02 trait theory eysenck big 5


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02 trait theory eysenck big 5

  1. 1. Trait Theory<br />Eysenck and The Big Five<br />
  2. 2. What kind of person are you?<br />Two typical approaches:i) a ‘type’ of person (e.g. quiet type, outgoing type)ii) give a description of their characteristics (e.g. studious, shy, friendly)<br />Both approaches involve describing themselves in terms of relatively stable features of their behaviour (as a type or certain traits)<br />
  3. 3. Trait<br />A trait:<br />Is a dimension of personality used to categorise individuals according to the degree to which they show a particular characteristic.<br />Is assumed to be stable across situations.<br />Is assumed to be normally distributed.<br />
  4. 4. The Trait Approach<br />Less concerned with understanding one person than in understanding how people at certain points on the trait distribution behave.<br />Attempts to describe average group behaviour. <br />Attempts to describe personality variables and predict behaviour (rather than explain it)<br />Advantage – allows comparison across people<br />
  5. 5. Hans J. Eysenck<br />
  6. 6. Background<br />March 4, 1916 – September 4, 1997 <br />Raised by grandmother (parents divorced when he was two)<br />Left Germany at the age of 18, when Nazis came to power<br />In England - received his Ph.D. in Psychology from the University of London in 1940 <br />During World War II - psychologist at an emergency hospital<br />Post-war - taught at the University of London <br />75 books, 700 articles!<br />Retired 1983<br />
  7. 7. Eysenck’ contributions<br />Major contribution to personality psychology is his work on identification of traits and what he calls types, or supertraits.<br />Eysenck divided the elements of personality into various units that can be arranged hierarchically.<br />Concluded that all traits can be listed within three basic personality dimensions.<br />
  8. 8. The Hierarchal Model<br />4 levels:<br />Specific Response – consists of specific behaviours (e.g. spending an afternoon talking and laughing with friends)<br />Habitual – Regular/frequent engagement of the specific behaviours (e.g. many afternoons)<br />Trait – exhibition of trait (not just afternoons, weekends too! Not just his/her friends, strangers too! Sociability!)<br />Type/Supertrait– the major ‘type’ in which the trait level falls under (e.g. Extraversion) <br />
  9. 9. 4 levels:Specific Response – consists of specific behaviours (e.g. spending an afternoon talking and laughing with friends)Habitual – Regular/frequent engagement of the specific behaviours (e.g. many afternoons)Trait – exhibition of trait (not just afternoons, weekends too! Not just his/her friends, strangers too! Sociability!)Type/Supertrait– the major ‘type’ in which the trait level falls under (e.g. Extraversion) <br />
  10. 10. The upertraits<br />How many?<br />Originally – two basic dimensions:neuroticism and extraversion-introversion.<br />Neurotic<br />Introverted<br />Extraverted<br />Stable<br />
  11. 11. Dimensions of Personality<br />Neurotic<br />Indicative of overreactivity.<br />High scoring tend to be emotionally overresponsive and have difficulties in returning to a normal state after emotional experiences” (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1968, p.6) <br />Position on the scales<br />Would be determined<br />Via the EPQ<br />(Eysenck Personality <br />Questionnaire)<br />Introverted<br />Extraverted<br />X<br />A person with a low<br />E score and a slightly <br />Low N score would be<br />At X<br />Stable<br />
  12. 12. List down possible traits for each quadrant/combination of Supertraits…<br />N<br />I<br />E<br />S<br />
  13. 13. Give yourselves a tick if you wrote….<br />
  14. 14. The Third upertrait<br />PSYCHOTICISM: High scorers are described as “egocentric, aggressive, impersonal, cold, lacking in empathy, impulsive, lacking in concern for others, and generally unconcerned about the rights and welfare of other people” (Eysenck, 1982, p.11)<br />
  15. 15. Where would you put the PSYCHOTICISM DIMENSION?<br />Neurotic<br />Introvert<br />Extravert<br />Stable<br />
  16. 16. Eysenck’s biological theories<br />Suggested that:<br />Extraverts have a lower resting cortical arousal rate than introverts. (understimulated)<br />People whose autonomic nervous system is highly reactive is likely to develop a neurotic disorder.<br />
  17. 17. The Big Five<br />
  18. 18.
  19. 19. Scoring<br />For all questions other than 7 and 9:Very unlikely = 1Moderately unlikely = 2Neither likely or unlikely = 3Moderately likely = 4Very likely = 5<br />For questions 7 and 9:Very unlikely = 5Moderately unlikely = 4Neither likely or unlikely = 3Moderately likely = 2Very likely = 1<br />
  20. 20. Scoring<br />Sum up your score from the individual questions as shown below:O = Q3 + Q8C = Q4 + Q9E = Q1 + Q6A = Q2 + Q7N = Q5 + Q10<br />2, 3 and 4 are low scores, 5 and 6 are low-medium, 7 and 8 are medium-high, and 9 and 10 are high scores. <br />
  21. 21. Basic Dimensions of Personality<br />Research conducted for decades found that people had five key dimensions of personality.<br />Costa & McCrae (1985)<br />Five-factor Model (FFM), also known as “The Big Five”<br />
  22. 22. The Dimensions<br />Openness to expeience<br />Conscientiousness<br />Extravesion<br />Agreeableness<br />Neuroticism<br />
  23. 23. Openness to experience<br />A person’s willingness to try new things.<br />High scorers = creative, artistic, curious, imaginative, non-conforming. Low scorers = conventional, down-to-earth, uncreative, simple, maintains status quo<br />
  24. 24. Conscientiousness<br />Refers to a person’s organisation and motivation.<br />High scorers: puntual, careful with belongings, organised, neat, reliable, ambitious, responsible, self-disciplinedLow scorers: unreliable, lazy, careless, negligent, spontaneous<br />
  25. 25. Extraversion<br />One’s need to be with other people<br />High scorers: outgoing, sociable, talkative, optimistic, affectionateLow scorers: prefer solitude, reserved, stays in the background<br />
  26. 26. Agreeableness<br />The basic emotional style of a person.<br />High scorers: easygoing, pleasant, friendly, good-natured, trusting and helpfulLow scorers: grumpy, crabby, difficult to get along with, rude, uncooperative, irritable, aggressive, compettive<br />
  27. 27. Neuroticism<br />Degree of emotional stability or instability.<br />High scorers: worrying, insecure, anxious, temperamentalLow scorers: Calm, secure, relaxed, stable<br />
  28. 28. Revisit your results<br />The test taken is the Newcastle Personality Assessor (NPA), used to assess people on the big five personality dimensions.<br />There are copious online versions that are also based on the Big Five.<br />
  29. 29. Cross-Cultural<br />FFM has been studied and tested by numerous researchers.<br />Cross-cultural studies have found evidence of the Big Five in 11 different cultures, including Japan, the Phillippines, Germany, China and Peru (McCrae et al., 2000)<br />
  30. 30. Evaluation of Trait Approach<br />In groups of four or five, brainstorm as many strengths and weakness about the trait approach so far.<br />
  31. 31. Criticisms<br />