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Modelling Natural Ventilation in IES-VE:
Case studies & Research Outlook
Daniel Coakley BE PhD CEM MIEI MEI
Research Fello...
Structure
• Introduction to IES
• Nat Vent Simulation in IES-VE
• ASHRAE ‘Zero-Net Energy’ (ZNE) Challenge
• Research outl...
IES Background
• Founded 1994 with HQ in Glasgow;
• Offices in UK, Ireland, USA, India;
• Delivering sustainable solutions...
IES-VE Software
Building Performance Analysis Technology
- Traditionally our focus was on creating
analysis tools for buil...
IES SCAN / ERGON
ERGON - Import,
manage and interrogate
real building data /
schedules and use them
inVE simulations.
IES-...
NAT-VENT SIMULATION IN IES-VE
Nat Vent Simulation Studies
• Assess occupant comfort conditions (PMV) with respect
to air temperature, velocity, air qual...
Relevant Modules
Key IES-VE Simulation modules:
• MacroFlo – Simulate bulk air-flow driven
by wind pressure and buoyancy f...
MacroFlo
Incorporates models of:
• external wind pressure based on empirical
data;
• stack effect (buoyancy);
• flow chara...
MicroFlo
Features
• Air flow and heat transfer in and around buildings;
• Simulate both internal and external air flow and...
VistaPro result Visualisation
• Visualisation and analysis (Post-processing);
• Room and Node state display
• HVAC process...
Performance Components
• Pre-built manufacturer assemblies imported
to the Virtual Environment, providing a mix of
geometr...
ASHRAE NET-ZERO ENERGY CASE STUDY
Credit to Liam Buckley (IES) and the ASHRAE IES ZNE Team
5,000 m2 (53,600 ft2), 3- storey commercial office:
• Minimum window-to-wall ratio: 30%
• Minimum Energy Code: ASHRAE 90.1...
Zero-Net Energy Design Model
The Design Team’s Meetings
• Realistic design in a challenging climate
• Boulder, Colorado
• ...
Zero-Net Energy Design Model
Early Baseline EUI Target
• Baseline EUI: 33 kBtu/ft2/yr
• Renewables: 20 kBtu/ft2/yr
• Targe...
Zero-Net Energy Design Model
The Final Architectural Design • New Baseline EUI: 53 kBtu/ft2/yr
• Renewables: 20 kBtu/ft2/y...
Zero-Net Energy Design Model
60 Second Virtual Tour of The Final Architectural Design
Zero-Net Energy Design Model
Solar Shading & PV-T Optimization
• Limit Solar Gains in Summer
• Maximize Solar Gains in Win...
Zero-Net Energy Design Model
Renewable Wind Energy
• Net Zero Goal – More Renewables!
• Building shape funnels wind (+3ft/...
Zero-Net Energy Design Model
ECM: Natural Ventilation and Adaptive Thermal Comfort
• Run Natural Ventilation simulations w...
Zero-Net Energy Design Model
• Diurnal Swing ~ 30 degrees.
• Summertime heating setpoints were relaxed to
(65°F/58°F) in c...
Zero-Net Energy Design Model
ECM: Natural Ventilation and Adaptive Thermal Comfort
• Internal Operable Windows to Atrium
•...
Zero-Net Energy Design Model
• Proof of Concept:
ECM: Atrium Design
Zero-Net Energy Design Model
Adaptive Thermal Comfort in the Offices
• Office Cross-Ventilation in Summer • Office Cross-V...
Zero-Net Energy Design Model
Future-Proofing the ZNE Status
• WeatherShift morphed the weather file 50 years.
• (2000-2014...
Zero-Net Energy Design Model
Future-Proofing ECM: Passive Down-Draught Evap. Cool Tower
Moisture
Content
Added
Air
Tempera...
Zero-Net Energy Design Model
Thank You – Questions/Comments
Research Outlook
EINSTEIN Project
• EINSTEIN: Simulation Enhanced Integrated
Systems for Model-based Intelligent Control(s)
• Funding: EU-f...
Fault Detection
– Knowledge / Rule-based:
uses expert user
experience
– Data-driven: uses
historical building data,
Statis...
Prediction / Optimisation
• Multi-objective control optimisation;
• Complies with user-specified
constraints (e.g. comfort...
Overall Integration
Building Data
IES-SCAN
Modelling /
Prediction
Fault Detection
/ Optimisation
Intervention
(DSS / Contr...
Useful Links
IES-VE Software
• MacroFlo: https://www.iesve.com/software/ve-for-engineers/module/MacroFlo/462
• MicroFlo: h...
Thank you!
Daniel Coakley BE PhD CEM MIEI MEI
Research Fellow, Integrated Environmental Solutions Ltd.
Adjunct Lecturer, N...
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Modelling Natural Ventilation in IES-VE: Case studies & Research Outlook

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Presented at Technical Seminar: Ventilative Cooling & Overheating Risk - Cork Institute of Technology, 20th April 2016

This half day seminar for researchers, designers, engineers & architects, is organised in collaboration with IEA-EBC Annex 62 and will present state of the art in utilising ventilation for reducing cooling energy demand and addressing the risk of overheating in low energy buildings.

The presentation focuses on natural ventilation modelling features in the IES-VE Virtual Environment and case study of the application of some of these features as part of the ASHRAE LowDown ShowDown Competition 2015.

Published in: Engineering
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  • DOWNLOAD THIS BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (2019 Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book THIS can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer THIS is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story THIS Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money THIS the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths THIS Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
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Modelling Natural Ventilation in IES-VE: Case studies & Research Outlook

  1. 1. Modelling Natural Ventilation in IES-VE: Case studies & Research Outlook Daniel Coakley BE PhD CEM MIEI MEI Research Fellow, Integrated Environmental Solutions Ltd. Adjunct Lecturer, National University of Ireland Galway (NUIG) Secretary, ASHRAE Ireland Technical Seminar: Ventilative Cooling & Overheating , April 20, CIT, Cork
  2. 2. Structure • Introduction to IES • Nat Vent Simulation in IES-VE • ASHRAE ‘Zero-Net Energy’ (ZNE) Challenge • Research outlook: Building Operations
  3. 3. IES Background • Founded 1994 with HQ in Glasgow; • Offices in UK, Ireland, USA, India; • Delivering sustainable solutions from building to city-scale; • Main software: – IES-VE (Building simulation) – IES-SCAN (Building operations)
  4. 4. IES-VE Software Building Performance Analysis Technology - Traditionally our focus was on creating analysis tools for building design. - Our tools now encompass a bigger picture of the built environment allowing for analysis on a bigger scale (e.g. city or community level) and at different building life stages. - Understanding and analysing ‘real’ data at the Building Operation stage can drive actions which: - Improve occupancy comfort. - Reduce energy use & CO2. - Reduce costs
  5. 5. IES SCAN / ERGON ERGON - Import, manage and interrogate real building data / schedules and use them inVE simulations. IES-SCAN is a customisable web based portal and integrated data environment for operational data analysis complete with capability for energy forecasting, simulation
  6. 6. NAT-VENT SIMULATION IN IES-VE
  7. 7. Nat Vent Simulation Studies • Assess occupant comfort conditions (PMV) with respect to air temperature, velocity, air quality etc.; • Demonstrate energy / cost savings by reducing need for mechanical ventilation / cooling; • Minimise overheating risk; • Analysis of effectiveness of various ventilation strategies, based on location / climate: – Natural, Mechanical or Mixed-mode strategies; • Evaluate feasibility of designs such as: – Single-sided ventilation, DSF, cross-ventilation, whole-building ventilation, Conventional systems, Displacement, Buoyancy, etc.; – Novel performance components – PCM, Solar collectors, Windcatcher etc.
  8. 8. Relevant Modules Key IES-VE Simulation modules: • MacroFlo – Simulate bulk air-flow driven by wind pressure and buoyancy forces using a fast multi-zone thermo-fluid solver; • MicroFlo – CFD analysis engine for internal / external air flow studies; • ApacheHVAC – detailed HVAC design and analysis; • ApacheSim – dynamic thermal simulation for building performance and load forecasting; • VistaPro – results visualisation and analysis engine.
  9. 9. MacroFlo Incorporates models of: • external wind pressure based on empirical data; • stack effect (buoyancy); • flow characteristics of cracks / large openings; • two-way flow; • resistance due to grilles and wall friction; • Rayleigh instability. Inputs: • Building geometry & constructions; • Opening properties (e.g. wind exposure, free opening area etc.) • Weather data (wind speed, direction etc.) • ApacheSim / HVAC information; • ERGON profiles (if required) Outputs: • Air-flow mass / volume for openings; • Air-flow velocities; • Aggregated room / zone level air flows etc.
  10. 10. MicroFlo Features • Air flow and heat transfer in and around buildings; • Simulate both internal and external air flow and thermal problems; • Pre-set initial conditions for quicker convergence; • Discretisation options: Upwind (default), Hybrid and Power Law; • A simulation monitor enables you to run, pause and re-start calculations. Inputs: • Boundary conditions (Air / surface temperatures, mass-flows, gains etc.) • Surface object properties (e.g. grilles); • Shading surfaces (e.g. buildings, topographical etc.) • CFD components (e.g. Radiators, air heat source) Outputs: • internal air flow temperature, direction and velocity • external air flow direction and velocity • external static pressure
  11. 11. VistaPro result Visualisation • Visualisation and analysis (Post-processing); • Room and Node state display • HVAC process display – Sensible cooling & heating, – Humidification and heating – De-humidification and cooling – Adiabatic mixing, cooling • Time stepping • Comfort Zones • State frequency provides a very powerful visual overview of a node’s air conditions for a given date
  12. 12. Performance Components • Pre-built manufacturer assemblies imported to the Virtual Environment, providing a mix of geometry and thermal data as per manufacturer specification • Components fall into three distinct categories: – Object – placed within rooms (e.g. CFD heat source, Monodraught CoolPhase) – Space – part of the building model geometry (e.g. Windcatcher) – Panel – placed on a surface (e.g. ActiMass activated concrete thermal mass)
  13. 13. ASHRAE NET-ZERO ENERGY CASE STUDY Credit to Liam Buckley (IES) and the ASHRAE IES ZNE Team
  14. 14. 5,000 m2 (53,600 ft2), 3- storey commercial office: • Minimum window-to-wall ratio: 30% • Minimum Energy Code: ASHRAE 90.1-2010 • Maximum Site Energy Use Intensity (EUI): 0 • Occupants: 268 • Minimum ventilation: ASHRAE 62.1-2007 • Plug loads: 8 W/m2 (0.75 W/ft2) • Occupied Heating Setpoint: 21°C (70°F) • Occupied Cooling Setpoint: 24°C (75°F) • Data Centre Load: 6 kW • Elevators: 2 Elevators in Core of Building • Service Hot Water: 1 gallon/day/person • Utility Rates: US-EIA Flat rates • The use of one design tool ASHRAE ZNE Challenge
  15. 15. Zero-Net Energy Design Model The Design Team’s Meetings • Realistic design in a challenging climate • Boulder, Colorado • TMY15 (2000-2014) • -4° to 93°F [-20 to 34oC] ext. dry bulb • 6% to 100% ext. RH • Large diurnal swings (30°F)
  16. 16. Zero-Net Energy Design Model Early Baseline EUI Target • Baseline EUI: 33 kBtu/ft2/yr • Renewables: 20 kBtu/ft2/yr • Target EUI Reduction: 13 kBtu/ft2/yr
  17. 17. Zero-Net Energy Design Model The Final Architectural Design • New Baseline EUI: 53 kBtu/ft2/yr • Renewables: 20 kBtu/ft2/yr • Target EUI Reduction: 33 kBtu/ft2/yr
  18. 18. Zero-Net Energy Design Model 60 Second Virtual Tour of The Final Architectural Design
  19. 19. Zero-Net Energy Design Model Solar Shading & PV-T Optimization • Limit Solar Gains in Summer • Maximize Solar Gains in Winter • Maximize PV-T Potential Incident Solar Radiation:
  20. 20. Zero-Net Energy Design Model Renewable Wind Energy • Net Zero Goal – More Renewables! • Building shape funnels wind (+3ft/sec) • Wind = power • PV-T Panels • PV-T and waste heat combo • Payback <5 years Predominant Westerly Winds
  21. 21. Zero-Net Energy Design Model ECM: Natural Ventilation and Adaptive Thermal Comfort • Run Natural Ventilation simulations with operable windows/vents; overheating. • Relocate printer stations & coffee stations to north office areas. Re-evaluate. • Utilize summertime diurnal swing and night-purge. • Expose thermal mass of internal floors. • No offices above 25°C for 5% of occupied time (104 hours/year). • No offices above 27°C for 1% of occupied time (21 hours/year).
  22. 22. Zero-Net Energy Design Model • Diurnal Swing ~ 30 degrees. • Summertime heating setpoints were relaxed to (65°F/58°F) in cooling season. • Analysis of operative temperature: ECM: Natural Ventilation and Adaptive Thermal Comfort Outside Dry-Bulb Temperature (°F) Effective Night Purge Control (11pm-3am) PPD (%) Snapshot:
  23. 23. Zero-Net Energy Design Model ECM: Natural Ventilation and Adaptive Thermal Comfort • Internal Operable Windows to Atrium • Atrium is Negatively Pressurized. Temp.OP (°F) Snapshot: 60-80°F PPD (%) Snapshot: 0-20%
  24. 24. Zero-Net Energy Design Model • Proof of Concept: ECM: Atrium Design
  25. 25. Zero-Net Energy Design Model Adaptive Thermal Comfort in the Offices • Office Cross-Ventilation in Summer • Office Cross-Ventilation in Spring/Fall • Warm air rising and mixing. • Cool air falling, but radiant floor eliminates cold draughts at ankles. During winter, preheated OA is mechanically supplied to spaces.
  26. 26. Zero-Net Energy Design Model Future-Proofing the ZNE Status • WeatherShift morphed the weather file 50 years. • (2000-2014) to (2046-2065). • Projected EUI improved!?! • Warmer Winters • Warmer Summers • 1,500 more hours between 60-75°F • Internal Adaptive Comfort Ranges were uncomfortable. • Some cooling is required
  27. 27. Zero-Net Energy Design Model Future-Proofing ECM: Passive Down-Draught Evap. Cool Tower Moisture Content Added Air Temperature Decreased
  28. 28. Zero-Net Energy Design Model Thank You – Questions/Comments
  29. 29. Research Outlook
  30. 30. EINSTEIN Project • EINSTEIN: Simulation Enhanced Integrated Systems for Model-based Intelligent Control(s) • Funding: EU-funded Marie Curie IAPP Project (3 years) • Partners: IES and TCD • Topics – Fault Detection – Prediction – Optimisation – Overall system integration
  31. 31. Fault Detection – Knowledge / Rule-based: uses expert user experience – Data-driven: uses historical building data, Statistical Methods, Empirical Data, Machine Learning – Model-based; uses a calibrated detailed system model
  32. 32. Prediction / Optimisation • Multi-objective control optimisation; • Complies with user-specified constraints (e.g. comfort); • Fault-tolerant control; • Integrates predicted weather conditions, building thermal response, occupancy and economics (i.e. electricity / gas tariff);
  33. 33. Overall Integration Building Data IES-SCAN Modelling / Prediction Fault Detection / Optimisation Intervention (DSS / Controls)
  34. 34. Useful Links IES-VE Software • MacroFlo: https://www.iesve.com/software/ve-for-engineers/module/MacroFlo/462 • MicroFlo: https://www.iesve.com/software/ve-for-engineers/module/MicroFlo/463 • DiscoverIES Blog: https://www.iesve.com/discoveries/ ASHRAE Lowdown Showdown Case Study • CIBSE Article: http://www.cibsejournal.com/technical/down-to-zero-winner-of-ashrae-modelling- competition/ • IES Blog: http://blog.iesve.com/index.php/2015/10/14/the-ashrae-lowdown-showdown-we-won/ • LowDown Showdown Video Overview: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xsbms0uB6w8
  35. 35. Thank you! Daniel Coakley BE PhD CEM MIEI MEI Research Fellow, Integrated Environmental Solutions Ltd. Adjunct Lecturer, National University of Ireland Galway Secretary, ASHRAE Ireland Email: daniel.coakley@iesve.com Web: www.iesve.com Technical Seminar: Ventilative Cooling & Overheating , April 20, CIT, Cork

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