His 101 chapter 3 the civilization of greece fall 2012


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His 101 chapter 3 the civilization of greece fall 2012

  1. 1. The Civilization of Greece 1000-400 B.C.E.
  2. 2. Why the Civilization of Ancient Greece Is Important in Western Civilization History? Greeks united around a common language and culture  Viewed themselves as separate & unique  Experimented with democracy and participatory government  Social mobility not solely dependent on birth  Humanities and intellectual investigation  art, drama, literature  scientific investigation  philosophy separated from religion
  3. 3. Bronze Age Greece Minoans & Mycenaeans  Age of Heroes  Important and well-integrated part of the Mediterranean World Minoan Thalassocracy  A sea empire  Sir Arthur Evans’s discovery of palace of Knossos on Crete  Close contact between Funeral Mask of Agamemnon Minoans on Crete & Mycenaeans on mainland Greece  Linear B
  4. 4. Political and CommercialFoundations of Mycenaean Greece A powerful palace headed by a powerful king who was also a military leader A warrior aristocracy Local bureaucracy State-regulated land-holdings Redistributive economy (plunder and patronage) Large territorial Kingdoms
  5. 5. Trojan War
  6. 6. The Burning of TroyThe Burning of Troy oil painting by Johann Georg Trautmann
  7. 7. Greek MythologyZeus Athena Aeres
  8. 8. The Age of Heroes
  9. 9. What Caused the Demise of the Minoan and Mycenaean Civilizations? Leading hypotheses  Sea Peoples: documentary evidence in Egypt, Ugarit  Environmental Catastrophe: physical evidence on Santorini Thera Volcanic Ash & Craters on Santorini today
  10. 10. Dark Age of Greece 1150-800 B.C.E. Depopulation of up to 90% of Greek mainland except at Athens after 1200 B.C.E. Settlements shrank in size and moved inland away from the sea. Little economic contact with other Greek cities much less the wider world. Economic equalization: headmen had little more than anybody else. Gave rise to presumptions of political and economic self- sufficiency of individual households Greatly influenced Greek political attitudes during the classic period
  11. 11. Heroic Tradition Trade resumed around 1000B.C.E. Emergence of small group of wealthy citizens Believed that their elite status was a reflection of their own superior qualities as “best men”  Aristocracy = rule by the best  Wealth not only factor  Singer of songs, doer of deeds, winner of battles  Success in life = Favor by the gods (a prosperity gospel in today’s terms)
  12. 12. HomerBust of Homer dating to theHellenistic Period (400 B.C.E.)From the British Museum Date of Birth is unknown. Herodotus suggests Homer lived Around 850 B.C.E. Modern Researchers suggest either 8th or 7th century B.C.E. Homer’s works greatly influenced Greek culture: especially the Heroic Tradition.
  13. 13. The Iliad The story of the Trojan War from the Greek perspective. What is the Heroic Code?  How does Homer portray heroes?  Are heroes always just?  Are heroes merciful?  Are heroes only men?  What is the role of women in the heroic code?  What do all heroes have in common?  Are the gods heroes?  Can the gods be counted upon to help a hero or anybody else?
  14. 14. Archaic Greece (800-480 B.C.E.) Colonization: between 800 and 700 B.C.E. the Greeks founded several hundred new colonies from the Black Sea to the western Mediterranean  Western shores of Anatolia  Southern Italy and Sicily (called Magna Graecia by the Romans)  Intensified contacts with Egypt and Phoenicia Greek awareness of their own common identity and perspectives as Hellens or Hellenism  Hellenism did not encourage greater political cooperation among the individual city-states
  15. 15. The Rise of the Polis As the Greek dark ages ended, contact with the Phoenicians led to renewed seafaring activity:  Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet and improved upon it by converting some consonants into vowels,  Dramatic population growth as result of increased prosperity, Geography:  mountainous  limited land suitable for agriculture  Growth of local communities and traditions  Village growth and repopulation  economic contact with other towns increased  Conflict with other towns over trade and competition increased  Political system for cooperation in a local area  Rise of city-states and more developed ideas of government than existed in Sumer
  16. 16. Polis/Poleis Literally translated –city Polis is more than the geographic space.  Includes the body of citizens  Identifies the rights of citizenship Greeks did not refer to the place “Sparta” as the polis but to the Spartans or the Athenians as the polis Asty is the Greek word which describes the urban buildings and spaces of a polis
  17. 17. Acropolis at AthensContained both civil& religious buildingsSet on limestone hillTo protect it frominvaders
  18. 18. Ekklesia Ekklesia- the assembly of adult male citizens of a polis for deliberation and voting. Did not include immigrants, women, children or slaves Even among free men, there were levels of authority Each city-state was organized differently and held different views of “democracy” and “voting”.
  19. 19. Rock cut platform calledThe bema where theEkklesia of the polis inAthens met to discussIssues raised by the townCouncil during the 4thCentury B.C.E.
  20. 20. Citizenship Rights Adult males born legitimately of citizen parents Citizens with full legal rights but no political rights  Women & children whose rights to property were held in trust by husbands or nearest male relative  Transdwellers were citizens in their own polis but not in the polis in which they chose to live  no voting rights,  could not be elected to office  had no right to serve in the military except in their own polis Slaves: had no privileges but what their owner granted or revoked at will, considered property of their owners
  21. 21. City-states and hoplite forces Competition for resources and trade led to conflict among city-states.  Every city needed a military Farmers who could afford the armor could join the local hoplite force.  Hoplites named for their shield.  Hoplites became a political and social force demanding greater political rights and limits to aristocratic power.
  22. 22. Hoplites Foot soliders  Armed with short swords  Protected by a large round shield called a hoplon  Also protected by breastplate, helmet, wrist and leg guards Phalanx: Soldiers stood shoulder to shoulder several rows across and several rows deep Carried shields on left arm to protect the right arm (sword- bearing arm) of the man standing next to him Each soldier leaned with his shield on the man in front of him. If the man in front fell, the man behind took his place
  23. 23. Hoplite ArmorHoplon: wood covered withBronze outside; insidecovered with leather.Weight: 17.65 lbs.Decoration: Gorgon heads.Gorgons were women whosehair is made of snakes andwho turns to stone any manwho looks in her eyes.
  24. 24. Hoplite HelmetsIron helmet found in tomb of Phillip II Bronze helmet from 5th Century
  25. 25. Hoplite BreastplateBreastplate from Tomb ofPhillip II (Iron and gold)
  26. 26. Bronze Greaves
  27. 27. Hoplite Short Sword
  28. 28. Aristocrats Political office Symposium: gathering of elite men  Wine  Women  Poetry  Dancing competitions  Homosexuality: older men mentored younger men in return for sexual favors. Did not preclude marriage.  Symposia became more restrictive over time.
  29. 29. Tyrants Tyrannos: someone who seizes power outside the traditional political framework; Tyrants: often seized power from the aristocratic elite with the help of the hoplite class; Tyrants extended rights of the hoplites in return for political support; Tyrants: held power until a new tyrant rose up with assistance of new generations of hoplites
  30. 30. Athens Archaic Period: Athens had distinctly agricultural economy;  Aristocratic dominance rested on elected magistrates (judges)  Council of State composed of former magistrates Archons: held executive power  Served 1 year term  Served for life on Areopagus Council  Areopagus Council = high court of justice
  31. 31. Debt Slavery & Drakon Individuals secured loans by pledging one’s person as collateral If default occurred, debtor became indentured to creditor until the loan was re-paid Indentured servitude was not much better than slavery Drakon: Archon charged with setting written laws  Made debt slavery even more harsh  Imposed the death penalty for even minor crimes  By 594 B.C.E. Athens on brink of civil war  Our word “drakonian”
  32. 32. Solon (638 B.C.E. -558 B.C.E.) Made archon in 594 B.C.E. by agreement between aristocrats and hoplites  A merchant not beholden to any one interest;  Forbade debt slavery;  Establish fund to buy back Athenians in foreign debt slavery;  Encouraged olive and grape growing to establish a commercial cash crop;  Encouraged ship-building Broadened political participation  Eligibility for political office based on property ownership not birth  Established court of appeals with broad range of citizens as jurors  Ekklesia had right to elect archons
  33. 33. Sparta
  34. 34. Spartan Polis 4 villages combined Dual monarchy: two royal families and two lines of succession Conquest of Messenia (C. 720 B.C.E.)  Messenians worked the land  Spartans owned the land  Messenians had no political rights  Helots  Often revolted but were unsuccessful All citizens of Sparta were warrior-champions.
  35. 35. Militaristic Culture Sparta: oriented toward maintaining Hoplite Army Every citizen (Spartiate) member of the phalanx  Every child examined at birth:  left to die  raised to be a soldier  Children trained in Spartan educational system at age 7  Boys and girls trained together until 12;  Girls trained to be literate;  Girls married at 18;  Boys went to military barracks at 18  Fought to gain membership in gymnasium (communal mess tent)  Failure meant expulsion and denial of Spartan citizenship  Acceptance meant soldier’s life until age 30 when permitted to marry  Low birthrate in Sparta  Men: active duty until 60
  36. 36. Spartan Citizenship Rights All males age 30+ were members of citizen assembly (apella) Could vote “yes” or “no” without debate on matters proposed by council of 28 elders (gerousia) Elders were 60+ 5 ephors managed the educational system and guarded Spartan traditions  Power to depose even the king  Supervised a secret state security service who spied primarily on the Helots but also on citizens
  37. 37. Helots Outnumbered the Spartans by 10 to 1 Spartans ritually declared war on Helots every year Spartans reluctant to send their army abroad for fear the Helots would revolt at home
  38. 38. Miletus Ionian Peninsula Center of Greek speculative thinking and philosophy  Sought physical explanations for locations of the stars  Formulated rational theories to explain the physical universe  Marginalized the gods or ignored them altogether  Xenophanes concluded than men made gods in their own image  Rejected by the majority of Greek population
  39. 39. Persian Wars Herodotus (father of history) main source for Persian War history Persian War caused by a political conflict in Miletus;  501 B.C.E. Aristagoras believed that he was falling out of favor with Darius the Great of Persia;  Roused the Milesians to revolt and sought support from the mainland  Athens and Eretria sent army and burned the Persian administrative center at Sardis and went home;  Milesians were defeated by Persians in 494 B.C.E.  Darius: punitive invasion to teach Athens and Eretria a lesson  In 490 Darius invaded and burned Eretria and moved onto the plain of Marathon to attack Athens;  Athenians requested aid from Sparta who declined because they were in the middle of a religious festival;
  40. 40. Battle of Marathon (490 B.C.E.) Athenian commander: Persians were watering horses leaving the Persian infantry vulnerable  Athenians attacked though vastly outnumbered:  Casualties according to Herodotus:  6,400 Persians killed  192 Athenians killed Athenians recognized as a military power Athenians still vulnerable to larger Persian army  Used proceeds from a silver mine to build and equip a fleet of naval ships in anticipation of Persian attack
  41. 41. Xerxes Defeat at Thermopylae Darius’s son Xerxes: grand invasion of Greece with 150,000 men  Led the campaign himself  Many Greek cities capitulated Athens, Sparta, Corinth and 30 other city-states refused  Formed the Hellenic League  Under military leadership of Sparta, outnumbered Greeks held off Persian invasion for 3 days while Athenian navy fought Persians at Artemisium  Spartans died but Athenians inflicted heavy losses on Persian fleet;  Xerxes burned Athens but Athenians defeated and destroyed Persian fleet at Battle of Salamis
  42. 42. Athenian Rising Athens: premier naval power in the Eastern Mediterranean; rivaled Sparta for military might on land Athens: leader of Delian League—a group of the poleis determined to continue the Persian War  Controlled resources and funds;  Athenians increased influence abroad;  Athenian culture and democracy flourished;  Levied high taxes to support military on other Delian League members.
  43. 43. Pericles & Direct Democracy By 460 B.C.E. Thetes (naval rowers) demanded political power Pericles (though not a military man) was elected strategos on a platform of expanded citizenship rights for everyone  Every Athenian citizen: right to propose and amend legislation;  Poor citizens: participate in the Ekklesia by paying a day’s wage;  All citizens could participate in the appeals courts;
  44. 44. Golden Age of Athens Athenian democracy and the golden age were fueled by Athenian empire Delian League members not permitted to withdraw; any attempt to do so was brutally put down by Athens
  45. 45. Literature and Drama Epic and lyric Greek poetry well established art forms Drama: developed in Athens when poetic odes were chanted by choruses to the god Dionysius Aeschylus: introduced a second and third character into the ode making it possible to present human conversation and conflict on the stage Themes of Greek Tragedy  Justice  Law  Conflicting demands of piety and obligation that drove heroic men and women to destruction
  46. 46. Comedy and Current Events Comedic Themes  Life on the farm  The good ole days  Sex  Nightmare of politics  Strange manners of the town  Aristophanes: greatest Greek comedic playwright  repeatedly dragged into court to defend himself against politicians he had attacked;
  47. 47. Women’s Life: Who really invented the burka? Short Answer: The Greeks Public space reserved exclusively for men  Women of good character (i.e. not slaves or prostitutes) were NEVER or RARELY seen in public and were always veiled (except their eyes)  Girls married at 14  Dowry  Primary job: bearing children, weaving  Women married much older men often as the second or third wife  Women usually died around 35 as result of hardships of childbirth
  48. 48. Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C.E.) Other Delian League members angered by Athenian taxes and dominance; Corinthians: threatened by Athenian naval control of Aegean Sea allied with Sparta; By 431 B.C.E. Athens and Sparta fighting a stalemate  Athens could not defeat Sparta by land  Sparta could not defeat Athens by sea
  49. 49. Plague of Athens 429 B.C.E. Killed over 1/3 of population of Athens Killed Pericles 1999 Conference at University of Maryland concluded the Plague of Athens was caused by “Epidemic Typhus Fever”
  50. 50. Disaster at Syracuse (415 B.C.E.) Athenian Expedition to attack Syracuse killed thousands; Sparta was aided by Persians; Athens abandoned democracy; voting in an oligarchy of 400 citizens Lysander of Sparta destroyed the Athenian fleet in 404 B.C.E. and besieged Athens  Permitted surrender and imposed Spartan style oligarchy of 40 citizens on Athens Cost of war impoverished most city-states Greece entered a new phase of disunity and was conquered by Philip of Macedonia by 346 B.C.E.