Q204 - Erikson


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Q204 - Erikson

  1. 1. Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development
  2. 2. Neo-Freudians <ul><li>Freud’s pupils did not always agree with him and eventually began to modify some of his ideas and became important theorists in their own right. </li></ul><ul><li>Erik Erikson </li></ul>
  3. 3. Comparing Erikson with Freud <ul><li>Differed in two important respects: </li></ul><ul><li>Freud  children are passive slaves to biological urges, then molded by their parents </li></ul><ul><li>Erikson  children are active explorers who seek to adapt to their environments. Erikson labeled an “ego” psychologist for believing that at each stage, people must cope with social realities in order to adapt successfully and display a normal pattern of development. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Comparison 2 <ul><li>2) Freud  places much emphasis on sexual urges </li></ul><ul><li>Erikson  places less emphasis on sexual urges and more on cultural influences. </li></ul><ul><li>Shaped by his own varied experience born in Denmark, raised in Germany, spent adolescence wandering throughout Europe, moving to US. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore Erikson’s Psychosocial theory emphasised social and cultural aspects of development </li></ul>
  5. 5. Eight life crisis <ul><li>Erikson believed human beings face eight major crisis/conflicts during the course of their lives. </li></ul><ul><li>Each conflict emerges at a distinct time, dictated by both biological and social demands. </li></ul><ul><li>Each crisis must be resolved successfully in order to prepare for a satisfactory resolution of the next crisis. </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental stages do not end at adolescence as Freud’s do – he believed problems of adolescents are very different from those faced by parents or the elderly. </li></ul><ul><li>Most contemporary developmentalists agree </li></ul>
  6. 6. Stages <ul><li>Basic trust vs Mistrust </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt </li></ul><ul><li>Initiative vs Guilt </li></ul><ul><li>Industry vs Inferiority </li></ul><ul><li>Identity vs Role confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Intimacy vs Isolation </li></ul><ul><li>Generativity vs Stagnation </li></ul><ul><li>Ego integrity vs despair </li></ul>
  7. 7. Stage 1 – Basic Trust vs Mistrust <ul><li>Birth – 1 Year </li></ul><ul><li>Corresponds to Oral stage </li></ul><ul><li>Infants must learn to trust others to care for their basic needs. </li></ul><ul><li>If caregiver = rejecting/inconsistent, infant may believe the world = dangerous, filled with untrustworthy people. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary caregiver is the key social agent </li></ul>
  8. 8. Stage 2 – Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt <ul><li>1 to 3 years </li></ul><ul><li>Corresponds to Anal stage </li></ul><ul><li>Children must learn to be ‘autonomous’ – to feed and dress themselves, look after hygiene, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Failure may force the child to doubt his or her abilities and feel shameful </li></ul><ul><li>Parents are the key social agents </li></ul>
  9. 9. Stage 3 – Initiative vs Guilt <ul><li>3 to 6 years </li></ul><ul><li>Corresponds to Phallic stage </li></ul><ul><li>Children attempt to grow up and try to accept responsibility beyond their capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes undertake goals/activities conflicting with parents, which makes them feel guilty </li></ul><ul><li>Success requires balance – child must retain sense of initiative and yet learn not to impinge on the rights, privileges or goals of others </li></ul><ul><li>Family is key social agent </li></ul>
  10. 10. Stage 4 – Industry vs Inferiority <ul><li>6 – 12 years </li></ul><ul><li>Corresponds to Latency </li></ul><ul><li>Children must master important social and academic skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Peer comparison </li></ul><ul><li>If successful, children acquire skills to feel self-assured </li></ul><ul><li>Failure leads to feelings of inferiority. </li></ul><ul><li>Significant social agents are teachers and peers </li></ul>
  11. 11. Stage 5 – Identity vs Role Confusion <ul><li>12 – 20 years </li></ul><ul><li>Corresponds to early genital stage </li></ul><ul><li>Crossroad between childhood and maturity </li></ul><ul><li>Who am I? </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescents must establish basic social and occupational identities, or they will remain confused about the role they should play as adults. </li></ul><ul><li>The key social agent is the society of peers </li></ul>
  12. 12. Stage 6 – Intimacy vs Isolation <ul><li>20 – 40 years </li></ul><ul><li>Genital </li></ul><ul><li>Primary task is to form strong friendships and achieve sense of love and companionship (or a shared identity) with another person. </li></ul><ul><li>Feelings of loneliness or isolation are likely to result from inability to form friendships or an intimate relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Key social agents are lovers, spouses, close friends </li></ul>
  13. 13. Stage 7 – Generativity vs Stagnation <ul><li>40 to 65 years </li></ul><ul><li>Adults face the tasks of becoming productive in their work and raising their families or otherwise looking after the needs of young people. </li></ul><ul><li>Standards of ‘generativity’ are defined by one’s culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Failure = stagnant and/or self centred. </li></ul><ul><li>Significant social agents are the spouse, children and cultural norms </li></ul>
  14. 14. Stage 8 – Ego Integrity vs Despair <ul><li>65+ </li></ul><ul><li>Reflects on life, viewing as either a meaningful, productive and happy experience or a major disappointment full of unfulfilled promises and unrealised goals </li></ul><ul><li>One’s life experiences, particularly social experiences, determine the outcome of this final life crisis. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Evaluating Erikson <ul><li>Does not address what drives individuals from one stage to the next </li></ul><ul><li>Often criticised for developing a theory based on personal observations rather than scientific methods </li></ul><ul><li>Contemporary empirical support: over 300 studies alone testing his stage 8 concept of ego integrity. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Torges, Stewart and Duncan (2008) – found women who resolved regrets at age 53 achieved higher levels of ego integrity at age 62 and generativity at 53 predicted ego integrity at age 62. </li></ul><ul><li>Empirical support for universality – Wang and Viney (1996) tested 360 children from China and 150 Australian children aged six to 18. No overall differences in terms of psychosocial maturity. </li></ul>