Sleep Disorders
<ul><li>Insomnia </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep Apnea </li></ul><ul><li>Narcolepsy </li></ul><ul><li>Hypersomnia </li></ul>
Insomnia <ul><li>Refers to difficulties in going to sleep and, less commonly, in staying asleep. </li></ul><ul><li>Appears...
Treatment (Drugs) <ul><li>Non-prescriptive drug – little or no sleep inducing capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Prescription ...
Tips <ul><li>Maintain regular sleep schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid excessive amounts of time in bed </li></ul><ul><li>Us...
Sleep Apnea <ul><li>Affects 40% of elderly people. </li></ul><ul><li>Causes the sleeping individual to stop breathing for ...
Treatment <ul><li>Can be attached to a monitor that sounds an alarm when he or she stops breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Surgi...
Narcolepsy <ul><li>Irresistible and sudden sleep attacks lasting from a few minutes to half an hour. </li></ul><ul><li>The...
Hypersomnia <ul><li>Less urgent sleep attacks, but longer in duration than those in narcolepsy </li></ul><ul><li>Causes a ...
Treatments <ul><li>No cure exists </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulants manage symptoms to some extent </li></ul>
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Q3L11 -Sleep disorders

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Q3L11 -Sleep disorders

  1. 1. Sleep Disorders
  2. 2. <ul><li>Insomnia </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep Apnea </li></ul><ul><li>Narcolepsy </li></ul><ul><li>Hypersomnia </li></ul>
  3. 3. Insomnia <ul><li>Refers to difficulties in going to sleep and, less commonly, in staying asleep. </li></ul><ul><li>Appears twice as many women than men </li></ul><ul><li>In the US, 15-20% of population and more than half a billion dollars a year on medication </li></ul><ul><li>Appears to be caused by factors such as stressful events, emotional disturbances, use of drugs, change of sleep schedule. </li></ul><ul><li>Stress tends to be most common cause in late teens and early adults. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Treatment (Drugs) <ul><li>Non-prescriptive drug – little or no sleep inducing capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Prescription drugs (benzodiazepines or minor tranquilisers) – can be helpful, but can also cause rebound insomnia when withdrawn. </li></ul><ul><li>Research show drugs should last no longer than two weeks to avoid drug dependence. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Tips <ul><li>Maintain regular sleep schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid excessive amounts of time in bed </li></ul><ul><li>Use relaxation techniques before going to bed (warm baths, meditation, soothing music) – but not in bed </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise during the day but not just before bedtime </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid stimulants and depressants </li></ul><ul><li>Make your room sleep friendly! Quiet and dark; earplugs. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Sleep Apnea <ul><li>Affects 40% of elderly people. </li></ul><ul><li>Causes the sleeping individual to stop breathing for periods of 20 sec to 2 minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Windpipe closes or the brain centres that control breathing are not functioning properly </li></ul><ul><li>Link to obesity - Excess body fat on the neck and chest constricts the air-passageways and sometimes the lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>By day – normal breathing. Each night – cycles not breathing, waking slightly to gulp in air and falls back asleep.. May be hundreds of times without awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to experience daytime drowsiness, very loud snoring </li></ul><ul><li>Especially dangerous during infancy – suspected of being one cause of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) – the most frequent cause of death amongst infants under 12 months </li></ul>
  7. 7. Treatment <ul><li>Can be attached to a monitor that sounds an alarm when he or she stops breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Surgical procedures such as enlarging the upper airway passages of the nose, removing the uvula </li></ul><ul><li>Sprays to shrink tissues lining the throat </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device </li></ul>
  8. 8. Narcolepsy <ul><li>Irresistible and sudden sleep attacks lasting from a few minutes to half an hour. </li></ul><ul><li>These instant periods of sleep are usually accompanied by muscular relaxation, when the person may simply fall asleep or collapse. </li></ul><ul><li>Wakefulness -> REM… skipping other stages </li></ul><ul><li>Causes unknown, but appears genetic </li></ul><ul><li>One in every 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Some appear able to continue automatic behaviours like driving a car satisfactorily for a few kilometres without awareness. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Hypersomnia <ul><li>Less urgent sleep attacks, but longer in duration than those in narcolepsy </li></ul><ul><li>Causes a person to experience either excessive daytime drowsiness or to have nocturnal sleep periods of longer than average duration. </li></ul><ul><li>Likely to be inherited </li></ul><ul><li>Thought to be caused by disruption to the hypothalamic sleep centres which results in a failure of the turn on and turn off mechanisms that regulate sleep </li></ul>
  10. 10. Treatments <ul><li>No cure exists </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulants manage symptoms to some extent </li></ul>

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