08 horney

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08 horney

  1. 1. Neo-Freudian<br />Karen Horney<br />1885-1952<br />
  2. 2. Karen Horney<br />Not a student of Freud’s<br />Indirectly studied Freud’s work <br />Taught psychoanalysis at the Berlin Psychoanalytic Institute and the New York Psychoanalytic Institute.<br />AGREED WITH FREUD regardinga. The unconsciousb. The importance of dreamsc. Attention to childhood <br />DISAGREED with Freud’s views concerning women – misleading, insulting.<br />
  3. 3. Considered cultural and social influences on personality.<br />Resigned the NYPI in 1941 and founded her own American Institute for Psychoanalysis.<br />
  4. 4. Contribution to Psychoanalysis<br />Neurosis<br />Feminine Psychology<br />
  5. 5. Neurosis <br />The internal process (an unconscious conflict) that triggers anxiety<br />
  6. 6. Horney’s beliefs<br />All neurosis is culture dependent: the norms for behaviour are defined by the particular culture.<br />E.g. Among Native Americans, being extremely passive or aggressive can be considered abnormal or desirable depending on the tribe.<br />Contrasts with Freudian view: neurotic behaviour described in terms of innate interpsychic connections independent of social setting<br />
  7. 7. Neurosis<br />Freud = fixated energy, unconscious battles between various personality aspects.<br />Adler = feelings of inferiority.<br />Horney = role of disturbed interpersonal relationships during childhood.<br />Parents not providing proper environment = feelings of anxiety (“the feeling a child has of being isolated and helpless in a potentially hostile world”)<br />
  8. 8. Ways Parents Create Anxiety<br />“…direct or indirect domination, indifference, erratic behaviour, lack of respect for the child’s individual needs, lack of real guidance, disparaging attitudes, too much admiration or the absence of it, lack of reliable warmth, having to take sides in parental disagreements, too much or too little responsibility, over-protection, isolation from other children, injustice, discrimination, unkept promises, hostile atmosphere, and… I should like to draw special attention in this context [to] the child’s sense of lurking hypocrisy in the environment”<br />
  9. 9. NOTE:<br /> CAUSES, STRATEGIES, SYMPTOMS = all INTERPERSONAL (interactions between individuals)<br />
  10. 10. Styles of interaction<br />Styles of interacting with othersto avoid further anxiety provoking relations<br />Non-neurotic people can be flexible in their use of the three styles<br />Neurotic people are characterised by their inflexible reliance on only one of these styles<br />
  11. 11. The THREE styles<br />MOVING TOWARD PEOPLE<br />MOVING AGAINST PEOPLE<br />MOVING AWAY FROM PEOPLE<br />
  12. 12. MOVING TOWARD PEOPLE<br />“needs to be liked, wanted, desired, loved; to feel accepted, welcomed, approved of, appreciated; to be needed, to be of importance to others, especially to one particular person; to be helped, protected, taken care of, guided” (Horney, 1945/1966, p.51)<br />Emphasise one’s helplessness.<br />Extremely dependent on others<br />Compulsively seeking affection and acceptance<br />Claims a need for love but incapable of genuine love or of a deep, rewarding relationship.<br />Clingy; no give, all take.<br />
  13. 13. MOVING AGAINST PEOPLE<br />Fight!<br />Aggression and hostility to deal with poor home environment<br />In adults, hostility aimed at people in general<br />Need to exploit others, take advantage of weaknesses in others<br />Need to be in control and to be powerful<br />Love is silly and sentimental<br />Characterised by externalisation(similar to Freud’s projection).Belief that all people are hostile and get what they can<br />Relationships are necessarily shallow, unfulfilling, painful.<br />
  14. 14. MOVING AWAY FROM PEOPLE<br />Tuning out of the outside world.<br />Striving for self-sufficiency and independence<br />Strong desire for privacy<br />Job with little interaction<br />Avoid affection, love, sympathy and friendship.<br />Emotional attachment  pain; avoid involvement  avoid anxiety<br />
  15. 15. Horney’s Ten Neurotic Trends<br />
  16. 16. FEMININE PSYCHOLOGY<br />1930s: woman in man’s world<br />Countered penis envy with womb envy (men are jealous of women’s ability to bear and nurse children).<br />Men compensates their inability through achievements in other domains<br />Concludes each sex has attributes that the other admires.<br />
  17. 17. Horney’s Criticism of Freud<br />Context: Freud at a time when women were seen as inferior.<br />If women wished they were men, it’s due to cultural restrictions.<br />Again emphasises cultural vs. innate influences<br />

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