SculptureApollo ofTenea:560 B.C.E.PushkinMuseum Kritios Boy Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest, 480 B.C.E. Acropolis "The Apollo Of Piombino “, 500 B.C.E. Bronze Museum , accessed 9 Sep 2012, http://quest.eb.com/images/126_495630
ArtEncyclopædia Britannica Image Quest, "Classical Black-figure Amphora,From Ialyssos, In The Archaeological Museum Of Rhodes, In Greece",accessed 9 Sep 2012,http://quest.eb.com/images/153_2366352
Literature and Drama Epic and lyric Greek poetry well established art forms Drama: developed in Athens when poetic odes were chanted by choruses to the god Dionysius Aeschylus: introduced a second and third character into the ode making it possible to present human conversation and conflict on the stage Themes of Greek Tragedy Justice Law Conflicting demands of piety and obligation that drove heroic men and women to destruction
Comedy and Current Events Comedic Themes Life on the farm The good ole days Sex Nightmare of politics Strange manners of the town Aristophanes: greatest Greek comedic playwright repeatedly dragged into court to defend himself against politicians he had attacked;
Classical Study of HistoryHerodotus Thucydides
Herodotus (484-425 B.C.E.) Assemble sources, test their accuracy with one another, write a vivid narrative of past events. Father of History The Histories : an inquiry into the origins of the Greco- Persian wars Herodotus favored Athens and had uncomplimentary things to say about Thebes and Corinth. Agreement with many other sources although includes fanciful accounts. Priests and Kings Reputedly recited The Histories at the Olympics
Thucydides (460-395 B.C.E.) Student of Herodotus Wrote History of the Peloponnesian Wars Known as “Father of Scientific History” Reliance on sources Charted cause and effect without reference to intervention by the gods. Idea of “political realism” relations between competing poleis or kingdoms are based on Might rather than Right. Inquired about the positive and negative consequences of democracy.
Pythagoras (C. 570-495 B.C.E.) Essence of life lays in the mind Speculative life is highest good One must be purified of fleshly desires to achieve a speculative life Essence of the universe is found in the study of abstractions NOT the physical world Established key properties of odd and even numbers Proved Pythagorean theorem
Sophists “Wise men” made their living by selling their knowledge Protagoras, “Man is the measure of all things” Truth, justice, goodness are relative concepts, adaptable to the needs and interests of human beings Truth, justice and goodness are not moral absolutes established by the gods No one can know if the gods exist or what they wanted Particular truths valid for individual knower
Socrates (469 – 399 B.C.E.) Hoplite soldier who participated in three campaigns during the Peloponnesian War Method of instruction was conversation and asking questions: Socratic Method Submit every presumed truth to examination of reason Socrates never wrote anything, what is known of his philosophy comes from Plato’s writings and the writings of his other pupils
Socrates’ Philosophy Known through writings of Plato Absolute standards do exist as ideals which can be discerned through rational examination All supposed certainties are merely unexamined prejudices inherited from others “I know nothing” Investigate own assumptions and reflect on principles of proper conduct Consider the meanings and consequences of one’s actions at all times and be prepared to take responsibility for them
Plato (424/423 -348/347 B.C.E.) Student of Socrates Writings include dialogues between Socrates and his opponents Founder of the Academy in Athens: first institution of higher learning in Western Civilization Taught Aristotle Platonism: physical world is merely a “shadow” of the ideal. Justice exists in its ideal form but men’s practice of justice is merely a cheap “shadow” copy of justice. Philosopher –King: wise ruler who attempts to attain the ideal in the physical world.
The Parable of the Cave http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UQfRdl3 GTw4&feature=player_detailpage
The Republic The quest for justice What is the nature of a just society? Idealism Reality lies in the realm of unchanging forms rather than sensory objects Psyche (soul) belongs to the realm of unchanging forms Soma (body) belongs to the sensory (material realm) Purpose of philosophy: to educate the psyche and free it from its material prison to regain perfect awareness
Plato’s Just Society No private property Minimal family life Education for both men and women Each person’s abilities determine his/her place in the community Government by enlightened guardians: philosopher- kings Most intellectually capable Carry the welfare of the whole commonwealth
Aristotle (384-322 B.C.E.) Empirical method Dependent on direct experience Male generator—female receptacle Male: life giving form Female: chaotic matter Women are imperfect and incomplete versions of men Logic The syllogism
What type of government is best ? Plato: Republic ruled by philosopher-kings Aristotle Governments must function in the interest of the state NOT the people Democracy puts too much power in the hands of poor people Demagogues can persuade masses to pass less-than worthy laws Humans can reach full potential only within the framework of the state Best government is constitutional government ruled by middle-class
Ethics Examines human values Happiness is the only human value which is a final goal Virtue exists in how well one performs its function Virtue= how well a human exercises the function of reason. The Golden Mean= the middle ground between 2 extremes of behavior.
The Greeks and Western Civilization Similarities between important concepts of human society in the civilization of ancient Greece and present day western societies Concern for the most just form of government The idea that at least some citizens should have a voice in government The notion that the fullest development of one’s own potential should be the aim of existence “Every free man is the sculptor of his own monument” Notion of uniqueness of being “Greek”
Stark Differences between Ancient Greek Society and the Present Place of women Place of children and slaves Notion of “Mentoring” Rights of Free Men The practice rather than the ideal of democracy Small group of males in control. Exploitation of other city-states—no compromise only competition.