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06 psychosexual stages


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06 psychosexual stages

  2. 2. Psychosexual stages<br />Freud’s ideas about the development of personality and its formation.<br />Innately determined stages through which we all pass and strongly shape the nature of our personality.<br />
  3. 3. Libido and Fixation<br />Terms to know<br />Libido refers to the forces, mostly pleasure oriented, that energises the personality, particularly the id. <br />Release of libido is closely related to pleasure, but the focus and expression changes as we develop.<br />In each stage, we obtain different kinds of pleasure and leave behind a small amount of our libido.<br />If an excessive amount of libido energy is tied to a particular stage, however, fixation occurs.<br />
  4. 4. Fixation<br />Can stem from too little or too much gratification during the particular stage.<br />Because too much ‘psychic energy’ is left behind, less is available for full adult development.<br />Outcome = adult personality reflecting the stage/s at which fixation has occurred.<br />
  5. 5. ORAL STAGE<br />In the first stage – ORAL (0-18 months) we seek pleasure mainly through the mouth.<br />Too little gratification = a personality that is overly dependent on others<br />Too much gratification = an excessively hostile personality, particularly with verbal attacks<br />
  6. 6. ANAL STAGE<br />Roughly 2-3 years<br />Toilet training conflicts<br />Freud argued that these conflicts form the basis of attitudes towards order and disorder, giving and withholding, and messiness and cleaniness.<br />People with anal fixations exhibit a variety of behavioural tendencies:Anal expulsive – the child who rebels openly against going in the toilet. Translates in the adult as a person who sees messiness as a statement of personal control and somewhat destructive/hostileAnal retentive – the child who is terrified of making a mess and rebels passively. As adults, stubborn, excessively neat.<br />
  7. 7. PHALIC STAGE <br />3-6yrs<br />Shifts to genitals.<br />Freud believed the penis was the focus for both boys AND girls.<br />For boys, when they realise that girls do not have a penis, would think that the penis can be lost or cut off = castration anxiety<br />For girls, they would feel that they were missing something important and could not be complete without it = penis envy<br />Conflict in this stage is the feeling of sexual awakening.<br />Freud believed boys develop both sexual attraction AND jealousy of their fathers during this stage = Oedipus Complex.<br />
  8. 8. Oedipus Complex<br />Sexual attraction more of sexual curiousity that becomes mixed up with the boy’s feelings of love and affection for his mother.<br />Jealousy of the father = anxiety and fears that his father may castrate him.<br />To deal, the boy will repress his sexual feelings for his mother and identify (defence mechanism) with his father.<br />If a child does not have a same-sex parent to identify with, or the sexual attraction is encouraged, fixation occurs.<br />Fixation = immature sexual attitudes as an adult, exhibit promiscuous sexual behaviour, “mummy’s boy”.<br />
  9. 9. Latency Stage<br />Remember that by the end of the phallic stage, sexual feelings are repressed.<br />From age 6 – puberty, children will remain in the latency stage.<br />In this stage, children grow and develop intellectually, physically and socially but not sexually. <br />Boys play with boys, girls with girls.<br />
  10. 10. Genital Stage<br />Repressed sexual feelings can no longer be ignored.<br />Parents are no longer targets.<br />