Q3L05 - Limbic System

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  • Jai-rus
  • Point 2: rats experiment – lesioning the amygdala = no longer avoid a stimulus previously connected with pain.Case study note: She could not reproduce it either.Amygdala can respond to threatening stimuli even when the person has no awareness of seeing them.
  • Light (it regulates circadian rhythms)Odours (e.g. pheromones)StressArousal (hypothalamic neurons release oxytocin – hormone released during sex, childbirth.. directly into the bloodstream)
  • Thought to directly drive the body’s conscious response to unpleasant experiences
  • Recent research suggests midbrain has a role in learning to produce behaviours that minimise unpleasant consequences and maximise rewards.Damage to pons – acting out movements in vivid dreams (2008)
  • Q3L05 - Limbic System

    1. 1. BRAIN PARTS RECAP<br />
    2. 2. THE BRAIN SO FAR….<br />
    3. 3. CORPUS CALLOSUM <br />
    4. 4. CEREBRUM<br />
    5. 5. CEREBRAL CORTEX<br />
    6. 6. FRONTAL LOBE<br />BROCA’S AREA<br />MOTOR CORTEX<br />
    7. 7. PARIETAL LOBE<br />SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX<br />
    8. 8. OCCIPITAL LOBE<br />VISUAL CORTEX<br />VISUAL ASSOCIATION AREA<br />
    9. 9. TEMPORAL LOBE<br />Auditory cortex<br />Auditory association area<br />Wernicke’s Area<br />
    10. 10. LIMBIC SYSTEM<br />
    11. 11. LIMBIC SYSTEM<br />KEY PARTS:<br />AMYGDALA<br />HIPPOCAMPUS<br />HYPOTHALAMUS<br />CINGULATE GYRUS<br />
    12. 12. AMYGDALA (Latin for ‘almond’)<br />Involved in processing emotions (in particular, learning and remembering emotionally significant events).<br />Important in fear responses.<br />Links areas of the cortex that process higher cognitive information with systems that control metabolic responses  fight or flight<br />Damage:Case study – damage to amygdala in both hemispheres. No motor, sensory or cognitive deficits, but when asked to identify photographs of a series of facial expressions, SM could identify every expression but one – FEAR. <br />
    13. 13. HIPPOCAMPUS<br />The structure most associated to memory formation.<br />An early storage place for long-term memory and involved in the transition of LTM to even more permanent memory.<br />Also plays a role in spatial navigation<br />Damage:Case study: Clive Wearing had extensive damage to the left and right hippocampus. Intellectual and perceptual abilities intact, but has severe memory impairments, losing ability to form new memories. <br />
    14. 14. Regulates automatic functions (hunger, thirst, body temperature, sexual activity)<br />Controls release of hormones<br />Integrates information from many different parts of the brain and is responsive to a variety of stimuli:i) light ii) odoursiii) stressiv) arousal<br />HYPOTHALAMUS<br />
    15. 15. CINGULATE GYRUS<br />Helps regulate emotions and pain.<br />Involved in fear and the prediction (and avoidance) of negative consequences and can help orient the body away from negative stimuli.<br />Damage: inappropriate emotions, lack of fear, impaired sensation of pain, learning impairments<br />
    16. 16. BRAIN STEM<br />
    17. 17. The Brain Stem<br />Consists of a group of structures that lie deep within the brain.<br />Plays important role in maintaining homeostasis by controlling automatic functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure.<br />Can organise motor movements such as reflexes, and coordinate with the motor cortex and associated areas to contribute to fine movements of limbs and the face.<br />
    18. 18. In the brain stem…<br />Midbrain<br />Pons<br />Medulla<br />
    19. 19. Midbrain<br />Includes structures involved in vision and hearing (tectum) and movement (tegmentum).<br />Pons<br /><ul><li>Region most closely associated with breathing and respiratory rhythms.
    20. 20. Forms a bridge between the cerebrum and cerebellum
    21. 21. Involved in sensory analysis and is the site at which auditory information enters the brain.</li></li></ul><li>Medulla<br />Formal name – medulla oblongata<br />An extension of the spinal cord linking to the brain.<br />3.5cm long and 2cm wide.<br />Neither humans nor other animals can survive destruction of the medulla.<br />Controls heartbeat, circulation and respiration.<br />
    22. 22. Thalamus<br />
    23. 23. Thalamus<br />About 5.7 cm in length<br />Processes sensory information as it arrives and transmit it to higher brain centres (the cortex).<br />Like a switchboard!<br />Not only route messages but also to filter them, highlighting some and de-emphasising others.<br />
    24. 24. Damage<br />Thalamic lesion linked to synaethesia<br />Small but significant reduction in thalamus volume in schizophrenia.<br />
    25. 25. Cerebellum<br />
    26. 26. Cerebellum<br />Roughly 10% of total brain weight, but contains more neurons than the rest of the brain combined!<br />Responsible for coordinating movement, planning, motor activities, learning and remembering of physical skills.<br />Size is a good indicator of its physical capability<br />Some recent studies have associated the cerebellum with cognitive functions, such as learning and attention.<br />
    27. 27. Damage<br />Tremors<br />Muscle weakness<br />Inability to walk<br />Slurred speech<br />Linked to:<br />Dyslexia, schizophrenia, multiple sclerosis<br />

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