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[DCSB] Katherine Crawford (Southampton) In the Footsteps of the Gods: network approach to modeling Roman Religious Processions

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Religion was woven into the fabric of Roman society, its visibility ranging from monumental temples to the practice of festival activity. Religious processions, in particular, were carefully choreographed rituals that linked disparate spaces and people together within the cityscape. Despite their acknowledged regularity within the Roman world, our understanding of religious processional movement remains extremely limited. Studies concerning Triumphal, funerary, and circus processions dominate current scholarship due to their greater documentation by the ancient literary sources. These processions, however, formed only a fraction of Roman processional activity. Recent years have seen an increase of scholarship interested in different aspects of processions and movement within the cityscape. In light of this, a reconsideration of the degree to which we can study processions within the archaeological record is warranted. As the record of the performance of processions was primarily held in the memories of those who took part of heard about them, the ways in which they can be studied is challenging. Adopting a theoretical and computer based approach, a critical analysis of the relationship between a procession’s movement patterns and engagement with the urban environment can be studied.

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[DCSB] Katherine Crawford (Southampton) In the Footsteps of the Gods: network approach to modeling Roman Religious Processions

  1. 1. In the Footsteps of the Gods Network Approach to Modelling Roman Religious Processions Katherine A. Crawford University of Southampton K.A.Crawford@soton.ac.uk Digital Classicist Seminar v February 7, 2017
  2. 2. Network Approach to Modelling Roman Religious Procession
  3. 3. Roman Processions Ara Pacis Arch of Titus Network Approach to Modelling Roman Religious Procession Pompa Circensis
  4. 4. Roman Triumphal Route (Beard 2007) Falerii Novi, E-W ‘sacred way’ (Keay, Millett & Strutt 2007) Network Approach to Modelling Roman Religious Procession A boy fell down while carrying a Victory in a procession such as the soldiers hold… ~ Dio 47.40.8
  5. 5. Salutaris Decree The care of the aforementioned sacred images, and the conveyance before everyone, from the temple into the theatre, and from the theatre into the temple of Artemis, will be done according to the bequest every year... (Rogers 1991) Network Approach to Modelling Roman Religious Procession
  6. 6. Archaeology of Processions? “The city was all decked with garlands, was ablaze with lights and reeking with incense, and the whole population, the senators themselves most of all, kept shouting in chorus.” ~ Dio 63.20.5 Network Approach to Modelling Roman Religious Procession
  7. 7. Ostia Antica Network Approach to Modelling Roman Religious Procession
  8. 8. Network Approach to Modelling Roman Religious Procession Researching Processional Routes Research Questions: v  To what extent can we study processional routes at Ostia? v  What is the best methodology for modelling and visualizing processions? v  How do these models help us to understand Ostia’s religious landscape?
  9. 9. Ostia’s Religious Landscape Serapeum Tempio dei Fabri Navales Santuario di Attis Capitolium Tempio Network Approach to Modelling Roman Religious Procession
  10. 10. Excavation History Network Approach to Modelling Roman Religious Procession
  11. 11. Studying Ostian Religion Network Approach to Modelling Roman Religious Procession
  12. 12. Ostia Processions Navigium Isidis, Vatican Museum Feast of Diana; Vendemia, Vatican Museum Campus of Magna Mater Network Approach to Modelling Roman Religious Procession
  13. 13. Scholarship ‘Archaic Sacred Route’ (DeLaine 2008) Network Approach to Modelling Roman Religious Procession
  14. 14. Urban Movement Vitruvius De Architectura 4.5.1 Similarly, houses of the gods on the sides of public roads should be arranged so that the passers-by can have a view of them and pay their devotions face to face. (Morgan 1914) Network Approach to Modelling Roman Religious Procession
  15. 15. Movement at Ostia Ostian Street Depth (Kaiser 2011) Axial Graph - Ostia Street Integration (Stöger 2011) Network Approach to Modelling Roman Religious Procession
  16. 16. New Approach ‘A procession is not just a journey from A to B; it matters where A and B are located, and who is doing the journey. But to properly be able to elicit what the purpose of a procession is, one must consider not only the form, but the total ritual context to which it belongs.’ (Graf 1996: 64) Network Approach to Modelling Roman Religious Procession
  17. 17. Network Approach to Modelling Roman Religious Procession Influencing Factors •  Movement potential along streets •  Urban activity •  Visibility •  People •  Crowds What affects a procession’s route? •  Movement potential along streets •  Urban activity
  18. 18. Network Analysis Network Approach to Modelling Roman Religious Procession Network of transport routes based off of Itineraries (Isaksen 2008)
  19. 19. Network Approach to Modelling Roman Religious Procession Pedestrian Movement GIS Based Analyses Space Syntax Methods
  20. 20. Constructing a Model Network Approach to Modelling Roman Religious Procession
  21. 21. Network Approach to Modelling Roman Religious Procession Urban Activity Variables Religious Commercial Social Domestic
  22. 22. Network Approach to Modelling Roman Religious Procession Religious
  23. 23. Network Approach to Modelling Roman Religious Procession Commercial
  24. 24. Network Approach to Modelling Roman Religious Procession Social
  25. 25. Network Approach to Modelling Roman Religious Procession Domestic
  26. 26. Network Approach to Modelling Roman Religious Procession Network Construction Network Nodes = building classifications Edges = streets
  27. 27. Network Approach to Modelling Roman Religious Procession Betweenness Centrality v  The probability that a certain node will be passed when traveling the shortest distance between 2 nodes Higher importance within network = greater betweenness
  28. 28. Network Approach to Modelling Roman Religious Procession ArcGIS: Urban Network Analysis Toolbox Calculating in GIS Maintain Geometry/ Street layout Problems?
  29. 29. Network Approach to Modelling Roman Religious Procession Religious Betweenness
  30. 30. Network Approach to Modelling Roman Religious Procession Extended Network
  31. 31. Network Approach to Modelling Roman Religious Procession Religious Betweenness
  32. 32. Network Approach to Modelling Roman Religious Procession Commercial Betweenness
  33. 33. Network Approach to Modelling Roman Religious Procession Domestic Betweenness
  34. 34. Network Approach to Modelling Roman Religious Procession Social Betweenness
  35. 35. Network Approach to Modelling Roman Religious Procession Kernel Density Analysis KDE of Shops KDE of Shops Betweenness
  36. 36. Network Approach to Modelling Roman Religious Procession Multiple Betweenness Calculations Social & Domestic Spaces UnweightWeighted
  37. 37. Network Approach to Modelling Roman Religious Procession Combined Weighted Measurements
  38. 38. Network Approach to Modelling Roman Religious Procession Weight Religious – 1 Social – 2 Domestic – 3 Commercial - 4 Weight Religious – 5 Social – 1 Domestic – 2 Commercial - 3
  39. 39. Network Approach to Modelling Roman Religious Procession KDE Comparison Religious 1 Religious 5
  40. 40. Network Approach to Modelling Roman Religious Procession Next Steps ... Cost Distance Analysis
  41. 41. Network Approach to Modelling Roman Religious Procession Preliminary Conclusions Axial Graph - Ostia Street Integration (Stöger 2011)
  42. 42. Network Approach to Modelling Roman Religious Procession Thank You!

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