His 101 chapter 3b the civilization of greece fall 2012

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His 101 chapter 3b the civilization of greece fall 2012

  1. 1. Classicism: The Greek Legacy
  2. 2. Greek Classicism Clarity Simplicity Balance Harmonious proportion
  3. 3. What is a Classic?
  4. 4. Classics Have outlived their own time and place Have become authoritative models for future generations to follow Continue to provide inspiration
  5. 5. Art and Architecture
  6. 6. SculptureApollo ofTenea:560 B.C.E.PushkinMuseum Kritios Boy Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest, 480 B.C.E. Acropolis "The Apollo Of Piombino “, 500 B.C.E. Bronze Museum , accessed 9 Sep 2012, http://quest.eb.com/images/126_495630
  7. 7. ArtEncyclopædia Britannica Image Quest, "Classical Black-figure Amphora,From Ialyssos, In The Archaeological Museum Of Rhodes, In Greece",accessed 9 Sep 2012,http://quest.eb.com/images/153_2366352
  8. 8. Literature and Drama Epic and lyric Greek poetry well established art forms Drama: developed in Athens when poetic odes were chanted by choruses to the god Dionysius Aeschylus: introduced a second and third character into the ode making it possible to present human conversation and conflict on the stage Themes of Greek Tragedy  Justice  Law  Conflicting demands of piety and obligation that drove heroic men and women to destruction
  9. 9. Comedy and Current Events Comedic Themes  Life on the farm  The good ole days  Sex  Nightmare of politics  Strange manners of the town  Aristophanes: greatest Greek comedic playwright  repeatedly dragged into court to defend himself against politicians he had attacked;
  10. 10. Classical Study of HistoryHerodotus Thucydides
  11. 11. Herodotus (484-425 B.C.E.) Assemble sources, test their accuracy with one another, write a vivid narrative of past events. Father of History  The Histories : an inquiry into the origins of the Greco- Persian wars  Herodotus favored Athens and had uncomplimentary things to say about Thebes and Corinth.  Agreement with many other sources although includes fanciful accounts.  Priests and Kings  Reputedly recited The Histories at the Olympics
  12. 12. Thucydides (460-395 B.C.E.) Student of Herodotus Wrote History of the Peloponnesian Wars Known as “Father of Scientific History”  Reliance on sources  Charted cause and effect without reference to intervention by the gods.  Idea of “political realism” relations between competing poleis or kingdoms are based on Might rather than Right.  Inquired about the positive and negative consequences of democracy.
  13. 13. Pythagoras (C. 570-495 B.C.E.) Essence of life lays in the mind  Speculative life is highest good  One must be purified of fleshly desires to achieve a speculative life Essence of the universe is found in the study of abstractions NOT the physical world  Established key properties of odd and even numbers  Proved Pythagorean theorem
  14. 14. Sophists “Wise men” made their living by selling their knowledge Protagoras, “Man is the measure of all things”  Truth, justice, goodness are relative concepts, adaptable to the needs and interests of human beings  Truth, justice and goodness are not moral absolutes established by the gods  No one can know if the gods exist or what they wanted  Particular truths valid for individual knower
  15. 15. Philosophy: Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
  16. 16. Socrates (469 – 399 B.C.E.) Hoplite soldier who participated in three campaigns during the Peloponnesian War Method of instruction was conversation and asking questions: Socratic Method Submit every presumed truth to examination of reason Socrates never wrote anything, what is known of his philosophy comes from Plato’s writings and the writings of his other pupils
  17. 17. Socrates’ Philosophy Known through writings of Plato Absolute standards do exist as ideals which can be discerned through rational examination All supposed certainties are merely unexamined prejudices inherited from others “I know nothing”  Investigate own assumptions and reflect on principles of proper conduct  Consider the meanings and consequences of one’s actions at all times and be prepared to take responsibility for them
  18. 18. Plato (424/423 -348/347 B.C.E.) Student of Socrates Writings include dialogues between Socrates and his opponents Founder of the Academy in Athens: first institution of higher learning in Western Civilization Taught Aristotle Platonism: physical world is merely a “shadow” of the ideal.  Justice exists in its ideal form but men’s practice of justice is merely a cheap “shadow” copy of justice. Philosopher –King: wise ruler who attempts to attain the ideal in the physical world.
  19. 19. The Parable of the Cave http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UQfRdl3 GTw4&feature=player_detailpage
  20. 20. The Republic The quest for justice What is the nature of a just society? Idealism  Reality lies in the realm of unchanging forms rather than sensory objects  Psyche (soul) belongs to the realm of unchanging forms  Soma (body) belongs to the sensory (material realm)  Purpose of philosophy: to educate the psyche and free it from its material prison to regain perfect awareness
  21. 21. Plato’s Just Society No private property Minimal family life Education for both men and women Each person’s abilities determine his/her place in the community Government by enlightened guardians: philosopher- kings  Most intellectually capable  Carry the welfare of the whole commonwealth
  22. 22. Aristotle (384-322 B.C.E.) Empirical method  Dependent on direct experience  Male generator—female receptacle  Male: life giving form  Female: chaotic matter  Women are imperfect and incomplete versions of men  Logic  The syllogism
  23. 23. What type of government is best ? Plato: Republic ruled by philosopher-kings Aristotle  Governments must function in the interest of the state NOT the people  Democracy puts too much power in the hands of poor people  Demagogues can persuade masses to pass less-than worthy laws  Humans can reach full potential only within the framework of the state  Best government is constitutional government ruled by middle-class
  24. 24. Ethics Examines human values Happiness is the only human value which is a final goal Virtue exists in how well one performs its function  Virtue= how well a human exercises the function of reason.  The Golden Mean= the middle ground between 2 extremes of behavior.
  25. 25. The Greeks and Western Civilization Similarities between important concepts of human society in the civilization of ancient Greece and present day western societies  Concern for the most just form of government  The idea that at least some citizens should have a voice in government  The notion that the fullest development of one’s own potential should be the aim of existence  “Every free man is the sculptor of his own monument”  Notion of uniqueness of being “Greek”
  26. 26. Stark Differences between Ancient Greek Society and the Present Place of women Place of children and slaves Notion of “Mentoring” Rights of Free Men The practice rather than the ideal of democracy  Small group of males in control.  Exploitation of other city-states—no compromise only competition.

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