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Austin Balser, Daniel Chewning, 
Kelly Creswell, Tyler DuBose
Introduction 
 Overview 
 Problem 
 Goals 
 Constraints 
 Literature Review 
 Design Methodology and Materials 
 An...
Problem 
 Recognition: 
 Urban and suburban development leads to high runoff 
rates and low infiltration rates which red...
Goal 
 Design a stormwater management plan for Sea Aire 
subdivision that: 
 Meets state regulations by ensuring the pea...
Robinson Design Engineers: Site Plan
Robinson Design Engineers: Site Plan
Constraints 
 Ecological: Must work with existing soil, water table, 
vegetation, and waterways 
 Ultimate use: Resident...
Questions of User, Client and Designer 
 User- Residents of Sea Aire 
 What is a rain garden, why are there plants in th...
Governing Equations 
 Energy Balance 
 푃푎푉 + 
1 
2 
2 + mgha = PbV + 
푚푣푎 
1 
2 
mvb 
2 + mghb 
 Mass Balance 
 푚푎푠푠푖푛...
Stormwater Management 
 Conventional Methods versus LID methods 
 Conventional methods provide solutions at the bottom 
...
Comparison of Volume 
1 – Pre-development 
2 – Conventional Methods 
3 – LID Methods 
LID methods maintain pre-development...
Conventional Methods 
 Detention basins 
 Drains 
 Concrete ditches 
 Culverts
Low Impact Develop Methods 
 Green roofs 
 Rain water collection 
 Constructed Wetlands 
 Bioretention cells 
 Rain g...
Constructed Wetlands 
 Public area of development will 
need a way to catch and retain 
stormwater 
 Help filter and rem...
Design Methodology and Materials 
 Analysis of Information 
 Synthesis of Design 
 Vegetative Roof 
 Rain Barrel 
 Ra...
Analysis of Information 
 Rainfall Distribution Data: Type II 
 2-year storm: 4.3 inches 
 25- year storm: 8.0 inches 
...
Determining Runoff on Site 
 Determined weighted curve number for site using 
WebSoil Survey Data 
 Calculated runoff de...
2-Year Design Storm Hydrographs 
2-Year Storm: Pre- Development 
Runoff Depth: 0.62 inches 
Peak Runoff Rate: 0.8 cfs 
2-Y...
25- Year Design Storm Hydrographs 
25-Year Storm: Pre- Development 
Runoff Depth: 2.70 inches 
Peak Runoff Rate: 3.9 cfs 
...
Average Residential Lot 
 Lot Area: 4857 ft2 
 Roof Area: 1132.5 ft2 
 Driveway Area: 527 ft2 
 Garage Area: 264 ft2 
...
Vegetative Roof 
 Plants 
 Sedum 
 Growing Media 
 Perlite (30%) 
 Vermiculite (20%) 
 Crushed brick (20%) 
 Sand (...
Design Considerations 
 Load capacity of the roof 
 Maintenance: 2 per year 
 Initial Growth of Vegetation 
 Avoiding ...
Vegetative Roof Holding Capacity 
 Designed to hold 50% of the amount of water falling on 
the roof during a 2-year storm...
Rain Barrels 
 Balance between aesthetics and 
storage 
 Linked barrels  increased 
volume without overwhelming size 
...
Automatic Downspout Diverter 
http://www.gardeners.com/buy/downspout-diverter/33-991VS.html
Permeable Pavement 
http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/stormwater/PublicationFiles/P 
ermPave2008.pdf 
• Pavement 
• Surface 
• Stora...
Design Considerations 
 Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavements (PICPs) 
 Layers (SWMM) 
 Maintenance 
 Street sweep...
PICP Design 
 3-inch pavement layer 
 Manning’s n = 0.019 
 Surface slope = 2 to 3% 
(less than 5%) 
 Storage thicknes...
Bioretention Cell 
 The public area will contain multiple bioretention cells 
 The cells will overflow into vegetative s...
Can we do it? 
Water Storage Capacities of LID Methods 
• If all LID methods were used together the 25 year storm could th...
SWMM Modeling 
http://www.hydraulicmodel.com/sites/hydraulicmodel.com/files/images/epa_logo_1_2.thumbnail.png
Life Cycle Assessment 
 Vegetative Roof: Material processing (polypropylene, 
HDPE, and PVC), importing of media contents...
Life Cycle Assessment (cont.) 
 Rain Barrel: 
 Bioretention Cell: Material processing (PVC), 
transportation of sand and...
Sustainability 
 Ecological – goal of zero impact on the runoff volume 
coming from the site as a means of maintaining th...
Sustainability 
 Efficiency 
 Capture 100% of stormwater runoff on site for design 
storm 
 Carbon and Water footprint ...
Budget 
 Vegetative Roof: $5700 not including construction cost 
or initial roofing cost, approximately $5/ft3 
 See rep...
Timeline 
Event 9/8 9/10 9/17 9/24 10/1 10/7 10/8 10/15 10/22 10/29 11/5 11/12 11/19 11/26 12/3 
Finish Proposal 
Present ...
Questions?
References 
 http://landstudy.org/Resources.html 
 Fangmeier, D.D., Elliot, W.J., Huffman, R.L., 
Workman, S.R. 2013. We...
Capstone Midterm
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Capstone Midterm

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James Is., Charleston Watershed Senior Design

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Capstone Midterm

  1. 1. Austin Balser, Daniel Chewning, Kelly Creswell, Tyler DuBose
  2. 2. Introduction  Overview  Problem  Goals  Constraints  Literature Review  Design Methodology and Materials  Analysis of Information  Synthesis of Design  Alternative Design Options  Approach to Solution and Final Design  Sustainability  Budget  Timeline  References
  3. 3. Problem  Recognition:  Urban and suburban development leads to high runoff rates and low infiltration rates which reduce the quality of ground and surface water  Definition:  Rapid increase of development in Charleston, SC leading to high volume of runoff and flooding
  4. 4. Goal  Design a stormwater management plan for Sea Aire subdivision that:  Meets state regulations by ensuring the peak flow during a 2 and 25 year storm event doesn’t exceed pre-development levels  Ensures the post-development runoff volume doesn’t exceed pre-development levels
  5. 5. Robinson Design Engineers: Site Plan
  6. 6. Robinson Design Engineers: Site Plan
  7. 7. Constraints  Ecological: Must work with existing soil, water table, vegetation, and waterways  Ultimate use: Residential living and recreational space  Skills: Limited knowledge and experience with stormwater design  Cost: Budget of $1200 for design process. Must account for travel expenses, software, and testing services  Additional: Difficulty working with regulators and contractors
  8. 8. Questions of User, Client and Designer  User- Residents of Sea Aire  What is a rain garden, why are there plants in the ditch?  What do I have to do?  Client- New Leaf Builders through Robinson Design Engineers  Will this meet regulations?  Will it cost more?  Designer- The design team and RDE  Will this be long lived?  Can this be an amenity?
  9. 9. Governing Equations  Energy Balance  푃푎푉 + 1 2 2 + mgha = PbV + 푚푣푎 1 2 mvb 2 + mghb  Mass Balance  푚푎푠푠푖푛 − 푚푎푠푠표푢푡 ± 푟푒푎푐푡푖표푛푠 = 푎푐푐푢푚푢푙푎푡푖표푛  Curve Number Method  푄 = 퐼−0.2푆 2 퐼+0.8푆 , 푆 = 1000 퐶푁 − 10  Horton’s Equation  푓 = 푓푐 + (푓0 − 푓푐 )푒−푘푡  Universal Soil Loss Equation  T=RKLSCP
  10. 10. Stormwater Management  Conventional Methods versus LID methods  Conventional methods provide solutions at the bottom of the site (ponds, basins, ect.)  Low impact development methods encourage infiltration from all locations on site in an effort to mimic the more natural process
  11. 11. Comparison of Volume 1 – Pre-development 2 – Conventional Methods 3 – LID Methods LID methods maintain pre-development runoff volume while conventional methods lead to increased volume
  12. 12. Conventional Methods  Detention basins  Drains  Concrete ditches  Culverts
  13. 13. Low Impact Develop Methods  Green roofs  Rain water collection  Constructed Wetlands  Bioretention cells  Rain gardens  Permeable Pavements
  14. 14. Constructed Wetlands  Public area of development will need a way to catch and retain stormwater  Help filter and remove containments, “Nature’s Kidney”  Shallow depression in the ground with a level bottom
  15. 15. Design Methodology and Materials  Analysis of Information  Synthesis of Design  Vegetative Roof  Rain Barrel  Rain Garden  Porous Pavement  Infiltration Trench  Bioretention Cell  Elevation of Alternative Options  Stormwater Pond  StormwaterWetland  Selection of Final Approach
  16. 16. Analysis of Information  Rainfall Distribution Data: Type II  2-year storm: 4.3 inches  25- year storm: 8.0 inches 5 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Cummulative Rainfall (in) Time (hours)
  17. 17. Determining Runoff on Site  Determined weighted curve number for site using WebSoil Survey Data  Calculated runoff depth using Curve Number Method  Used HEC HMS and SWMM to compute and compare runoff depth for the entire site
  18. 18. 2-Year Design Storm Hydrographs 2-Year Storm: Pre- Development Runoff Depth: 0.62 inches Peak Runoff Rate: 0.8 cfs 2-Year Storm: Post- Development Runoff Depth: 2.57 inches Peak Runoff Rate: 3.5 cfs
  19. 19. 25- Year Design Storm Hydrographs 25-Year Storm: Pre- Development Runoff Depth: 2.70 inches Peak Runoff Rate: 3.9 cfs 25-Year Storm: Post- Development Runoff Depth: 5.82 inches Peak Runoff Rate: 8.0 cfs
  20. 20. Average Residential Lot  Lot Area: 4857 ft2  Roof Area: 1132.5 ft2  Driveway Area: 527 ft2  Garage Area: 264 ft2 Robinson Design Engineers: Site Layout  Parameters used to determine design values for LID options within each residential lot.  40% of the residential lot is impervious
  21. 21. Vegetative Roof  Plants  Sedum  Growing Media  Perlite (30%)  Vermiculite (20%)  Crushed brick (20%)  Sand (10%)  Coco peat (20%)  Filter fabric  Drainage Layer  Root Protection Layer  Waterproof Membrane  Structural Component http://godfreyroofing.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/green-roofing-layers.png http://www.optigreen.com/produkte/draenageplatten/fkd-40/
  22. 22. Design Considerations  Load capacity of the roof  Maintenance: 2 per year  Initial Growth of Vegetation  Avoiding Leaks  Cost of Materials  Access to Roof  Fire Risk  Pitch of Roof  Gutter System http://i.stack.imgur.com/tW8B8.jpg http://www.jrsmith.com/uploads/fileLibrary/1010_rdp_lg.jpg
  23. 23. Vegetative Roof Holding Capacity  Designed to hold 50% of the amount of water falling on the roof during a 2-year storm  Each layer of a vegetative roof has a certain water capacity Component Water Holding Capacity Total Plants - - Media Layer 40%, 4 inches 148.7 ft3 Filter Fabric - - Drainage Layer 8 L/m2 32.3 ft3 Root Protection Layer 4 L/m2 14.8 ft3 Waterproof Layer - - Roof Material - -  Total Water Storage: 195 ft3
  24. 24. Rain Barrels  Balance between aesthetics and storage  Linked barrels  increased volume without overwhelming size  Tank Volume: 200 gallon tanks  Dimensions: 47’’height, 36’’ diameter  To be placed on both the house and garage  Total Storage Capacity: 800 gallons (4 barrels total)  Overflow management: Automatic Downspout Diverter http://gardenwatersaver.com/connector-kits/ http://gardenwatersaver.co m/connector-kits/ http://www.tank-depot.com
  25. 25. Automatic Downspout Diverter http://www.gardeners.com/buy/downspout-diverter/33-991VS.html
  26. 26. Permeable Pavement http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/stormwater/PublicationFiles/P ermPave2008.pdf • Pavement • Surface • Storage • Underdrain
  27. 27. Design Considerations  Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavements (PICPs)  Layers (SWMM)  Maintenance  Street sweeping  Pressure washing  Vacuum truck  At least once per year, or after evident damage
  28. 28. PICP Design  3-inch pavement layer  Manning’s n = 0.019  Surface slope = 2 to 3% (less than 5%)  Storage thickness = 6 to 18 inches  Underdrain pipe = 1 to 4 inches from bottom of layer  Overall depth = 1.5 feet http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/stormwater/PublicationFil es/ICPIreport2004.pdf
  29. 29. Bioretention Cell  The public area will contain multiple bioretention cells  The cells will overflow into vegetative swales or underdrain pipes below the bioretention cell to leave the site via the wetland/ vegetated enhanced ditch http://www.northinlet.sc.edu/LID/FinalDocument/loRes/4.2%20Bioretention%20low%20res.pdf
  30. 30. Can we do it? Water Storage Capacities of LID Methods • If all LID methods were used together the 25 year storm could theoretically be contained on each property • Due to spatial and budgetary constraints, not all LID controls will be installed on a property • Therefore, management of flow into the main area from individual plots must still be considered Design Storm Pre-Development Runoff Depth (in) Post-Development Runoff Depth (in) Increase in Runoff Depth After Development (with no LID controls) (in) Runoff Volume (gal) 2 year 0.62 3.14 2.52 7629 25 year 2.7 6.56 3.86 11686 Green Roof (gal) Rain Barrels (gal) Infiltration Trench (gal) Permeable Pavement (gal) Rain Garden (gal) Total Water Storage (gal) 1465 800 6567 1800 5520 16152
  31. 31. SWMM Modeling http://www.hydraulicmodel.com/sites/hydraulicmodel.com/files/images/epa_logo_1_2.thumbnail.png
  32. 32. Life Cycle Assessment  Vegetative Roof: Material processing (polypropylene, HDPE, and PVC), importing of media contents  Rain Garden: Native plant acquisition, capture of CO2, pollutant decrease, aesthetic advantage  Porous Pavement: Manufacturing materials (CGP, PICP, reinforced plastic pavers), transportation, reusing rock (crushed/gravel), increase water quality  Infiltration Trench:
  33. 33. Life Cycle Assessment (cont.)  Rain Barrel:  Bioretention Cell: Material processing (PVC), transportation of sand and stone, construction  Wetland/vegetated enhanced ditch:
  34. 34. Sustainability  Ecological – goal of zero impact on the runoff volume coming from the site as a means of maintaining the existing ecosystem  Social – ultimately serves the people living in the development. Promotes an active lifestyle and provides an educational opportunity.  Economic – prevents future flooding and erosion  Ethical– aim to balance the wishes of the clients and the biological integrity of the site
  35. 35. Sustainability  Efficiency  Capture 100% of stormwater runoff on site for design storm  Carbon and Water footprint  Carbon negative  Gravity fed systems  Plants will sequester carbon  Potential for decreased freshwater demands due to rainwater recycling (rain barrels)
  36. 36. Budget  Vegetative Roof: $5700 not including construction cost or initial roofing cost, approximately $5/ft3  See report for cost breakdown  Rain Garden:  Porous Pavement: approximately $3.00/sq. ft. (this value depends on slope, shape…)  Rain Barrel:  Infiltration Trench:
  37. 37. Timeline Event 9/8 9/10 9/17 9/24 10/1 10/7 10/8 10/15 10/22 10/29 11/5 11/12 11/19 11/26 12/3 Finish Proposal Present Proposal Finish majority of Literature Review Pick Design Start Writing Midterm Paper 3- week progress report Develop preliminary Design Calculations for Design Finish Writing Midterm paper Midterm Presentation and paper due Cost Analysis for Design Bring together final design Write Final Paper Final Presentation
  38. 38. Questions?
  39. 39. References  http://landstudy.org/Resources.html  Fangmeier, D.D., Elliot, W.J., Huffman, R.L., Workman, S.R. 2013. Wetlands. Soil and Water Conservation Engineering. Seventh Edition. 287-302.  Best Management Practices Handbook. South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control. www.scdhec.gov/Environment/waterquality/stormwat er/BMPHandbook/

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