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  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • Seattle Public Library
  • Worship, Meditation, Pilgrimage, Sacrifice, Rites, and Healing. Example: impermanence (Buddhism); Original Sin (Christianity); interact with previous dimensions; some more strict or rigid than others: e.g., Catholicism more than Quakerism, Buddhism more than African religions, Theravada more than Zen. Stories: Christ’s life, death, and resurrection; Buddha’s life; Muhammad’s life; “founders” of religion. Secular examples: “history” instead of “myth”; history taught in schools is major generator of “national” identity; it enhances pride in our ancestors, our national heroes and heroines Examples: enlightenment of the Buddha, prophetic visions of Muhammad, conversion of Paul, etc. The Vision Quest: Zen, Native American classical religion, the idea of the “holy” (Otto)
  • Increasing differentiation and complexity; 1. oriented towards a single cosmos; maintenance of personal, social, and cosmic harmony with attaining specific goods; time out of time, an “everywhen”; identification, participation, acting out;church and society are one; 2. mythical beings more objectified; actively a controlling the world; gods; monistic worldview; men, subjects, gods, objects; communication between; hierarchically organized; divine king; individual-soceity merged in a natural-divine cosmos; rival groups, rival deities; 3. transcendental, world-rejection, strongly dualistic, above and below worlds, Heaven and Hell, God and Satan, good and evil, focus on life in another realm; goal of salvation, demythologization; monotheistic, universalistic; Buddhism: nature of man, greed, anger, must escape, Hebrew prophets: sin, heedlessness of God, obedience to Him; Islam: ungrateful man who is careless of divine compassion, submission to will of God; new religious elite claims direction relation to the divine; political and religious leadership; 4. collapse of hierarchical structuring, world-aceepting; Reformation; monks, sheiks, ascetics before; direct relation between individual and transcendent reality; antiritualist interpretation; faith! – an internal quality of person; Martin Luther; 5. personalization of the sacred, God; responsibility for the self;
  • Increasing differentiation and complexity; 1. oriented towards a single cosmos; maintenance of personal, social, and cosmic harmony with attaining specific goods; time out of time, an “everywhen”; identification, participation, acting out;church and society are one; 2. mythical beings more objectified; actively a controlling the world; gods; monistic worldview; men, subjects, gods, objects; communication between; hierarchically organized; divine king; individual-soceity merged in a natural-divine cosmos; rival groups, rival deities; 3. transcendental, world-rejection, strongly dualistic, above and below worlds, Heaven and Hell, God and Satan, good and evil, focus on life in another realm; goal of salvation, demythologization; monotheistic, universalistic; Buddhism: nature of man, greed, anger, must escape, Hebrew prophets: sin, heedlessness of God, obedience to Him; Islam: ungrateful man who is careless of divine compassion, submission to will of God; new religious elite claims direction relation to the divine; political and religious leadership; 4. collapse of hierarchical structuring, world-aceepting; Reformation; monks, sheiks, ascetics before; direct relation between individual and transcendent reality; antiritualist interpretation; faith! – an internal quality of person; Martin Luther; 5. personalization of the sacred, God; responsibility for the self;
  • However, the Calvinist and Lutheran theologians taught that only those who were predestined to be saved would be saved, by grace alone through faith in Jesus alone. Since it was impossible to know if one was predestined (since one might not receive the "grace of perseverance," and one's conversion might be only lip-service), the notion developed that it might be possible to discern that a person was elect (predestined) by observing their way of life. Hard work and frugality were thought to be two important consequences of being one of the elect; thus, Protestants were attracted to these qualities, seeking to be obedient to God to whom they owed their salvation.
  • (1832-1917) Founder of British anthropology. Tylor was the son of a Quaker brass-founder. The most complete presentation of Tylor's concepts is found in his work Primitive Culture (1871), reprinted as Religion in Primitive Culture (Harper 1958). He published many major articles as well as the first general anthropology textbook (1881).Tylor gradually gained recognition for his work, received an honorary doctorate from the University of Oxford in 1875, became keeper of the Oxford University Museum in 1883, reader in anthropology in 1884, and was knighted in 1912. Tylor's major contribution was his theory that all religions are based on animism . Although his evolutionary orientation appears ethnocentric to modern readers, he had a major impact on the development of anthropological thought with regard to religion.Tylor defined religion as "the belief in spiritual beings" and argued that this belief exists in all known societies. Although Tylor did not invent the concept of animism, he gave it added scope. He defined animism as having two parts: belief in the human soul that survives bodily death and belief in other spirits, including deities. Tylor hypothesized that animism was the foundation of all religions. Tylor argued that the development of belief in souls was a natural result of attempts to explain such phenomena as dreams, trances, apparitions, visions, shadows, reflections, loss of consciousness, and death. He provided many example cases from a wide variety of societies exemplifying the forms of behavior and faith associated with acceptance of souls. The hypothesis that belief in souls evolved from naturally occurring phenomena explains the fact that all known societies have conceived of the notion that humans have souls. Tylor suggested that belief in spirits and deities was an outgrowth of belief in souls. He cited many accounts of beliefs regarding soul travel, souls lingering about the deceased, restless souls of the dead whose objectives during life have not been accomplished, and a wide variety of funeral rites. The souls of departed relatives are a target for propitiation and worship. Spirits may take over a living body, creating shamanic possession, a phenomenon prevalent in many societies. Numerous societies believed that the souls of the dead could associate themselves with objects and, consequently, these objects came to represent spiritual entities. This led to the doctrine of fetishism: veneration paid to animals, trees, fish, plants, idols, pebbles, claws of beasts, sticks, and so forth.According to Tylor, this concept was extended to veneration of specific spirits and gods less attached to objects. As a consequence, primitive people devised the concepts of gods, demons, spirits, devils, ghosts, fairies, gnomes, elves, and angels. A further development is the association of gods with the concept of good and evil, a duality leading to belief in highly powerful deities. An alternate pathway to development of powerful deities is the seeking of "first causes" for reality. Such questions, coupled with fusion of lesser deities, may result in the concept of a Supreme Being. Tylor argued that "Animism has its distinct and consistent outcome, and Polytheism its distinct and consistent completion, in the doctrine of a Supreme Deity" (1958:422).Tylor felt that "savage animism is almost devoid of that ethical element which to the educated modern mind is the very mainspring of practical religion. . . . The lower animism is not immoral, it is unmoral" (1958:446). The practices of prayer, sacrifice, fasting, "artificial ecstasy," and purification rituals were associated with consideration of moral issues.
  • (1832-1917) Founder of British anthropology. Tylor was the son of a Quaker brass-founder. The most complete presentation of Tylor's concepts is found in his work Primitive Culture (1871), reprinted as Religion in Primitive Culture (Harper 1958). He published many major articles as well as the first general anthropology textbook (1881).Tylor gradually gained recognition for his work, received an honorary doctorate from the University of Oxford in 1875, became keeper of the Oxford University Museum in 1883, reader in anthropology in 1884, and was knighted in 1912. Tylor's major contribution was his theory that all religions are based on animism . Although his evolutionary orientation appears ethnocentric to modern readers, he had a major impact on the development of anthropological thought with regard to religion.Tylor defined religion as "the belief in spiritual beings" and argued that this belief exists in all known societies. Although Tylor did not invent the concept of animism, he gave it added scope. He defined animism as having two parts: belief in the human soul that survives bodily death and belief in other spirits, including deities. Tylor hypothesized that animism was the foundation of all religions. Tylor argued that the development of belief in souls was a natural result of attempts to explain such phenomena as dreams, trances, apparitions, visions, shadows, reflections, loss of consciousness, and death. He provided many example cases from a wide variety of societies exemplifying the forms of behavior and faith associated with acceptance of souls. The hypothesis that belief in souls evolved from naturally occurring phenomena explains the fact that all known societies have conceived of the notion that humans have souls. Tylor suggested that belief in spirits and deities was an outgrowth of belief in souls. He cited many accounts of beliefs regarding soul travel, souls lingering about the deceased, restless souls of the dead whose objectives during life have not been accomplished, and a wide variety of funeral rites. The souls of departed relatives are a target for propitiation and worship. Spirits may take over a living body, creating shamanic possession, a phenomenon prevalent in many societies. Numerous societies believed that the souls of the dead could associate themselves with objects and, consequently, these objects came to represent spiritual entities. This led to the doctrine of fetishism: veneration paid to animals, trees, fish, plants, idols, pebbles, claws of beasts, sticks, and so forth.According to Tylor, this concept was extended to veneration of specific spirits and gods less attached to objects. As a consequence, primitive people devised the concepts of gods, demons, spirits, devils, ghosts, fairies, gnomes, elves, and angels. A further development is the association of gods with the concept of good and evil, a duality leading to belief in highly powerful deities. An alternate pathway to development of powerful deities is the seeking of "first causes" for reality. Such questions, coupled with fusion of lesser deities, may result in the concept of a Supreme Being. Tylor argued that "Animism has its distinct and consistent outcome, and Polytheism its distinct and consistent completion, in the doctrine of a Supreme Deity" (1958:422).Tylor felt that "savage animism is almost devoid of that ethical element which to the educated modern mind is the very mainspring of practical religion. . . . The lower animism is not immoral, it is unmoral" (1958:446). The practices of prayer, sacrifice, fasting, "artificial ecstasy," and purification rituals were associated with consideration of moral issues.
  • (1832-1917) Founder of British anthropology. Tylor was the son of a Quaker brass-founder. The most complete presentation of Tylor's concepts is found in his work Primitive Culture (1871), reprinted as Religion in Primitive Culture (Harper 1958). He published many major articles as well as the first general anthropology textbook (1881).Tylor gradually gained recognition for his work, received an honorary doctorate from the University of Oxford in 1875, became keeper of the Oxford University Museum in 1883, reader in anthropology in 1884, and was knighted in 1912. Tylor's major contribution was his theory that all religions are based on animism . Although his evolutionary orientation appears ethnocentric to modern readers, he had a major impact on the development of anthropological thought with regard to religion.Tylor defined religion as "the belief in spiritual beings" and argued that this belief exists in all known societies. Although Tylor did not invent the concept of animism, he gave it added scope. He defined animism as having two parts: belief in the human soul that survives bodily death and belief in other spirits, including deities. Tylor hypothesized that animism was the foundation of all religions. Tylor argued that the development of belief in souls was a natural result of attempts to explain such phenomena as dreams, trances, apparitions, visions, shadows, reflections, loss of consciousness, and death. He provided many example cases from a wide variety of societies exemplifying the forms of behavior and faith associated with acceptance of souls. The hypothesis that belief in souls evolved from naturally occurring phenomena explains the fact that all known societies have conceived of the notion that humans have souls. Tylor suggested that belief in spirits and deities was an outgrowth of belief in souls. He cited many accounts of beliefs regarding soul travel, souls lingering about the deceased, restless souls of the dead whose objectives during life have not been accomplished, and a wide variety of funeral rites. The souls of departed relatives are a target for propitiation and worship. Spirits may take over a living body, creating shamanic possession, a phenomenon prevalent in many societies. Numerous societies believed that the souls of the dead could associate themselves with objects and, consequently, these objects came to represent spiritual entities. This led to the doctrine of fetishism: veneration paid to animals, trees, fish, plants, idols, pebbles, claws of beasts, sticks, and so forth.According to Tylor, this concept was extended to veneration of specific spirits and gods less attached to objects. As a consequence, primitive people devised the concepts of gods, demons, spirits, devils, ghosts, fairies, gnomes, elves, and angels. A further development is the association of gods with the concept of good and evil, a duality leading to belief in highly powerful deities. An alternate pathway to development of powerful deities is the seeking of "first causes" for reality. Such questions, coupled with fusion of lesser deities, may result in the concept of a Supreme Being. Tylor argued that "Animism has its distinct and consistent outcome, and Polytheism its distinct and consistent completion, in the doctrine of a Supreme Deity" (1958:422).Tylor felt that "savage animism is almost devoid of that ethical element which to the educated modern mind is the very mainspring of practical religion. . . . The lower animism is not immoral, it is unmoral" (1958:446). The practices of prayer, sacrifice, fasting, "artificial ecstasy," and purification rituals were associated with consideration of moral issues.
  • (1832-1917) Founder of British anthropology. Tylor was the son of a Quaker brass-founder. The most complete presentation of Tylor's concepts is found in his work Primitive Culture (1871), reprinted as Religion in Primitive Culture (Harper 1958). He published many major articles as well as the first general anthropology textbook (1881).Tylor gradually gained recognition for his work, received an honorary doctorate from the University of Oxford in 1875, became keeper of the Oxford University Museum in 1883, reader in anthropology in 1884, and was knighted in 1912. Tylor's major contribution was his theory that all religions are based on animism . Although his evolutionary orientation appears ethnocentric to modern readers, he had a major impact on the development of anthropological thought with regard to religion.Tylor defined religion as "the belief in spiritual beings" and argued that this belief exists in all known societies. Although Tylor did not invent the concept of animism, he gave it added scope. He defined animism as having two parts: belief in the human soul that survives bodily death and belief in other spirits, including deities. Tylor hypothesized that animism was the foundation of all religions. Tylor argued that the development of belief in souls was a natural result of attempts to explain such phenomena as dreams, trances, apparitions, visions, shadows, reflections, loss of consciousness, and death. He provided many example cases from a wide variety of societies exemplifying the forms of behavior and faith associated with acceptance of souls. The hypothesis that belief in souls evolved from naturally occurring phenomena explains the fact that all known societies have conceived of the notion that humans have souls. Tylor suggested that belief in spirits and deities was an outgrowth of belief in souls. He cited many accounts of beliefs regarding soul travel, souls lingering about the deceased, restless souls of the dead whose objectives during life have not been accomplished, and a wide variety of funeral rites. The souls of departed relatives are a target for propitiation and worship. Spirits may take over a living body, creating shamanic possession, a phenomenon prevalent in many societies. Numerous societies believed that the souls of the dead could associate themselves with objects and, consequently, these objects came to represent spiritual entities. This led to the doctrine of fetishism: veneration paid to animals, trees, fish, plants, idols, pebbles, claws of beasts, sticks, and so forth.According to Tylor, this concept was extended to veneration of specific spirits and gods less attached to objects. As a consequence, primitive people devised the concepts of gods, demons, spirits, devils, ghosts, fairies, gnomes, elves, and angels. A further development is the association of gods with the concept of good and evil, a duality leading to belief in highly powerful deities. An alternate pathway to development of powerful deities is the seeking of "first causes" for reality. Such questions, coupled with fusion of lesser deities, may result in the concept of a Supreme Being. Tylor argued that "Animism has its distinct and consistent outcome, and Polytheism its distinct and consistent completion, in the doctrine of a Supreme Deity" (1958:422).Tylor felt that "savage animism is almost devoid of that ethical element which to the educated modern mind is the very mainspring of practical religion. . . . The lower animism is not immoral, it is unmoral" (1958:446). The practices of prayer, sacrifice, fasting, "artificial ecstasy," and purification rituals were associated with consideration of moral issues.
  • (1832-1917) Founder of British anthropology. Tylor was the son of a Quaker brass-founder. The most complete presentation of Tylor's concepts is found in his work Primitive Culture (1871), reprinted as Religion in Primitive Culture (Harper 1958). He published many major articles as well as the first general anthropology textbook (1881).Tylor gradually gained recognition for his work, received an honorary doctorate from the University of Oxford in 1875, became keeper of the Oxford University Museum in 1883, reader in anthropology in 1884, and was knighted in 1912. Tylor's major contribution was his theory that all religions are based on animism . Although his evolutionary orientation appears ethnocentric to modern readers, he had a major impact on the development of anthropological thought with regard to religion.Tylor defined religion as "the belief in spiritual beings" and argued that this belief exists in all known societies. Although Tylor did not invent the concept of animism, he gave it added scope. He defined animism as having two parts: belief in the human soul that survives bodily death and belief in other spirits, including deities. Tylor hypothesized that animism was the foundation of all religions. Tylor argued that the development of belief in souls was a natural result of attempts to explain such phenomena as dreams, trances, apparitions, visions, shadows, reflections, loss of consciousness, and death. He provided many example cases from a wide variety of societies exemplifying the forms of behavior and faith associated with acceptance of souls. The hypothesis that belief in souls evolved from naturally occurring phenomena explains the fact that all known societies have conceived of the notion that humans have souls. Tylor suggested that belief in spirits and deities was an outgrowth of belief in souls. He cited many accounts of beliefs regarding soul travel, souls lingering about the deceased, restless souls of the dead whose objectives during life have not been accomplished, and a wide variety of funeral rites. The souls of departed relatives are a target for propitiation and worship. Spirits may take over a living body, creating shamanic possession, a phenomenon prevalent in many societies. Numerous societies believed that the souls of the dead could associate themselves with objects and, consequently, these objects came to represent spiritual entities. This led to the doctrine of fetishism: veneration paid to animals, trees, fish, plants, idols, pebbles, claws of beasts, sticks, and so forth.According to Tylor, this concept was extended to veneration of specific spirits and gods less attached to objects. As a consequence, primitive people devised the concepts of gods, demons, spirits, devils, ghosts, fairies, gnomes, elves, and angels. A further development is the association of gods with the concept of good and evil, a duality leading to belief in highly powerful deities. An alternate pathway to development of powerful deities is the seeking of "first causes" for reality. Such questions, coupled with fusion of lesser deities, may result in the concept of a Supreme Being. Tylor argued that "Animism has its distinct and consistent outcome, and Polytheism its distinct and consistent completion, in the doctrine of a Supreme Deity" (1958:422).Tylor felt that "savage animism is almost devoid of that ethical element which to the educated modern mind is the very mainspring of practical religion. . . . The lower animism is not immoral, it is unmoral" (1958:446). The practices of prayer, sacrifice, fasting, "artificial ecstasy," and purification rituals were associated with consideration of moral issues.
  • He asserted that the development of religions from one stage to the next is universal throughout the world’s cultures ANIMISM: Belief in souls, and that all things in the world are endowed with a soul. TOTEMISM: Religious practices centered around animals, plants, or other aspects of the natural world held to be ancestral or closely identified with a group and its individuals. POLYTHEISM: Belief in more than one, or many gods. MONOTHEISM: Belief in one god (1832-1917) Founder of British anthropology. Tylor was the son of a Quaker brass-founder. The most complete presentation of Tylor's concepts is found in his work Primitive Culture (1871), reprinted as Religion in Primitive Culture (Harper 1958). He published many major articles as well as the first general anthropology textbook (1881).Tylor gradually gained recognition for his work, received an honorary doctorate from the University of Oxford in 1875, became keeper of the Oxford University Museum in 1883, reader in anthropology in 1884, and was knighted in 1912. Tylor's major contribution was his theory that all religions are based on animism . Although his evolutionary orientation appears ethnocentric to modern readers, he had a major impact on the development of anthropological thought with regard to religion. Tylor defined religion as "the belief in spiritual beings" and argued that this belief exists in all known societies. Although Tylor did not invent the concept of animism, he gave it added scope. He defined animism as having two parts: belief in the human soul that survives bodily death and belief in other spirits, including deities. Tylor hypothesized that animism was the foundation of all religions. Tylor argued that the development of belief in souls was a natural result of attempts to explain such phenomena as dreams, trances, apparitions, visions, shadows, reflections, loss of consciousness, and death. He provided many example cases from a wide variety of societies exemplifying the forms of behavior and faith associated with acceptance of souls. The hypothesis that belief in souls evolved from naturally occurring phenomena explains the fact that all known societies have conceived of the notion that humans have souls. Tylor suggested that belief in spirits and deities was an outgrowth of belief in souls. He cited many accounts of beliefs regarding soul travel, souls lingering about the deceased, restless souls of the dead whose objectives during life have not been accomplished, and a wide variety of funeral rites. The souls of departed relatives are a target for propitiation and worship. Spirits may take over a living body, creating shamanic possession, a phenomenon prevalent in many societies. Numerous societies believed that the souls of the dead could associate themselves with objects and, consequently, these objects came to represent spiritual entities. This led to the doctrine of fetishism: veneration paid to animals, trees, fish, plants, idols, pebbles, claws of beasts, sticks, and so forth.According to Tylor, this concept was extended to veneration of specific spirits and gods less attached to objects. As a consequence, primitive people devised the concepts of gods, demons, spirits, devils, ghosts, fairies, gnomes, elves, and angels. A further development is the association of gods with the concept of good and evil, a duality leading to belief in highly powerful deities. An alternate pathway to development of powerful deities is the seeking of "first causes" for reality. Such questions, coupled with fusion of lesser deities, may result in the concept of a Supreme Being. Tylor argued that "Animism has its distinct and consistent outcome, and Polytheism its distinct and consistent completion, in the doctrine of a Supreme Deity" (1958:422).Tylor felt that "savage animism is almost devoid of that ethical element which to the educated modern mind is the very mainspring of practical religion. . . . The lower animism is not immoral, it is unmoral" (1958:446). The practices of prayer, sacrifice, fasting, "artificial ecstasy," and purification rituals were associated with consideration of moral issues.
  • However, the Calvinist and Lutheran theologians taught that only those who were predestined to be saved would be saved, by grace alone through faith in Jesus alone. Since it was impossible to know if one was predestined (since one might not receive the "grace of perseverance," and one's conversion might be only lip-service), the notion developed that it might be possible to discern that a person was elect (predestined) by observing their way of life. Hard work and frugality were thought to be two important consequences of being one of the elect; thus, Protestants were attracted to these qualities, seeking to be obedient to God to whom they owed their salvation.
  • However, the Calvinist and Lutheran theologians taught that only those who were predestined to be saved would be saved, by grace alone through faith in Jesus alone. Since it was impossible to know if one was predestined (since one might not receive the "grace of perseverance," and one's conversion might be only lip-service), the notion developed that it might be possible to discern that a person was elect (predestined) by observing their way of life. Hard work and frugality were thought to be two important consequences of being one of the elect; thus, Protestants were attracted to these qualities, seeking to be obedient to God to whom they owed their salvation.
  • However, the Calvinist and Lutheran theologians taught that only those who were predestined to be saved would be saved, by grace alone through faith in Jesus alone. Since it was impossible to know if one was predestined (since one might not receive the "grace of perseverance," and one's conversion might be only lip-service), the notion developed that it might be possible to discern that a person was elect (predestined) by observing their way of life. Hard work and frugality were thought to be two important consequences of being one of the elect; thus, Protestants were attracted to these qualities, seeking to be obedient to God to whom they owed their salvation.
  • Worship, Meditation, Pilgrimage, Sacrifice, Rites, and Healing. Example: impermanence (Buddhism); Original Sin (Christianity); interact with previous dimensions; some more strict or rigid than others: e.g., Catholicism more than Quakerism, Buddhism more than African religions, Theravada more than Zen. Stories: Christ’s life, death, and resurrection; Buddha’s life; Muhammad’s life; “founders” of religion. Secular examples: “history” instead of “myth”; history taught in schools is major generator of “national” identity; it enhances pride in our ancestors, our national heroes and heroines Examples: enlightenment of the Buddha, prophetic visions of Muhammad, conversion of Paul, etc. The Vision Quest: Zen, Native American classical religion, the idea of the “holy” (Otto)
  • Increasing differentiation and complexity; 1. oriented towards a single cosmos; maintenance of personal, social, and cosmic harmony with attaining specific goods; time out of time, an “everywhen”; identification, participation, acting out;church and society are one; 2. mythical beings more objectified; actively a controlling the world; gods; monistic worldview; men, subjects, gods, objects; communication between; hierarchically organized; divine king; individual-soceity merged in a natural-divine cosmos; rival groups, rival deities; 3. transcendental, world-rejection, strongly dualistic, above and below worlds, Heaven and Hell, God and Satan, good and evil, focus on life in another realm; goal of salvation, demythologization; monotheistic, universalistic; Buddhism: nature of man, greed, anger, must escape, Hebrew prophets: sin, heedlessness of God, obedience to Him; Islam: ungrateful man who is careless of divine compassion, submission to will of God; new religious elite claims direction relation to the divine; political and religious leadership; 4. collapse of hierarchical structuring, world-aceepting; Reformation; monks, sheiks, ascetics before; direct relation between individual and transcendent reality; antiritualist interpretation; faith! – an internal quality of person; Martin Luther; 5. personalization of the sacred, God; responsibility for the self;
  • Émile Durkheim (1858−1917)—author of The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1912)—and others thought that Aboriginal groups provided a lens into the most basic forms of religious behavior. 1. Durkheim identified the primary force behind religion as the sacred and argued that the sacred serves as a mirror of a particular society. A society holds up symbols so that, in effect, it can worship itself and propagate its value system. 2. Durkheim viewed religion as an expression of social cohesion in human societies.
  • Émile Durkheim (1858−1917)—author of The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1912)—and others thought that Aboriginal groups provided a lens into the most basic forms of religious behavior. 1. Durkheim identified the primary force behind religion as the sacred and argued that the sacred serves as a mirror of a particular society. A society holds up symbols so that, in effect, it can worship itself and propagate its value system. 2. Durkheim viewed religion as an expression of social cohesion in human societies.
  • Émile Durkheim (1858−1917)—author of The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1912)—and others thought that Aboriginal groups provided a lens into the most basic forms of religious behavior. 1. Durkheim identified the primary force behind religion as the sacred and argued that the sacred serves as a mirror of a particular society. A society holds up symbols so that, in effect, it can worship itself and propagate its value system. 2. Durkheim viewed religion as an expression of social cohesion in human societies.
  • Émile Durkheim (1858−1917)—author of The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1912)—and others thought that Aboriginal groups provided a lens into the most basic forms of religious behavior. 1. Durkheim identified the primary force behind religion as the sacred and argued that the sacred serves as a mirror of a particular society. A society holds up symbols so that, in effect, it can worship itself and propagate its value system. 2. Durkheim viewed religion as an expression of social cohesion in human societies.
  • Émile Durkheim (1858−1917)—author of The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1912)—and others thought that Aboriginal groups provided a lens into the most basic forms of religious behavior. 1. Durkheim identified the primary force behind religion as the sacred and argued that the sacred serves as a mirror of a particular society. A society holds up symbols so that, in effect, it can worship itself and propagate its value system. 2. Durkheim viewed religion as an expression of social cohesion in human societies.
  • Émile Durkheim (1858−1917)—author of The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1912)—and others thought that Aboriginal groups provided a lens into the most basic forms of religious behavior. 1. Durkheim identified the primary force behind religion as the sacred and argued that the sacred serves as a mirror of a particular society. A society holds up symbols so that, in effect, it can worship itself and propagate its value system. 2. Durkheim viewed religion as an expression of social cohesion in human societies.
  • Émile Durkheim (1858−1917)—author of The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1912)—and others thought that Aboriginal groups provided a lens into the most basic forms of religious behavior. 1. Durkheim identified the primary force behind religion as the sacred and argued that the sacred serves as a mirror of a particular society. A society holds up symbols so that, in effect, it can worship itself and propagate its value system. 2. Durkheim viewed religion as an expression of social cohesion in human societies.
  • Increasing differentiation and complexity; 1. oriented towards a single cosmos; maintenance of personal, social, and cosmic harmony with attaining specific goods; time out of time, an “everywhen”; identification, participation, acting out;church and society are one; 2. mythical beings more objectified; actively a controlling the world; gods; monistic worldview; men, subjects, gods, objects; communication between; hierarchically organized; divine king; individual-soceity merged in a natural-divine cosmos; rival groups, rival deities; 3. transcendental, world-rejection, strongly dualistic, above and below worlds, Heaven and Hell, God and Satan, good and evil, focus on life in another realm; goal of salvation, demythologization; monotheistic, universalistic; Buddhism: nature of man, greed, anger, must escape, Hebrew prophets: sin, heedlessness of God, obedience to Him; Islam: ungrateful man who is careless of divine compassion, submission to will of God; new religious elite claims direction relation to the divine; political and religious leadership; 4. collapse of hierarchical structuring, world-aceepting; Reformation; monks, sheiks, ascetics before; direct relation between individual and transcendent reality; antiritualist interpretation; faith! – an internal quality of person; Martin Luther; 5. personalization of the sacred, God; responsibility for the self;
  • Sigmund Freud (1856−1939) understood and critiqued religion as outward manifestations of basic psychological causes. 1. Freud’s Totem and Taboo (1918), Moses and Monotheism (1939), and The Future of an Illusion (1927) endeavor to link religion to underlying psychological causes and historical events. 2. Freud believed religion to be a form of wish fulfillment. 3. He identified three great fears that troubled all human beings: fear of the demands of life, fear of the danger posed by the forces of nature, and fear of death.
  • Sigmund Freud (1856−1939) understood and critiqued religion as outward manifestations of basic psychological causes. 1. Freud’s Totem and Taboo (1918), Moses and Monotheism (1939), and The Future of an Illusion (1927) endeavor to link religion to underlying psychological causes and historical events. 2. Freud believed religion to be a form of wish fulfillment. 3. He identified three great fears that troubled all human beings: fear of the demands of life, fear of the danger posed by the forces of nature, and fear of death.
  • Sigmund Freud (1856−1939) understood and critiqued religion as outward manifestations of basic psychological causes. 1. Freud’s Totem and Taboo (1918), Moses and Monotheism (1939), and The Future of an Illusion (1927) endeavor to link religion to underlying psychological causes and historical events. 2. Freud believed religion to be a form of wish fulfillment. 3. He identified three great fears that troubled all human beings: fear of the demands of life, fear of the danger posed by the forces of nature, and fear of death.
  • God the Father, fasting, the Virgin Mary: idealized
  • God the Father, fasting, the Virgin Mary: idealized
  • Rudolf Otto (1869−1937), a theologian, argued for a comprehensive approach to human religious awareness and behavior in The Idea of the Holy (1923). For him, God, or what Otto called the Holy, is the reality that stands beyond and behind all the phenomena that we observe and call religion. The numinous experience (“a nonrational awareness of the Holy”) is at the heart of human religiousness. The innate awareness of the Holy produces a creature-consciousness that retains elements of mystery (what Otto terms mysterium). Human responses to the Holy include fear and feelings of unworthiness (tremendum) that lead to sacrificial rituals, confessions of sin, and prayers for forgiveness. Human responses to the Holy also include fascination, joy, and a desire to draw closer to the Holy (fascinans) that lead to worship, celebration, and hymns of praise.
  • Rudolf Otto (1869−1937), a theologian, argued for a comprehensive approach to human religious awareness and behavior in The Idea of the Holy (1923). For him, God, or what Otto called the Holy, is the reality that stands beyond and behind all the phenomena that we observe and call religion. The numinous experience (“a nonrational awareness of the Holy”) is at the heart of human religiousness. The innate awareness of the Holy produces a creature-consciousness that retains elements of mystery (what Otto terms mysterium). Human responses to the Holy include fear and feelings of unworthiness (tremendum) that lead to sacrificial rituals, confessions of sin, and prayers for forgiveness. Human responses to the Holy also include fascination, joy, and a desire to draw closer to the Holy (fascinans) that lead to worship, celebration, and hymns of praise.
  • Rudolf Otto (1869−1937), a theologian, argued for a comprehensive approach to human religious awareness and behavior in The Idea of the Holy (1923). For him, God, or what Otto called the Holy, is the reality that stands beyond and behind all the phenomena that we observe and call religion. The numinous experience (“a nonrational awareness of the Holy”) is at the heart of human religiousness. The innate awareness of the Holy produces a creature-consciousness that retains elements of mystery (what Otto terms mysterium). Human responses to the Holy include fear and feelings of unworthiness (tremendum) that lead to sacrificial rituals, confessions of sin, and prayers for forgiveness. Human responses to the Holy also include fascination, joy, and a desire to draw closer to the Holy (fascinans) that lead to worship, celebration, and hymns of praise.
  • Rudolf Otto (1869−1937), a theologian, argued for a comprehensive approach to human religious awareness and behavior in The Idea of the Holy (1923). For him, God, or what Otto called the Holy, is the reality that stands beyond and behind all the phenomena that we observe and call religion. The numinous experience (“a nonrational awareness of the Holy”) is at the heart of human religiousness. The innate awareness of the Holy produces a creature-consciousness that retains elements of mystery (what Otto terms mysterium). Human responses to the Holy include fear and feelings of unworthiness (tremendum) that lead to sacrificial rituals, confessions of sin, and prayers for forgiveness. Human responses to the Holy also include fascination, joy, and a desire to draw closer to the Holy (fascinans) that lead to worship, celebration, and hymns of praise.
  • Rudolf Otto (1869−1937), a theologian, argued for a comprehensive approach to human religious awareness and behavior in The Idea of the Holy (1923). For him, God, or what Otto called the Holy, is the reality that stands beyond and behind all the phenomena that we observe and call religion. The numinous experience (“a nonrational awareness of the Holy”) is at the heart of human religiousness. The innate awareness of the Holy produces a creature-consciousness that retains elements of mystery (what Otto terms mysterium). Human responses to the Holy include fear and feelings of unworthiness (tremendum) that lead to sacrificial rituals, confessions of sin, and prayers for forgiveness. Human responses to the Holy also include fascination, joy, and a desire to draw closer to the Holy (fascinans) that lead to worship, celebration, and hymns of praise.
  • Eliade suggests that at the heart of religious experience is human awareness of the sacred. He argued that the sacred is made known through heirophanies (manifestations of the sacred) and theophanies (manifestations of God). When people perceive a manifestation of the sacred, everything changes—objects, people, places, and even time. A theophany is a manifestation of God. 1. Moses encountered God and received the Ten Commandments on Mount Sinai. 2. When Jesus was baptized in the Jordan River, the sky opened, a dove descended, and God’s resounding voice declared, “You are my Son, the Beloved; with you I am well pleased!” 3. At a pivotal moment in the Bhagavad Gita, a dialogue takes place between Arjuna (a warrior about to go into battle, who is the focus of the Bhagavad Gita) and his chariot driver. The chariot driver reveals himself as Krishna, the incarnation of the Lord Vishnu. 4. From the Islamic tradition comes the time when, during an interlude of prayer and meditation, Muhammad was first called to be a prophet. A hierophany is a broader category indicating a manifestation of the sacred. For example, according to Buddhist tradition, Siddhartha Gautama was conceived during a miraculous vision by his mother and was born through her side as flowers bloomed out of season. Sages appeared to visit the newborn and make prophecies about his auspicious career. Sacred time is a universal category in the religions. 1. Easter Sunday is the most sacred day in the Christian calendar. Sunday, then, became the sacred day of the week—a shift from the Jewish Sabbath that starts Friday evening and lasts until sundown Saturday. 2. Muslims are required to fast and refrain from all pleasurable activities from sunrise until sunset throughout the sacred lunar month of Ramadan each year. 3. For Jews, the most holy day of the year is Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement. Traditionally, Yom Kippur is understood as the date on which Moses received the Ten Commandments for the second time. 4. The Hindu festival of Holi is celebrated each spring; devotees imitate Krishna’s frivolous play with the gopis (cowherds’ wives).
  • Eliade suggests that at the heart of religious experience is human awareness of the sacred. He argued that the sacred is made known through heirophanies (manifestations of the sacred) and theophanies (manifestations of God). When people perceive a manifestation of the sacred, everything changes—objects, people, places, and even time. A theophany is a manifestation of God. 1. Moses encountered God and received the Ten Commandments on Mount Sinai. 2. When Jesus was baptized in the Jordan River, the sky opened, a dove descended, and God’s resounding voice declared, “You are my Son, the Beloved; with you I am well pleased!” 3. At a pivotal moment in the Bhagavad Gita, a dialogue takes place between Arjuna (a warrior about to go into battle, who is the focus of the Bhagavad Gita) and his chariot driver. The chariot driver reveals himself as Krishna, the incarnation of the Lord Vishnu. 4. From the Islamic tradition comes the time when, during an interlude of prayer and meditation, Muhammad was first called to be a prophet. A hierophany is a broader category indicating a manifestation of the sacred. For example, according to Buddhist tradition, Siddhartha Gautama was conceived during a miraculous vision by his mother and was born through her side as flowers bloomed out of season. Sages appeared to visit the newborn and make prophecies about his auspicious career. Sacred time is a universal category in the religions. 1. Easter Sunday is the most sacred day in the Christian calendar. Sunday, then, became the sacred day of the week—a shift from the Jewish Sabbath that starts Friday evening and lasts until sundown Saturday. 2. Muslims are required to fast and refrain from all pleasurable activities from sunrise until sunset throughout the sacred lunar month of Ramadan each year. 3. For Jews, the most holy day of the year is Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement. Traditionally, Yom Kippur is understood as the date on which Moses received the Ten Commandments for the second time. 4. The Hindu festival of Holi is celebrated each spring; devotees imitate Krishna’s frivolous play with the gopis (cowherds’ wives).
  • Eliade suggests that at the heart of religious experience is human awareness of the sacred. He argued that the sacred is made known through heirophanies (manifestations of the sacred) and theophanies (manifestations of God). When people perceive a manifestation of the sacred, everything changes—objects, people, places, and even time. A theophany is a manifestation of God. 1. Moses encountered God and received the Ten Commandments on Mount Sinai. 2. When Jesus was baptized in the Jordan River, the sky opened, a dove descended, and God’s resounding voice declared, “You are my Son, the Beloved; with you I am well pleased!” 3. At a pivotal moment in the Bhagavad Gita, a dialogue takes place between Arjuna (a warrior about to go into battle, who is the focus of the Bhagavad Gita) and his chariot driver. The chariot driver reveals himself as Krishna, the incarnation of the Lord Vishnu. 4. From the Islamic tradition comes the time when, during an interlude of prayer and meditation, Muhammad was first called to be a prophet. A hierophany is a broader category indicating a manifestation of the sacred. For example, according to Buddhist tradition, Siddhartha Gautama was conceived during a miraculous vision by his mother and was born through her side as flowers bloomed out of season. Sages appeared to visit the newborn and make prophecies about his auspicious career. Sacred time is a universal category in the religions. 1. Easter Sunday is the most sacred day in the Christian calendar. Sunday, then, became the sacred day of the week—a shift from the Jewish Sabbath that starts Friday evening and lasts until sundown Saturday. 2. Muslims are required to fast and refrain from all pleasurable activities from sunrise until sunset throughout the sacred lunar month of Ramadan each year. 3. For Jews, the most holy day of the year is Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement. Traditionally, Yom Kippur is understood as the date on which Moses received the Ten Commandments for the second time. 4. The Hindu festival of Holi is celebrated each spring; devotees imitate Krishna’s frivolous play with the gopis (cowherds’ wives).
  • Eliade suggests that at the heart of religious experience is human awareness of the sacred. He argued that the sacred is made known through heirophanies (manifestations of the sacred) and theophanies (manifestations of God). When people perceive a manifestation of the sacred, everything changes—objects, people, places, and even time. A theophany is a manifestation of God. 1. Moses encountered God and received the Ten Commandments on Mount Sinai. 2. When Jesus was baptized in the Jordan River, the sky opened, a dove descended, and God’s resounding voice declared, “You are my Son, the Beloved; with you I am well pleased!” 3. At a pivotal moment in the Bhagavad Gita, a dialogue takes place between Arjuna (a warrior about to go into battle, who is the focus of the Bhagavad Gita) and his chariot driver. The chariot driver reveals himself as Krishna, the incarnation of the Lord Vishnu. 4. From the Islamic tradition comes the time when, during an interlude of prayer and meditation, Muhammad was first called to be a prophet. A hierophany is a broader category indicating a manifestation of the sacred. For example, according to Buddhist tradition, Siddhartha Gautama was conceived during a miraculous vision by his mother and was born through her side as flowers bloomed out of season. Sages appeared to visit the newborn and make prophecies about his auspicious career. Sacred time is a universal category in the religions. 1. Easter Sunday is the most sacred day in the Christian calendar. Sunday, then, became the sacred day of the week—a shift from the Jewish Sabbath that starts Friday evening and lasts until sundown Saturday. 2. Muslims are required to fast and refrain from all pleasurable activities from sunrise until sunset throughout the sacred lunar month of Ramadan each year. 3. For Jews, the most holy day of the year is Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement. Traditionally, Yom Kippur is understood as the date on which Moses received the Ten Commandments for the second time. 4. The Hindu festival of Holi is celebrated each spring; devotees imitate Krishna’s frivolous play with the gopis (cowherds’ wives).
  • Eliade suggests that at the heart of religious experience is human awareness of the sacred. He argued that the sacred is made known through heirophanies (manifestations of the sacred) and theophanies (manifestations of God). When people perceive a manifestation of the sacred, everything changes—objects, people, places, and even time. A theophany is a manifestation of God. 1. Moses encountered God and received the Ten Commandments on Mount Sinai. 2. When Jesus was baptized in the Jordan River, the sky opened, a dove descended, and God’s resounding voice declared, “You are my Son, the Beloved; with you I am well pleased!” 3. At a pivotal moment in the Bhagavad Gita, a dialogue takes place between Arjuna (a warrior about to go into battle, who is the focus of the Bhagavad Gita) and his chariot driver. The chariot driver reveals himself as Krishna, the incarnation of the Lord Vishnu. 4. From the Islamic tradition comes the time when, during an interlude of prayer and meditation, Muhammad was first called to be a prophet. A hierophany is a broader category indicating a manifestation of the sacred. For example, according to Buddhist tradition, Siddhartha Gautama was conceived during a miraculous vision by his mother and was born through her side as flowers bloomed out of season. Sages appeared to visit the newborn and make prophecies about his auspicious career. Sacred time is a universal category in the religions. 1. Easter Sunday is the most sacred day in the Christian calendar. Sunday, then, became the sacred day of the week—a shift from the Jewish Sabbath that starts Friday evening and lasts until sundown Saturday. 2. Muslims are required to fast and refrain from all pleasurable activities from sunrise until sunset throughout the sacred lunar month of Ramadan each year. 3. For Jews, the most holy day of the year is Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement. Traditionally, Yom Kippur is understood as the date on which Moses received the Ten Commandments for the second time. 4. The Hindu festival of Holi is celebrated each spring; devotees imitate Krishna’s frivolous play with the gopis (cowherds’ wives).
  • Eliade suggests that at the heart of religious experience is human awareness of the sacred. He argued that the sacred is made known through heirophanies (manifestations of the sacred) and theophanies (manifestations of God). When people perceive a manifestation of the sacred, everything changes—objects, people, places, and even time. A theophany is a manifestation of God. 1. Moses encountered God and received the Ten Commandments on Mount Sinai. 2. When Jesus was baptized in the Jordan River, the sky opened, a dove descended, and God’s resounding voice declared, “You are my Son, the Beloved; with you I am well pleased!” 3. At a pivotal moment in the Bhagavad Gita, a dialogue takes place between Arjuna (a warrior about to go into battle, who is the focus of the Bhagavad Gita) and his chariot driver. The chariot driver reveals himself as Krishna, the incarnation of the Lord Vishnu. 4. From the Islamic tradition comes the time when, during an interlude of prayer and meditation, Muhammad was first called to be a prophet. A hierophany is a broader category indicating a manifestation of the sacred. For example, according to Buddhist tradition, Siddhartha Gautama was conceived during a miraculous vision by his mother and was born through her side as flowers bloomed out of season. Sages appeared to visit the newborn and make prophecies about his auspicious career. Sacred time is a universal category in the religions. 1. Easter Sunday is the most sacred day in the Christian calendar. Sunday, then, became the sacred day of the week—a shift from the Jewish Sabbath that starts Friday evening and lasts until sundown Saturday. 2. Muslims are required to fast and refrain from all pleasurable activities from sunrise until sunset throughout the sacred lunar month of Ramadan each year. 3. For Jews, the most holy day of the year is Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement. Traditionally, Yom Kippur is understood as the date on which Moses received the Ten Commandments for the second time. 4. The Hindu festival of Holi is celebrated each spring; devotees imitate Krishna’s frivolous play with the gopis (cowherds’ wives).
  • Increasing differentiation and complexity; 1. oriented towards a single cosmos; maintenance of personal, social, and cosmic harmony with attaining specific goods; time out of time, an “everywhen”; identification, participation, acting out;church and society are one; 2. mythical beings more objectified; actively a controlling the world; gods; monistic worldview; men, subjects, gods, objects; communication between; hierarchically organized; divine king; individual-soceity merged in a natural-divine cosmos; rival groups, rival deities; 3. transcendental, world-rejection, strongly dualistic, above and below worlds, Heaven and Hell, God and Satan, good and evil, focus on life in another realm; goal of salvation, demythologization; monotheistic, universalistic; Buddhism: nature of man, greed, anger, must escape, Hebrew prophets: sin, heedlessness of God, obedience to Him; Islam: ungrateful man who is careless of divine compassion, submission to will of God; new religious elite claims direction relation to the divine; political and religious leadership; 4. collapse of hierarchical structuring, world-aceepting; Reformation; monks, sheiks, ascetics before; direct relation between individual and transcendent reality; antiritualist interpretation; faith! – an internal quality of person; Martin Luther; 5. personalization of the sacred, God; responsibility for the self;
  • MID 1800s: The history of the world is a history of class struggle between the “haves” and “have nots.” Every aspect of society is part of a superstructure determined by its economic base. Religion is part of the superstructure, and a false ideology that provides excuses for the oppressors to maintain the inequitable status quo. Belief in god or gods is an oppressive by-product of class struggle and should be dismissed ********************* Marx viewed religion as something that inhibits change – a form of social control that keeps the working classes in a state of false consciousness. “ Religion is the sign of the oppressed creature, the sentiment of a heartless world…. It is the opium of the people.” Religion acts as a drug that does not solve problems but merely eases the pain. Religion is a tool of class exploitation – it provides the basis of ruling class ideology and justifies the social order. The hymn All things bright and beautiful contains the verse.. The rich man in his castle, the poor man at his gate, God made them high and lowly, and ordered their estate. Religion is a conservative force which prevents social change. The masses are promised rewards in heaven, so they put up with suffering on Earth. Religion, therefore, involves the distortion of reality. It is ideological, in that it legitimises an unjust social order that makes it appear inevitable and unchangeable.
  • MID 1800s: The history of the world is a history of class struggle between the “haves” and “have nots.” Every aspect of society is part of a superstructure determined by its economic base. Religion is part of the superstructure, and a false ideology that provides excuses for the oppressors to maintain the inequitable status quo. Belief in god or gods is an oppressive by-product of class struggle and should be dismissed ********************* Marx viewed religion as something that inhibits change – a form of social control that keeps the working classes in a state of false consciousness. “ Religion is the sign of the oppressed creature, the sentiment of a heartless world…. It is the opium of the people.” Religion acts as a drug that does not solve problems but merely eases the pain. Religion is a tool of class exploitation – it provides the basis of ruling class ideology and justifies the social order. The hymn All things bright and beautiful contains the verse.. The rich man in his castle, the poor man at his gate, God made them high and lowly, and ordered their estate. Religion is a conservative force which prevents social change. The masses are promised rewards in heaven, so they put up with suffering on Earth. Religion, therefore, involves the distortion of reality. It is ideological, in that it legitimises an unjust social order that makes it appear inevitable and unchangeable.
  • Religion is, indeed, the self-consciousness and self-esteem of man who has either not yet won through to himself, or has already lost himself again. But, man is no abstract being squatting outside the world. Man is the world of man — state, society. This state and this society produce religion, which is an inverted consciousness of the world, because they are an inverted world. Religion is the general theory of this world, its encyclopaedic compendium, its logic in popular form, its spiritual point d'honneur, it enthusiasm, its moral sanction, its solemn complement, and its universal basis of consolation and justification. It is the fantastic realization of the human essence since the human essence has not acquired any true reality. The struggle against religion is, therefore, indirectly the struggle against that world whose spiritual aroma is religion. Religious suffering is, at one and the same time, the expression of real suffering and a protest against real suffering. Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opium of the people. n the above quotation Marx is saying that religion’s purpose is to create illusory fantasies for the poor. Economic realities prevent them from finding true happiness in this life, so religion tells them that this is OK because they will find true happiness in the next life. Although this is a criticism of religion, Marx is not without sympathy: people are in distress and religion provides solace, just as people who are physically injured receive relief from opiate-based drugs. An economic system in which the means of production--land and capital goods--are privately owned, and the labor of workers becomes the property of owners. Capital, generated for the most part by the labor of workers, is monopolized by owners and invested for individual profit. Commodities and services are produced for the sole purpose of profit in the marketplace. Capitalism collapses if it does not continually expand. Capitalism only functions through inequality.
  • Religion is, indeed, the self-consciousness and self-esteem of man who has either not yet won through to himself, or has already lost himself again. But, man is no abstract being squatting outside the world. Man is the world of man — state, society. This state and this society produce religion, which is an inverted consciousness of the world, because they are an inverted world. Religion is the general theory of this world, its encyclopaedic compendium, its logic in popular form, its spiritual point d'honneur, it enthusiasm, its moral sanction, its solemn complement, and its universal basis of consolation and justification. It is the fantastic realization of the human essence since the human essence has not acquired any true reality. The struggle against religion is, therefore, indirectly the struggle against that world whose spiritual aroma is religion. a lack of control over the process of production The worker is alienated from the object he produces because it is owned and disposed of by another, the capitalist feeling that one is being exploited, fetishizing products over concerns for others and being dehumanised in work. • Religion as an illusory protest, whispering false hopes and eternal forgetfulness against the actual and exploited conditions of life; and• Religion as ideology, where religion distorts and masks the socio-economic reality of the world.
  • Religion is, indeed, the self-consciousness and self-esteem of man who has either not yet won through to himself, or has already lost himself again. But, man is no abstract being squatting outside the world. Man is the world of man — state, society. This state and this society produce religion, which is an inverted consciousness of the world, because they are an inverted world. Religion is the general theory of this world, its encyclopaedic compendium, its logic in popular form, its spiritual point d'honneur, it enthusiasm, its moral sanction, its solemn complement, and its universal basis of consolation and justification. It is the fantastic realization of the human essence since the human essence has not acquired any true reality. The struggle against religion is, therefore, indirectly the struggle against that world whose spiritual aroma is religion. Religious suffering is, at one and the same time, the expression of real suffering and a protest against real suffering. Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opium of the people. n the above quotation Marx is saying that religion’s purpose is to create illusory fantasies for the poor. Economic realities prevent them from finding true happiness in this life, so religion tells them that this is OK because they will find true happiness in the next life. Although this is a criticism of religion, Marx is not without sympathy: people are in distress and religion provides solace, just as people who are physically injured receive relief from opiate-based drugs.
  • According to the new Protestant religions, an individual was religiously compelled to follow a secular vocation with as much zeal as possible. A person living according to this world view was more likely to accumulate money. The new religions (in particular, Calvinism and other more austere Protestant sects) effectively forbade wastefully using hard earned money and identified the purchase of luxuries assin. Donations to an individual's church or congregation was limited due to the rejection by certain Protestant sects of icons. Finally, donation of money to the poor or to charity was generally frowned on as it was seen as furthering beggary. This social condition was perceived as laziness, burdening their fellow man, and an affront to God; by not working, one failed to glorify God.The manner in which this paradox was resolved, Weber argued, was the investment of this money, which gave an extreme boost to nascent capitalism.
  • However, the Calvinist and Lutheran theologians taught that only those who were predestined to be saved would be saved, by grace alone through faith in Jesus alone. Since it was impossible to know if one was predestined (since one might not receive the "grace of perseverance," and one's conversion might be only lip-service), the notion developed that it might be possible to discern that a person was elect (predestined) by observing their way of life. Hard work and frugality were thought to be two important consequences of being one of the elect; thus, Protestants were attracted to these qualities, seeking to be obedient to God to whom they owed their salvation.
  • However, the Calvinist and Lutheran theologians taught that only those who were predestined to be saved would be saved, by grace alone through faith in Jesus alone. Since it was impossible to know if one was predestined (since one might not receive the "grace of perseverance," and one's conversion might be only lip-service), the notion developed that it might be possible to discern that a person was elect (predestined) by observing their way of life. Hard work and frugality were thought to be two important consequences of being one of the elect; thus, Protestants were attracted to these qualities, seeking to be obedient to God to whom they owed their salvation.
  • Geertz focused on interpreting the symbols that give meaning to peoples’ lives. He asserted that anthropologists must deeply analyze and thickly describe cultures and their symbols through the interpretive model in order to make difference understandable. He argued that religions are too particularistic with regard to events, individuals, and groups to be understood through functionalist theories.
  • SOCIETIES MAINTAIN ORDER THROUGH FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATIONS, FOR EXAMPLE WITH RELIGIOUS MANDATES THAT SPECIFY WHAT IS “PURE” AND PERMITTED, AND WHAT “POLLUTES” AND IS TABOO.
  • “ Dirt is matter out of place,” she wrote. Places that are dirty, places that need to be cleaned, have things in them that do not belong. These things do not fit with our rules for how that place should be arranged. Dirt— literal dirt (soil, earth)— is not “dirty” when it’s in the flower pot. Similarly, animals that are “unclean” (to use the Biblical term) are those that do not fit our categories for “food.” We have a food taboo on dog meat, but dogs are not “unclean” as pets.It was all about boundaries. A culture must construct categories, cognitive boundaries for perceiving the world and giving it meaning. Obviously, things which fall on the wrong side of the boundary will be considered deviant. But no system of categories will be perfect; some things will not quite fit into any of the categories. These anomalies as Douglas called them would also be deviant. They challenge the boundaries not by attacking and crossing them, but by making them fuzzy, imprecise, and even inaccurate.
  • “ Dirt is matter out of place,” she wrote. Places that are dirty, places that need to be cleaned, have things in them that do not belong. These things do not fit with our rules for how that place should be arranged. Dirt— literal dirt (soil, earth)— is not “dirty” when it’s in the flower pot. Similarly, animals that are “unclean” (to use the Biblical term) are those that do not fit our categories for “food.” We have a food taboo on dog meat, but dogs are not “unclean” as pets.It was all about boundaries. A culture must construct categories, cognitive boundaries for perceiving the world and giving it meaning. Obviously, things which fall on the wrong side of the boundary will be considered deviant. But no system of categories will be perfect; some things will not quite fit into any of the categories. These anomalies as Douglas called them would also be deviant. They challenge the boundaries not by attacking and crossing them, but by making them fuzzy, imprecise, and even inaccurate.
  • “ Dirt is matter out of place,” she wrote. Places that are dirty, places that need to be cleaned, have things in them that do not belong. These things do not fit with our rules for how that place should be arranged. Dirt— literal dirt (soil, earth)— is not “dirty” when it’s in the flower pot. Similarly, animals that are “unclean” (to use the Biblical term) are those that do not fit our categories for “food.” We have a food taboo on dog meat, but dogs are not “unclean” as pets.It was all about boundaries. A culture must construct categories, cognitive boundaries for perceiving the world and giving it meaning. Obviously, things which fall on the wrong side of the boundary will be considered deviant. But no system of categories will be perfect; some things will not quite fit into any of the categories. These anomalies as Douglas called them would also be deviant. They challenge the boundaries not by attacking and crossing them, but by making them fuzzy, imprecise, and even inaccurate.
  • “ Dirt is matter out of place,” she wrote. Places that are dirty, places that need to be cleaned, have things in them that do not belong. These things do not fit with our rules for how that place should be arranged. Dirt— literal dirt (soil, earth)— is not “dirty” when it’s in the flower pot. Similarly, animals that are “unclean” (to use the Biblical term) are those that do not fit our categories for “food.” We have a food taboo on dog meat, but dogs are not “unclean” as pets.It was all about boundaries. A culture must construct categories, cognitive boundaries for perceiving the world and giving it meaning. Obviously, things which fall on the wrong side of the boundary will be considered deviant. But no system of categories will be perfect; some things will not quite fit into any of the categories. These anomalies as Douglas called them would also be deviant. They challenge the boundaries not by attacking and crossing them, but by making them fuzzy, imprecise, and even inaccurate. Sacrifice rituals are used to heal and cleanse the individual or the community of pollution.In certain primitive cultures the type of animal and how it is to be sacrificed depends on the intended purpose of the cleansing ritual.Douglas tells us that the Dinka tribe will cut a beast lengthwise through the sexual organs to undo an act of incest.Cutting the sacrificial animal across the middle celebrates a truce, while suffocation or trampling to death is used in other instances.(115-116) The human body is often used in ritual manner as a means of obtaining or alleviating personal concerns, i.e. circumcision rites.Douglas notes that the primitive cultures tend to manipulate (their own) bodies surgically in an attempt to change trends in nature or the environment; to improve fertility or hunting success.Contemporary man tends to manipulate the environment directly for the same purposes.The extent to which bodily fluids and excretions are considered polluting varies from culture to culture.It is noted that sorcerers often use ‘bodily refuse’ in their incantations and spells for evil purposes.Initiation into the realm of sorcery often includes the letting of blood, committing of incest or cannibalistic acts. These bodily secretions can be used for evil against an enemy in an attempt to protect ones own community, or by outsiders against the weak point in a society’s structure.Aside from sorcery, where the use of excrement in rituals implies power to harm or “pollute,” excrement is more often used symbolically to indicate pain, loss or separation.In the hands of those who have the power to bless, the same substances can be used for good.Blood, in the Hebrew religion, was regarded as the source of life, and not to be touched except in the sacred conditions of sacrifice. (Blood is considered to be polluting in all other circumstances.)Spittle of powerful persons is sometimes thought to be part of an effective blessing. Bodily fluids taken from cadavers of royalty can be used to anoint the new leader in one case and is made into an ointment that provides a new queen with the ability to control the weather in another case. (121)The orifices of the body represent those areas where the body is most vulnerable.Spittle, blood, milk, urine, feces, and tears represent substances that have crossed the margins or boundaries of the body.The degree to which these substances are considered dangerous differs from culture to culture around the world.In some areas menstrual blood is lethal and it is not in others.Excrement is polluting in India and in other areas is considered a joke.These perceptions of bodily pollution are often a reflection the dangers perceived by the society in question. The Coorgs view anything that comes out of the body as polluting and the re-entery of any substance is forbidden under any circumstance.This includes food items held in the mouth.Douglas sites the legend of a Coorg princess who was deemed unfit to be elevated to queen because she was seen taking a berry out of her mouth and returning it again.The act made her impure.The Coorg society is one that feels threatened from without.The purity of their society is threatened by outside influence and is reflected in their ritual practices.Here the pollution of the body is reflective of the fear of the pollution of the culture. The Coorgs live in seclusion with little contact to the outside world.The Hindu society views life at the top of the caste system as more pure than the untouchables at the bottom of the social strata.This corresponds to the belief in bodily purity, pollution and danger.The bodily fluids closer to the head are less polluting than others.Tears are less of a threat than saliva. Only untouchables may come in contact with feces or corpses.Ritual treatment of the body reflects the desire to maintain a pure, unpolluted and exclusive upper caste.The role of women is particularly vital in maintaining the integrity and purity of the caste. A woman is seen as the vessel through whom the hereditary lineage and purity of the caste can become defiled or “adulterated.”Impure blood enters the system through a woman’s adultery.Male sexual dalliance outside of his own caste does not contain the same degree of stigma.A ritual cleansing bath is all that is required after male promiscuity.Semen is considered sacred to Hindus and should not be wasted. It is best never to sleep with women at all due to the properties of potency and strength lost each time the sacred “stuff” is spilled.The cooking of food is another place where pollution can occur.Many people are involved in the growing, harvesting and preparing of one’s food.At each step food can become polluted.Since members of lower castes do such labor, the danger of pollution is great when it comes to food and is still greater with cooked food.“One cannot share the food prepared by people without sharing in their nature.”(127) Mary Douglas suggests that pollution through cooked food is a perceived danger in India because of the perception that the “external boundaries of the social system are under pressure.”The ritual use of food and the symbolic understanding of pollution reflect the social order.(128)
  • “ Dirt is matter out of place,” she wrote. Places that are dirty, places that need to be cleaned, have things in them that do not belong. These things do not fit with our rules for how that place should be arranged. Dirt— literal dirt (soil, earth)— is not “dirty” when it’s in the flower pot. Similarly, animals that are “unclean” (to use the Biblical term) are those that do not fit our categories for “food.” We have a food taboo on dog meat, but dogs are not “unclean” as pets.It was all about boundaries. A culture must construct categories, cognitive boundaries for perceiving the world and giving it meaning. Obviously, things which fall on the wrong side of the boundary will be considered deviant. But no system of categories will be perfect; some things will not quite fit into any of the categories. These anomalies as Douglas called them would also be deviant. They challenge the boundaries not by attacking and crossing them, but by making them fuzzy, imprecise, and even inaccurate. Sacrifice rituals are used to heal and cleanse the individual or the community of pollution.In certain primitive cultures the type of animal and how it is to be sacrificed depends on the intended purpose of the cleansing ritual.Douglas tells us that the Dinka tribe will cut a beast lengthwise through the sexual organs to undo an act of incest.Cutting the sacrificial animal across the middle celebrates a truce, while suffocation or trampling to death is used in other instances.(115-116) The human body is often used in ritual manner as a means of obtaining or alleviating personal concerns, i.e. circumcision rites.Douglas notes that the primitive cultures tend to manipulate (their own) bodies surgically in an attempt to change trends in nature or the environment; to improve fertility or hunting success.Contemporary man tends to manipulate the environment directly for the same purposes.The extent to which bodily fluids and excretions are considered polluting varies from culture to culture.It is noted that sorcerers often use ‘bodily refuse’ in their incantations and spells for evil purposes.Initiation into the realm of sorcery often includes the letting of blood, committing of incest or cannibalistic acts. These bodily secretions can be used for evil against an enemy in an attempt to protect ones own community, or by outsiders against the weak point in a society’s structure.Aside from sorcery, where the use of excrement in rituals implies power to harm or “pollute,” excrement is more often used symbolically to indicate pain, loss or separation.In the hands of those who have the power to bless, the same substances can be used for good.Blood, in the Hebrew religion, was regarded as the source of life, and not to be touched except in the sacred conditions of sacrifice. (Blood is considered to be polluting in all other circumstances.)Spittle of powerful persons is sometimes thought to be part of an effective blessing. Bodily fluids taken from cadavers of royalty can be used to anoint the new leader in one case and is made into an ointment that provides a new queen with the ability to control the weather in another case. (121)The orifices of the body represent those areas where the body is most vulnerable.Spittle, blood, milk, urine, feces, and tears represent substances that have crossed the margins or boundaries of the body.The degree to which these substances are considered dangerous differs from culture to culture around the world.In some areas menstrual blood is lethal and it is not in others.Excrement is polluting in India and in other areas is considered a joke.These perceptions of bodily pollution are often a reflection the dangers perceived by the society in question. The Coorgs view anything that comes out of the body as polluting and the re-entery of any substance is forbidden under any circumstance.This includes food items held in the mouth.Douglas sites the legend of a Coorg princess who was deemed unfit to be elevated to queen because she was seen taking a berry out of her mouth and returning it again.The act made her impure.The Coorg society is one that feels threatened from without.The purity of their society is threatened by outside influence and is reflected in their ritual practices.Here the pollution of the body is reflective of the fear of the pollution of the culture. The Coorgs live in seclusion with little contact to the outside world.The Hindu society views life at the top of the caste system as more pure than the untouchables at the bottom of the social strata.This corresponds to the belief in bodily purity, pollution and danger.The bodily fluids closer to the head are less polluting than others.Tears are less of a threat than saliva. Only untouchables may come in contact with feces or corpses.Ritual treatment of the body reflects the desire to maintain a pure, unpolluted and exclusive upper caste.The role of women is particularly vital in maintaining the integrity and purity of the caste. A woman is seen as the vessel through whom the hereditary lineage and purity of the caste can become defiled or “adulterated.”Impure blood enters the system through a woman’s adultery.Male sexual dalliance outside of his own caste does not contain the same degree of stigma.A ritual cleansing bath is all that is required after male promiscuity.Semen is considered sacred to Hindus and should not be wasted. It is best never to sleep with women at all due to the properties of potency and strength lost each time the sacred “stuff” is spilled.The cooking of food is another place where pollution can occur.Many people are involved in the growing, harvesting and preparing of one’s food.At each step food can become polluted.Since members of lower castes do such labor, the danger of pollution is great when it comes to food and is still greater with cooked food.“One cannot share the food prepared by people without sharing in their nature.”(127) Mary Douglas suggests that pollution through cooked food is a perceived danger in India because of the perception that the “external boundaries of the social system are under pressure.”The ritual use of food and the symbolic understanding of pollution reflect the social order.(128)
  • The rational choice theory has been applied to religions, among others by the sociologists Rodney Stark (1934 – ) and William Sims Bainbridge (1940 – ).[59] They see religions as systems of "compensators".[60] Compensators are a body of language and practices that compensate for some physical lack or frustrated goal. They can be divided into specific compensators (compensators for the failure to achieve specific goals), and general compensators (compensators for failure to achieve any goal).[60][61] They define religion as a system of compensator that relies on the supernatural.[62] They assert that only a supernatural compensator can explain death or the meaning of life.[62]
  • The rational choice theory has been applied to religions, among others by the sociologists Rodney Stark (1934 – ) and William Sims Bainbridge (1940 – ).[59] They see religions as systems of "compensators".[60] Compensators are a body of language and practices that compensate for some physical lack or frustrated goal. They can be divided into specific compensators (compensators for the failure to achieve specific goals), and general compensators (compensators for failure to achieve any goal).[60][61] They define religion as a system of compensator that relies on the supernatural.[62] They assert that only a supernatural compensator can explain death or the meaning of life.[62]
  • The rational choice theory has been applied to religions, among others by the sociologists Rodney Stark (1934 – ) and William Sims Bainbridge (1940 – ).[59] They see religions as systems of "compensators".[60] Compensators are a body of language and practices that compensate for some physical lack or frustrated goal. They can be divided into specific compensators (compensators for the failure to achieve specific goals), and general compensators (compensators for failure to achieve any goal).[60][61] They define religion as a system of compensator that relies on the supernatural.[62] They assert that only a supernatural compensator can explain death or the meaning of life.[62]
  • Increasing differentiation and complexity; 1. oriented towards a single cosmos; maintenance of personal, social, and cosmic harmony with attaining specific goods; time out of time, an “everywhen”; identification, participation, acting out;church and society are one; 2. mythical beings more objectified; actively a controlling the world; gods; monistic worldview; men, subjects, gods, objects; communication between; hierarchically organized; divine king; individual-soceity merged in a natural-divine cosmos; rival groups, rival deities; 3. transcendental, world-rejection, strongly dualistic, above and below worlds, Heaven and Hell, God and Satan, good and evil, focus on life in another realm; goal of salvation, demythologization; monotheistic, universalistic; Buddhism: nature of man, greed, anger, must escape, Hebrew prophets: sin, heedlessness of God, obedience to Him; Islam: ungrateful man who is careless of divine compassion, submission to will of God; new religious elite claims direction relation to the divine; political and religious leadership; 4. collapse of hierarchical structuring, world-aceepting; Reformation; monks, sheiks, ascetics before; direct relation between individual and transcendent reality; antiritualist interpretation; faith! – an internal quality of person; Martin Luther; 5. personalization of the sacred, God; responsibility for the self;
  • Women see God as a god of love, comfort and forgiveness – men see God more as a god of power and control. (Davie, 1994) Women are often excluded from power in many religions – Roman Catholicism allows only male priests, Orthodox Jews only male Rabbis and Islam only male Imams. Feminists believe that religion is patriarchal justifying male domination. Scriptures and religious texts often state that women are imperfect, temptresses or distractions to men. E.g. Eve created from Adam; Eve and the apple. Though many women are venerated in Christianity, it is generally through acts of chastity, charity or as child bearers. The virgin Mary is seen as divine through being the mother of Jesus. The ordination of women priests in the Anglican Church has led to great divisions. Many see this as further proof of the subordination of women in religion.
  • Women see God as a god of love, comfort and forgiveness – men see God more as a god of power and control. (Davie, 1994) Women are often excluded from power in many religions – Roman Catholicism allows only male priests, Orthodox Jews only male Rabbis and Islam only male Imams. Feminists believe that religion is patriarchal justifying male domination. Scriptures and religious texts often state that women are imperfect, temptresses or distractions to men. E.g. Eve created from Adam; Eve and the apple. Though many women are venerated in Christianity, it is generally through acts of chastity, charity or as child bearers. The virgin Mary is seen as divine through being the mother of Jesus. The ordination of women priests in the Anglican Church has led to great divisions. Many see this as further proof of the subordination of women in religion.
  • Women see God as a god of love, comfort and forgiveness – men see God more as a god of power and control. (Davie, 1994) Women are often excluded from power in many religions – Roman Catholicism allows only male priests, Orthodox Jews only male Rabbis and Islam only male Imams. Feminists believe that religion is patriarchal justifying male domination. Scriptures and religious texts often state that women are imperfect, temptresses or distractions to men. E.g. Eve created from Adam; Eve and the apple. Though many women are venerated in Christianity, it is generally through acts of chastity, charity or as child bearers. The virgin Mary is seen as divine through being the mother of Jesus. The ordination of women priests in the Anglican Church has led to great divisions. Many see this as further proof of the subordination of women in religion.
  • Women see God as a god of love, comfort and forgiveness – men see God more as a god of power and control. (Davie, 1994) Women are often excluded from power in many religions – Roman Catholicism allows only male priests, Orthodox Jews only male Rabbis and Islam only male Imams. Feminists believe that religion is patriarchal justifying male domination. Scriptures and religious texts often state that women are imperfect, temptresses or distractions to men. E.g. Eve created from Adam; Eve and the apple. Though many women are venerated in Christianity, it is generally through acts of chastity, charity or as child bearers. The virgin Mary is seen as divine through being the mother of Jesus. The ordination of women priests in the Anglican Church has led to great divisions. Many see this as further proof of the subordination of women in religion.
  • Women see God as a god of love, comfort and forgiveness – men see God more as a god of power and control. (Davie, 1994) Women are often excluded from power in many religions – Roman Catholicism allows only male priests, Orthodox Jews only male Rabbis and Islam only male Imams. Feminists believe that religion is patriarchal justifying male domination. Scriptures and religious texts often state that women are imperfect, temptresses or distractions to men. E.g. Eve created from Adam; Eve and the apple. Though many women are venerated in Christianity, it is generally through acts of chastity, charity or as child bearers. The virgin Mary is seen as divine through being the mother of Jesus. The ordination of women priests in the Anglican Church has led to great divisions. Many see this as further proof of the subordination of women in religion.
  • Women see God as a god of love, comfort and forgiveness – men see God more as a god of power and control. (Davie, 1994) Women are often excluded from power in many religions – Roman Catholicism allows only male priests, Orthodox Jews only male Rabbis and Islam only male Imams. Feminists believe that religion is patriarchal justifying male domination. Scriptures and religious texts often state that women are imperfect, temptresses or distractions to men. E.g. Eve created from Adam; Eve and the apple. Though many women are venerated in Christianity, it is generally through acts of chastity, charity or as child bearers. The virgin Mary is seen as divine through being the mother of Jesus. The ordination of women priests in the Anglican Church has led to great divisions. Many see this as further proof of the subordination of women in religion. ANDROCENTRISM: The focus on the men of a community, and the reliance on men’s opinions and explanations of the roles, functions, and statuses of women in their community. In the late 1960s, feminist anthropologists began focusing on women’s experiences, and women’s roles, statuses, and contributions to culture and their communities. Feminist scholarship developed the concept and study of gender as a culturally constructed analytical category. Currently feminist anthropologists focus on comparative studies amongst women. Feminist approaches to religion and society: Critiques of gendered relations of power Investigations of pre-Abrahamic Goddess cultures and witchcraft How women articulate their agencies with religious structural practices and processes
  • Increasing differentiation and complexity; 1. oriented towards a single cosmos; maintenance of personal, social, and cosmic harmony with attaining specific goods; time out of time, an “everywhen”; identification, participation, acting out;church and society are one; 2. mythical beings more objectified; actively a controlling the world; gods; monistic worldview; men, subjects, gods, objects; communication between; hierarchically organized; divine king; individual-soceity merged in a natural-divine cosmos; rival groups, rival deities; 3. transcendental, world-rejection, strongly dualistic, above and below worlds, Heaven and Hell, God and Satan, good and evil, focus on life in another realm; goal of salvation, demythologization; monotheistic, universalistic; Buddhism: nature of man, greed, anger, must escape, Hebrew prophets: sin, heedlessness of God, obedience to Him; Islam: ungrateful man who is careless of divine compassion, submission to will of God; new religious elite claims direction relation to the divine; political and religious leadership; 4. collapse of hierarchical structuring, world-aceepting; Reformation; monks, sheiks, ascetics before; direct relation between individual and transcendent reality; antiritualist interpretation; faith! – an internal quality of person; Martin Luther; 5. personalization of the sacred, God; responsibility for the self;
  • Women see God as a god of love, comfort and forgiveness – men see God more as a god of power and control. (Davie, 1994) Women are often excluded from power in many religions – Roman Catholicism allows only male priests, Orthodox Jews only male Rabbis and Islam only male Imams. Feminists believe that religion is patriarchal justifying male domination. Scriptures and religious texts often state that women are imperfect, temptresses or distractions to men. E.g. Eve created from Adam; Eve and the apple. Though many women are venerated in Christianity, it is generally through acts of chastity, charity or as child bearers. The virgin Mary is seen as divine through being the mother of Jesus. The ordination of women priests in the Anglican Church has led to great divisions. Many see this as further proof of the subordination of women in religion.
  • Women see God as a god of love, comfort and forgiveness – men see God more as a god of power and control. (Davie, 1994) Women are often excluded from power in many religions – Roman Catholicism allows only male priests, Orthodox Jews only male Rabbis and Islam only male Imams. Feminists believe that religion is patriarchal justifying male domination. Scriptures and religious texts often state that women are imperfect, temptresses or distractions to men. E.g. Eve created from Adam; Eve and the apple. Though many women are venerated in Christianity, it is generally through acts of chastity, charity or as child bearers. The virgin Mary is seen as divine through being the mother of Jesus. The ordination of women priests in the Anglican Church has led to great divisions. Many see this as further proof of the subordination of women in religion.
  • Humanities 1: Dr. Dylan Eret
  • Humanities 1: Dr. Dylan Eret
  • Humanities 1: Dr. Dylan Eret
  • Humanities 1: Dr. Dylan Eret
  • Humanities 1: Dr. Dylan Eret
  • Humanities 1: Dr. Dylan Eret
  • Humanities 1: Dr. Dylan Eret
  • HUM40-Podcast-F11-W3

    1. 1. Humanities 40: Week 3 Theories and Interpretations of Religion "Man Drawing a Reclining Woman." From the second edition of Albrecht Dürer's Underweysung der Messung or Work about the Art of Drawing (Nuremberg, 1538). Reprinted in and courtesy of The Complete Woodcuts of Albrecht Dürer, ed. Willi Kurth (New York: Dover, 1963)
    2. 2. Week 3: Theories and Interpretations of Religion <ul><li>Review dimensions of the sacred. </li></ul><ul><li>Explore theories of religion/the sacred. </li></ul><ul><li>Case Study 1 : “Little Lourdes” Shrine of St. Lucy's in the Bronx (New York) </li></ul><ul><li>Case Study 2 : “ Rumspringa” among Amish teens in the Midwestern United States (Indiana) </li></ul><ul><li>The Big Picture : Why practice religion? </li></ul>
    3. 3. BEFORE MONDAY READ/WATCH: Chapter 1, Stephen Prothero,“Islam” Post media representation of Islam on September 11, 2011 (text, image, video, story).
    4. 4. REQUIRED TEXT
    5. 5. RECOMMENDED READING
    6. 6. 1. Religion is a cultural system. 2. Religion is best understood as a vernacular practice (as lived). Two propositions
    7. 7. theory : a system of ideas intended to explain something, particularly a set of observations or data
    8. 8. interpretation : an explanation or stylistic representation
    9. 9. PROBLEM Religion is often expressed through symbolic representations or actions .
    10. 10. PROBLEM insider/outsider perspectives
    11. 11. Kenneth Pike emic/etic categories
    12. 12. NOTE: Both methods of data-gathering and theory-making are necessary for accurate depictions of religious traditions.
    13. 13. OTHER CHALLENGES “Theories” or “interpretations” of religions are expressed indirectly or implicitly through various dimensions.
    14. 14. 1. Why is religion so widespread in the world? 2. What purposes does religion serve for different individuals and groups? 3. How does religion emerge from the process of human development or survival? 4. Which theories or interpretations of religion do you think makes most sense? Why? BUILDING THEORIES
    15. 15. 1. Give one example of a substantive and functionalist definition of religion. 2. Describe any form of religious tradition that incorporates artistic , experiential , and mythical dimensions. REVIEW QUESTIONS
    16. 16. 1. Why are rituals so important to the study of religion? 2. In what ways do Apache rites of passage among girls during the Sunrise Ceremony signify biological and cultural transformation ? 3. Explain how sacred rituals or forms of religious expression both affirm and test the boundaries of human experience. REVIEW QUESTIONS
    17. 17. <ul><li>Theories of Religion </li></ul>
    18. 18. Theories of Religion <ul><li>Biological/Evolutionary Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Social and Cultural Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Feminist/Gender Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Postmodern/Vernacular Theories </li></ul>
    19. 19. Biological/Evolutionary Theories
    20. 20. E.B. TYLOR (1832-1917)
    21. 21. E.B. TYLOR anthropologist (social evolutionary theorist)
    22. 22. E.B. TYLOR Primitive Culture (1871)
    23. 23. E.B. TYLOR Religion consists of the “ belief in Spiritual beings.”
    24. 24. E.B. TYLOR For example, the belief in souls or spirits was a result of attempts to explain natural phenomena .
    25. 25. E.B. TYLOR Religion as “primitive science.”
    26. 26. E.B. TYLOR (stages of religious development) <ul><li>animism </li></ul><ul><li>totemism </li></ul><ul><li>polytheism </li></ul><ul><li>monotheism </li></ul>
    27. 27. JAMES FRAZIER (1854-1941)
    28. 28. JAMES FRAZIER (1854-1941)
    29. 29. JAMES FRAZIER Societies go through an evolutionary development from magic to religion to science .
    30. 30. <ul><li>IMMANENCE </li></ul><ul><li>The way a Divine Being or Spirit operates in the world or is ever-present in our surroundings </li></ul><ul><li>TRANSCENDENCE </li></ul><ul><li>The way a Diving Being or Spirit exists beyond the cosmos or is distinct from it </li></ul>TWO MODES OF SACRED PRESENCE
    31. 31. Social and Cultural Theories
    32. 32. <ul><li>The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1912) </li></ul><ul><li>He identified the primary force of religion as the sacred. </li></ul>EMILE DURKHEIM: SOCIOLOGIST
    33. 33. <ul><li>The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1912) </li></ul><ul><li>The profane is made of “ordinary” events and experiences. </li></ul>EMILE DURKHEIM: SOCIOLOGIST
    34. 34. <ul><li>The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1912) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Religion is a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things , that is to say, things set apart and forbidden .” </li></ul>EMILE DURKHEIM: SOCIOLOGIST
    35. 35. <ul><li>The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1912) </li></ul><ul><li>Religion is the expression of cohesion in human societies (group unity). </li></ul>EMILE DURKHEIM: SOCIOLOGIST
    36. 36. <ul><li>The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1912) </li></ul>EMILE DURKHEIM: SOCIOLOGIST the sacred representation of society the profane
    37. 37. <ul><ul><ul><li>Collective Effervescence : </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>energy generated by gathering in groups </li></ul></ul></ul>EMILE DURKHEIM: SOCIOLOGIST
    38. 38. <ul><ul><ul><li>“ A society holds up symbols (or totems ) so that it can worship itself and propagate its value system.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Charles Kimball </li></ul></ul></ul>EMILE DURKHEIM: SOCIOLOGIST
    39. 39. Psychological Theories
    40. 40. SIGMUND FREUD, PSYCHOLOGIST
    41. 41. <ul><li>Totem and Taboo (1912) </li></ul><ul><li>Moses and Monotheism (1939) </li></ul><ul><li>The Future of an Illusion (1927) </li></ul><ul><li>Religion is a form of wish-fulfillment. </li></ul>SIGMUND FREUD, PSYCHOLOGIST
    42. 42. <ul><li>Totem and Taboo (1912) </li></ul><ul><li>Moses and Monotheism (1939) </li></ul><ul><li>The Future of an Illusion (1927) </li></ul><ul><li>Religion also helps cope with the fears of life demands, fear of death, and the danger posed by forces of nature. </li></ul>SIGMUND FREUD, PSYCHOLOGIST
    43. 43. <ul><li>A theory which sees religious entities such as God or Spirits (or manifestations of the sacred) as projections of basic human needs. </li></ul>PROJECTION THEORY
    44. 44. <ul><li>Religions create idealized parents to help individuals cope with life demands. </li></ul>PROJECTION THEORY
    45. 45. RUDOLF OTTO
    46. 46. <ul><li>NUMINOUS EXPERIENCE </li></ul><ul><li>Religious experience is a non-rational awareness of the “holy.” </li></ul>RUDOLF OTTO The Idea of the “Holy” (1917)
    47. 47. <ul><li>mysterium tremendum </li></ul><ul><li>Religious experiences produce an innate awareness of the holy that retains elements of mystery , which in effect, create responses such as fear or feelings of unworthiness. </li></ul>RUDOLF OTTO The Idea of the “Holy” (1917)
    48. 48. <ul><li>fascinans </li></ul><ul><li>Human responses to the holy include fascination, joy, awe, wonder, and a desire to draw closer to the Holy that lead to worship, celebration, and hymns of praise . </li></ul>RUDOLF OTTO The Idea of the “Holy” (1917)
    49. 49. RUDOLF OTTO The Idea of the “Holy” (1917) http://onesimusonline.blogspot.com/2010/03/o-great-vending-machine-holy-spirit-in.html African Pentecostal church.
    50. 50. MIRCEA ELIADE
    51. 51. <ul><li>Religious experiences are made of hierophanies (manifestions of the sacred) and theophanies (manifestations of God). </li></ul>MIRCEA ELIADE The Sacred and the Profane (1959)
    52. 52. <ul><li>hierophanies </li></ul><ul><li>(manifestions of the sacred) </li></ul>MIRCEA ELIADE The Sacred and the Profane (1959)
    53. 53. <ul><li>hierophanies </li></ul><ul><li>(manifestions of the sacred) </li></ul>
    54. 54. <ul><li>theophanies </li></ul><ul><li>(manifestions of God) </li></ul>MIRCEA ELIADE The Sacred and the Profane (1959)
    55. 55. <ul><li>theophanies </li></ul><ul><li>(manifestions of God) </li></ul>
    56. 56. More Social and Cultural Theories
    57. 57. KARL MARX
    58. 58. KARL MARX
    59. 59. <ul><li>“ Religious suffering is, at one and the same time, the expression of real suffering and a protest against real suffering.” </li></ul>KARL MARX
    60. 60. <ul><li>Religion is the expression of alienation created from (exploitative) </li></ul><ul><li>social and economic realities. </li></ul>KARL MARX
    61. 61. <ul><li>“ Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature , the heart of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opium of the people.” </li></ul>KARL MARX
    62. 62. MAX WEBER The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1905)
    63. 63. MAX WEBER The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1905)
    64. 64. MAX WEBER The rational pursuit of economic gain and the profit motive (“spirit of capitalism”) emerged from a Protestant (Calvinist) ethic .
    65. 65. MAX WEBER The Protestant (Calvinist) ethic emphasizes worldly success through hard work, frugality, hard work, and being obedient to God.
    66. 66. MAX WEBER A person can be considered one of the “elect” or “chosen” by observing their way of life .
    67. 67. CLIFFORD GEERTZ Religion as Cultural System
    68. 68. Definition <ul><li>r eligion : </li></ul><ul><li>(1) a system of symbols which acts to (2) establish powerful, pervasive, and long lasting moods and motivations in [people] by (3) formulating conceptions of a general order of existence and (4) clothing these conceptions with such an aura of factuality that the moods and motivations seem uniquely realistic. – Clifford Geertz </li></ul>
    69. 69. MARY DOUGLAS Religion as the Embodiment of Purity and Danger
    70. 70. MARY DOUGLAS Religion as the Embodiment of Purity and Danger
    71. 71. MARY DOUGLAS Religion as the Embodiment of Purity and Danger PURITY DANGER <ul><li>CLEAN </li></ul><ul><li>RIGHT </li></ul><ul><li>PURE </li></ul><ul><li>ACCEPTED </li></ul><ul><li>DIRTY </li></ul><ul><li>WRONG </li></ul><ul><li>POLLUTED </li></ul><ul><li>TABOO </li></ul>
    72. 72. MARY DOUGLAS Religion as the Embodiment of Purity and Danger “ Dirt is matter out of place .”
    73. 73. MARY DOUGLAS Religion as the Embodiment of Purity and Danger the creation of cultural categories and boundary maintenance
    74. 74. MARY DOUGLAS The Body as Metaphor and Natural Symbol
    75. 75. RODNEY STARK and WILLIAM BAINBRIDGE Religion as Compensator
    76. 76. RODNEY STARK and WILLIAM BAINBRIDGE RATIONAL-CHOICE THEORY
    77. 77. RODNEY STARK and WILLIAM BAINBRIDGE Religion is made up of practices that “reward” an individual or group for some physical lack or frustrated goal.
    78. 78. Feminist/Gender Theories
    79. 79. BETTY FRIEDAN, GRACE DAVIE, ELAINE LAWLESS Religion as the Expression, Justification, and Resistance of Gender Differences and Inequalities
    80. 80. EVIDENCE <ul><li>Women are excluded from power. </li></ul>
    81. 81. EVIDENCE 2. Women are portrayed as imperfect, temptresses, or distractions to men.
    82. 82. EVIDENCE 3. Women are represented as loving, pure, or divine figures.
    83. 83. EVIDENCE 4. Traditions often justify forms of male domination.
    84. 84. EVIDENCE 5. Gender differences, deviations from the norm, or different sexual orientations viewed as morally wrong or aberrant behavior.
    85. 85. Postmodern/Vernacular Theories
    86. 86. ROBERT ORSI and LEONARD PRIMIANO Religion as Lived Experience and Tradition
    87. 87. ROBERT ORSI and LEONARD PRIMIANO Religion as Dynamic and Changing Forms of Everyday Life
    88. 88. THINK Rumspringa ( Amish for “running around” ) highlights the cultural tension between joining a long-standing religious tradition based on family, community, work, and worship of God, and participating in the “English” world of sexuality, drugs, dating, and consumption.
    89. 89. WONDER How does this ritual follow van Gennep’s (or Lincoln’s) model of life-cycle rituals?
    90. 90. INQUIRE How does the ritual of Rumspringa express the confused and ambiguous states of mind and body that are often found in different adolescent rites of passage throughout the world?
    91. 91. DISCOVER What are the advantages and disadvantages of belonging to the “Amish” or “English” community?
    92. 92. CASE STUDY 1: “Little Lourdes” Shrine in the Bronx (New York) http://vimeo.com/4539649
    93. 93. CASE STUDY: Amish teens in Indiana ( Rumspringa ) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n518iLqRekM http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qihiKszP53Y&feature=related
    94. 94. DEEPER REFLECTION Describe some of the cultural tensions between the sacred and the secular in the previous case studies (1-5 bonus points in blog).

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