic NationalismConclusion

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