Welcome to Humanities 40: Religions of the World Dr. Dylan Eret
This course meets all of the general education requirements for: 1. A.A. in Liberal Arts with emphasis in Arts and Humanit...
CENTRAL WEBSITE http://humanities40.wordpress.com CENTRAL WEBSITE
SECRET PASSWORD holy Enter this password to access the FREE online flexbook, slides, study guides, etc.
ALL INFORMATION CAN BE FOUND HERE.
Week 1.1 (Opening Class) <ul><li>Welcome! </li></ul><ul><li>My story. Who am I? </li></ul><ul><li>Name game & discussion i...
I WILL NOT ADD ANY STUDENTS UNLESS OTHER STUDENTS DROP (OR DO NOT SHOW UP THIS WEEK).
YOU WILL BE  DROPPED  FROM THE COURSE IF YOU ARE  ABSENT  THIS WEEK.
POSSIBLE ADDS:  WAITING LIST  STUDENTS ONLY.
YOU MIGHT RECEIVE A  PERMISSION NUMBER  ON THE CONDITION THAT SOMEONE IS DROPPED AND YOU ARE NEAR THE  TOP OF THE WAITING ...
WAITING LIST ADDS (DEPENDS ON CLASS) LIKELY: STUDENTS 1-3   NOT SO LIKELY: STUDENTS 4-7 UNLIKELY: STUDENTS 8-13
MY STORY
NAME GAME
Building Trust: Truth/Lie Game <ul><li>Write down  two truths  and  one lie  about yourself. </li></ul><ul><li>Share  this...
Example: Truth/Lie Game <ul><li>I have a cat named Spiderman. </li></ul><ul><li>I come from a wealthy family. </li></ul><u...
Example: Truth/Lie Game <ul><li>I have a cat named Spiderman. </li></ul><ul><li>I come from a wealthy family.***(lie) </li...
More Questions  (After Name Game) Discuss the following questions with your group partner: 1. What is “religion”? 2. Why i...
THE BIG PICTURE: WHY STUDY RELIGION? (Student Responses)
understanding different beliefs and values among diverse communities
effective communication
moral codes
tradition
history
culture
How should we live?
not rush to judgment
a framework for understanding  the personal vs. community  vs. the greater universe.
to look at yourself  where you are
where we come from  as a whole
how we got here
where we’re going
hope for the future
purpose
connection beyond just our physical presence
religion as a form of (sacred) storytelling
What is truth?
based on the spirituality of the individual
our souls
Where am I supposed to be at?
What am I supposed to do?
understanding the body
deeply personal
used and “good” and “bad” ways
religion as a form of social control
Politicians use religion to persuade populations and maintain order.
large role in history and politics
Religion goes beyond “texts.”
REQUIRED TEXT
COURSE TOPICS Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Yoruba Religions, New Religious Move...
BIG QUESTIONS Why are we here? What happens when we die? How should we live our lives? What is the self? Who (or what) is ...
READINGS
PODCAST
VERNACULAR RELIGION  PROJECT
QUIZZES
FINAL PORTFOLIO
EMAIL BLOGS [email_address] AND [email_address]   Use this email to send weekly blogs.
RECOMMENDED PREPARATION: ENGLISH 1A OR COMPOSITION
WHAT YOU NEED <ul><li>Computer access </li></ul><ul><li>Two packs of index cards (white). </li></ul><ul><li>A three-ring b...
WEEKLY RITUAL READ, WATCH, OR LISTEN TO MULTIMEDIA FLEXBOOK OR COURSE READER,  AND COMPOSE A SHORT JOURNAL ENTRY OR ONLINE...
WEEKLY BLOGS 1 Point, 1 Question, 100 words (minimum)
WEEKLY BLOGS  3 BLOGS DUE EVERY 6 WEEKS, 9 TOTAL BLOGS COUNTED TOTAL  (EXTRA POINTS FOR TIMELINESS, QUALITY, COMMENTS, IMA...
WEEKLY BLOGS  READ WEEKLY, GRADED CUMULATIVELY AT THE END OF THE SEMESTER (POINTS ASSIGNED FOR TIMELINESS, INSIGHT, ANALYT...
WEEKLY BLOGS USE ALIAS:  (For example, “Dylan Eret” in today’s section would be “DYERB1”) (BLOG 1 DUE: FRI, AUG 26, 10:00am)
GRADES/ASSESSMENT http://engrade.com
ATTENDANCE POLICY
DROP OR WITHDRAWAL AFTER  FOUR ABSENCES
YOU MUST LET ME KNOW  BEFORE CLASS  IF YOU NEED TO BE ABSENT.
GUIDING FRAMEWORKS
the basic structure underlying a system, concept, or text  framework
1. Religion is a cultural system.  2. Religion is best understood as a    vernacular practice (as lived). Two propositions
BEFORE NEXT CLASS READ:  Stephen Prothero, “Introduction”  WATCH: Stephen Prothero on  The Colbert Report
THE SACRED
Rediscovering the Sacred <ul><li>What really matters to us?  </li></ul><ul><li>What practices are so important to  us that...
Opening Exercise <ul><li>How would you define  “religion” ? </li></ul>
Opening Exercise <ul><li>Why do “religions” exist? </li></ul>
<ul><li>religion (etymology): </li></ul><ul><li>ORIGIN Middle English (originally in the sense [life under monastic vows] ...
The “Reality” of Religion sacred profane gray area religion “ reality”
<ul><li>religion (etymology): </li></ul><ul><li>ORIGIN Middle English (originally in the sense [life under monastic vows] ...
Definitions of Religion <ul><li>sacred  vs.  profane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>profane: ordinary elements of life </li></ul></...
<ul><li>The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1912) </li></ul><ul><li>He identified the primary force of religion as the...
<ul><li>The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1912) </li></ul><ul><li>The  profane  is made of “ordinary” events and exp...
<ul><li>The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1912) </li></ul><ul><li>The  sacred  is set apart from and forbidden. </li...
<ul><li>The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1912) </li></ul><ul><li>Religion is  the expression of cohesion in human s...
<ul><ul><ul><li>Collective Effervescence :  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>energy generated by gathering in groups </...
<ul><ul><ul><li>“ A society holds up  symbols  (or  totems ) so that it can worship itself and propagate its value system....
<ul><li>Religious experience is characterized by  human awareness of the sacred. </li></ul>MIRCEA ELIADE The Sacred and th...
<ul><li>Religious experiences are made of  hierophanies  (manifestions of the sacred) and  theophanies  (manifestations of...
Defining Religion <ul><li>Substantive or essentialist   definitions characterize religion by some basic essence which is c...
Defining Religion <ul><li>Functionalist  definitions focus on the way religion operates or functions in human life. They s...
Definition <ul><li>r eligion : </li></ul><ul><li>a  set of symbolic forms and acts that relate man to the  ultimate condit...
Definition <ul><li>r eligion : </li></ul><ul><li>(1) a system of symbols which acts to (2) establish powerful, pervasive, ...
Alfred Schutz,  “On Multiple Realties”  (1945) <ul><li>finite provinces of meaning : </li></ul><ul><li>a turning away of a...
Religious Analogues <ul><li>Argument:  Religious “realities” or experiences emerge from (or are a response to) the attitud...
Jerome Bruner <ul><li>Model of Human Development : </li></ul>
Three Modes of Representation <ul><li>Enactive :  0-18 months old </li></ul><ul><li>Iconic :  18 months - 6 years old </li...
Jerome Bruner <ul><li>Enactive :  action-based representations </li></ul><ul><li>Iconic :  image-based representations </l...
Thought Processes <ul><li>Enactive :  learning by doing, motor skills, physical actions (e.g., tying a knot) </li></ul><ul...
Religious Analogues <ul><li>Argument:  Religious experiences are forms of  symbolic representation  that attempt to meet t...
Mental/Bodily Processes <ul><li>Enactive :  body/ritual </li></ul><ul><li>Iconic :  art/image/play </li></ul><ul><li>Symbo...
Religious Analogues <ul><li>Enactive :  ritual, liturgy, sequential movement (kneeling, sitting, standing, spinning, medit...
Religious Analogues <ul><li>Iconic :  centered design, patterns, mandalas, ordered coherence, images;  </li></ul><ul><li>s...
Religious Analogues <ul><li>3.  Symbolic :  language, writing, music, mathematics, architecture, poetry, oratory, theology...
Abraham Maslow <ul><li>Deficiency-cognition :  food, water, security, sex, sleep, etc. (a “deficiency” of these basic need...
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
World Religions <ul><li>Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>Hinduism </li></ul><ul><li>Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhism </li></...
Seven Dimensions of the Sacred (Ninian Smart)
sacred: regarded with great respect or reverence by an individual or group
sacred: induces experiences of  awe and wonder
wonder: a feeling of surprise mingled with admiration, caused by something beautiful, unexpected, unfamiliar, or inexplica...
<ul><li>SEVEN DIMENSION OF THE SACRED </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Ritual or Practical </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Doctrinal or Philoso...
<ul><li>Ritual or Practical </li></ul>Worship, meditation, pilgrimage, sacrifice rites, healing
<ul><li>Doctrinal or Philosophical </li></ul>fundamental beliefs and practices:  e.g., impermanence, sin, nirvana, heaven,...
<ul><li>belief: </li></ul><ul><li>a conviction or feeling that something is real or true </li></ul><ul><li>(2) intellectua...
<ul><li>Mythic or Narrative </li></ul>Stories, histories, traditions, “founding” myths, life, death, and resurrection, her...
<ul><li>Experiential or Emotional </li></ul>Enlightenment, redemption, visions, healing,  holiness, health, conversion, re...
<ul><li>Ethical or Legal </li></ul>Legal codes, ethics, morals, virtues, taboos
<ul><li>Organizational or Social </li></ul>Religious specialists or authorities: gurus, lawyers,  shamans, doctors, pastor...
<ul><li>Artistic or Material </li></ul>Religious Sites: Churches, Chapels,  Monasteries, Temples, etc.
Seven Dimensions of the Sacred: Examples
<ul><li>CHRISITIANITY (Orthodox/Classical after Constantine)   </li></ul><ul><li>Ritual or Practical : Mass, Liturgy, Euch...
<ul><li>AMERICAN NATIONALISM </li></ul><ul><li>Ritual or Practical: Union, rebellion against British </li></ul><ul><li>(2)...
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Hum40-Podcast-F11-W1

  1. 1. Welcome to Humanities 40: Religions of the World Dr. Dylan Eret
  2. 2. This course meets all of the general education requirements for: 1. A.A. in Liberal Arts with emphasis in Arts and Humanities 2. CSU, area C2 3. IGETC, area 3 course articulation
  3. 3. CENTRAL WEBSITE http://humanities40.wordpress.com CENTRAL WEBSITE
  4. 4. SECRET PASSWORD holy Enter this password to access the FREE online flexbook, slides, study guides, etc.
  5. 5. ALL INFORMATION CAN BE FOUND HERE.
  6. 6. Week 1.1 (Opening Class) <ul><li>Welcome! </li></ul><ul><li>My story. Who am I? </li></ul><ul><li>Name game & discussion in pairs. </li></ul><ul><li>The Big Picture : Why study religion? </li></ul><ul><li>The Nitty Gritty : Syllabus & Expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Guiding frameworks and disputed definitions. </li></ul>
  7. 7. I WILL NOT ADD ANY STUDENTS UNLESS OTHER STUDENTS DROP (OR DO NOT SHOW UP THIS WEEK).
  8. 8. YOU WILL BE DROPPED FROM THE COURSE IF YOU ARE ABSENT THIS WEEK.
  9. 9. POSSIBLE ADDS: WAITING LIST STUDENTS ONLY.
  10. 10. YOU MIGHT RECEIVE A PERMISSION NUMBER ON THE CONDITION THAT SOMEONE IS DROPPED AND YOU ARE NEAR THE TOP OF THE WAITING LIST .
  11. 11. WAITING LIST ADDS (DEPENDS ON CLASS) LIKELY: STUDENTS 1-3 NOT SO LIKELY: STUDENTS 4-7 UNLIKELY: STUDENTS 8-13
  12. 12. MY STORY
  13. 13. NAME GAME
  14. 14. Building Trust: Truth/Lie Game <ul><li>Write down two truths and one lie about yourself. </li></ul><ul><li>Share this with your group and have them guess which statement is a lie. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Example: Truth/Lie Game <ul><li>I have a cat named Spiderman. </li></ul><ul><li>I come from a wealthy family. </li></ul><ul><li>I am missing a spleen. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Example: Truth/Lie Game <ul><li>I have a cat named Spiderman. </li></ul><ul><li>I come from a wealthy family.***(lie) </li></ul><ul><li>I am missing a spleen. </li></ul>
  17. 17. More Questions (After Name Game) Discuss the following questions with your group partner: 1. What is “religion”? 2. Why is religion important to study?
  18. 18. THE BIG PICTURE: WHY STUDY RELIGION? (Student Responses)
  19. 19. understanding different beliefs and values among diverse communities
  20. 20. effective communication
  21. 21. moral codes
  22. 22. tradition
  23. 23. history
  24. 24. culture
  25. 25. How should we live?
  26. 26. not rush to judgment
  27. 27. a framework for understanding the personal vs. community vs. the greater universe.
  28. 28. to look at yourself where you are
  29. 29. where we come from as a whole
  30. 30. how we got here
  31. 31. where we’re going
  32. 32. hope for the future
  33. 33. purpose
  34. 34. connection beyond just our physical presence
  35. 35. religion as a form of (sacred) storytelling
  36. 36. What is truth?
  37. 37. based on the spirituality of the individual
  38. 38. our souls
  39. 39. Where am I supposed to be at?
  40. 40. What am I supposed to do?
  41. 41. understanding the body
  42. 42. deeply personal
  43. 43. used and “good” and “bad” ways
  44. 44. religion as a form of social control
  45. 45. Politicians use religion to persuade populations and maintain order.
  46. 46. large role in history and politics
  47. 47. Religion goes beyond “texts.”
  48. 48. REQUIRED TEXT
  49. 49. COURSE TOPICS Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Yoruba Religions, New Religious Movements
  50. 50. BIG QUESTIONS Why are we here? What happens when we die? How should we live our lives? What is the self? Who (or what) is God?
  51. 51. READINGS
  52. 52. PODCAST
  53. 53. VERNACULAR RELIGION PROJECT
  54. 54. QUIZZES
  55. 55. FINAL PORTFOLIO
  56. 56. EMAIL BLOGS [email_address] AND [email_address] Use this email to send weekly blogs.
  57. 57. RECOMMENDED PREPARATION: ENGLISH 1A OR COMPOSITION
  58. 58. WHAT YOU NEED <ul><li>Computer access </li></ul><ul><li>Two packs of index cards (white). </li></ul><ul><li>A three-ring binder (or portfolio). </li></ul><ul><li>Paper </li></ul>
  59. 59. WEEKLY RITUAL READ, WATCH, OR LISTEN TO MULTIMEDIA FLEXBOOK OR COURSE READER, AND COMPOSE A SHORT JOURNAL ENTRY OR ONLINE BLOG
  60. 60. WEEKLY BLOGS 1 Point, 1 Question, 100 words (minimum)
  61. 61. WEEKLY BLOGS 3 BLOGS DUE EVERY 6 WEEKS, 9 TOTAL BLOGS COUNTED TOTAL (EXTRA POINTS FOR TIMELINESS, QUALITY, COMMENTS, IMAGES, VIDEOS, LINKS)
  62. 62. WEEKLY BLOGS READ WEEKLY, GRADED CUMULATIVELY AT THE END OF THE SEMESTER (POINTS ASSIGNED FOR TIMELINESS, INSIGHT, ANALYTICAL RIGOR)
  63. 63. WEEKLY BLOGS USE ALIAS: (For example, “Dylan Eret” in today’s section would be “DYERB1”) (BLOG 1 DUE: FRI, AUG 26, 10:00am)
  64. 64. GRADES/ASSESSMENT http://engrade.com
  65. 65. ATTENDANCE POLICY
  66. 66. DROP OR WITHDRAWAL AFTER FOUR ABSENCES
  67. 67. YOU MUST LET ME KNOW BEFORE CLASS IF YOU NEED TO BE ABSENT.
  68. 68. GUIDING FRAMEWORKS
  69. 69. the basic structure underlying a system, concept, or text framework
  70. 70. 1. Religion is a cultural system. 2. Religion is best understood as a vernacular practice (as lived). Two propositions
  71. 71. BEFORE NEXT CLASS READ: Stephen Prothero, “Introduction” WATCH: Stephen Prothero on The Colbert Report
  72. 72. THE SACRED
  73. 73. Rediscovering the Sacred <ul><li>What really matters to us? </li></ul><ul><li>What practices are so important to us that we cannot live without them? </li></ul><ul><li>What is sacred ? </li></ul>
  74. 74. Opening Exercise <ul><li>How would you define “religion” ? </li></ul>
  75. 75. Opening Exercise <ul><li>Why do “religions” exist? </li></ul>
  76. 76. <ul><li>religion (etymology): </li></ul><ul><li>ORIGIN Middle English (originally in the sense [life under monastic vows] ): from Old French, or from Latin religio(n-) ‘obligation, bond, reverence,’ perhaps based on Latin religare </li></ul><ul><li>‘ to bind.’ </li></ul>
  77. 77. The “Reality” of Religion sacred profane gray area religion “ reality”
  78. 78. <ul><li>religion (etymology): </li></ul><ul><li>ORIGIN Middle English (originally in the sense [life under monastic vows] ): from Old French, or from Latin religio(n-) ‘obligation, bond, reverence,’ perhaps based on Latin religare </li></ul><ul><li>‘ to bind.’ </li></ul>
  79. 79. Definitions of Religion <ul><li>sacred vs. profane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>profane: ordinary elements of life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sacred: extraordinary elements of life; revered and awed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>religion as existential questioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>immortality; purpose in life </li></ul></ul><ul><li>religion as supernature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>beliefs about things outside of nature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Q: What is included or excluded in each </li></ul><ul><li>definition? </li></ul>
  80. 80. <ul><li>The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1912) </li></ul><ul><li>He identified the primary force of religion as the sacred. </li></ul>EMILE DURKHEIM: SOCIOLOGIST
  81. 81. <ul><li>The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1912) </li></ul><ul><li>The profane is made of “ordinary” events and experiences. </li></ul>EMILE DURKHEIM: SOCIOLOGIST
  82. 82. <ul><li>The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1912) </li></ul><ul><li>The sacred is set apart from and forbidden. </li></ul>EMILE DURKHEIM: SOCIOLOGIST
  83. 83. <ul><li>The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1912) </li></ul><ul><li>Religion is the expression of cohesion in human societies. </li></ul>EMILE DURKHEIM: SOCIOLOGIST
  84. 84. <ul><ul><ul><li>Collective Effervescence : </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>energy generated by gathering in groups </li></ul></ul></ul>EMILE DURKHEIM: SOCIOLOGIST
  85. 85. <ul><ul><ul><li>“ A society holds up symbols (or totems ) so that it can worship itself and propagate its value system.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Charles Kimball </li></ul></ul></ul>EMILE DURKHEIM: SOCIOLOGIST
  86. 86. <ul><li>Religious experience is characterized by human awareness of the sacred. </li></ul>MIRCEA ELIADE The Sacred and the Profane (1959)
  87. 87. <ul><li>Religious experiences are made of hierophanies (manifestions of the sacred) and theophanies (manifestations of God). </li></ul>MIRCEA ELIADE The Sacred and the Profane (1959)
  88. 88. Defining Religion <ul><li>Substantive or essentialist definitions characterize religion by some basic essence which is common to all religious systems, but not to any non-religious systems. They say what religion is: </li></ul>“ Belief in invisible superhuman power together with feelings and practices that flow from such a belief.”
  89. 89. Defining Religion <ul><li>Functionalist definitions focus on the way religion operates or functions in human life. They say what religion does : </li></ul>“ A set of beliefs and practices which serve to subordinate us to something superior or holy in order to justify the events that control our lives”
  90. 90. Definition <ul><li>r eligion : </li></ul><ul><li>a set of symbolic forms and acts that relate man to the ultimate conditions of his existence </li></ul><ul><li>- Robert Bellah </li></ul>
  91. 91. Definition <ul><li>r eligion : </li></ul><ul><li>(1) a system of symbols which acts to (2) establish powerful, pervasive, and long lasting moods and motivations in [people] by (3) formulating conceptions of a general order of existence and (4) clothing these conceptions with such an aura of factuality that the moods and motivations seem uniquely realistic. – Clifford Geertz </li></ul>
  92. 92. Alfred Schutz, “On Multiple Realties” (1945) <ul><li>finite provinces of meaning : </li></ul><ul><li>a turning away of attention from the “ paramount reality” of everyday life such as the world of work and striving: e.g., being awake, absorbed, theorizing, dream, fantasy, etc. </li></ul>
  93. 93. Religious Analogues <ul><li>Argument: Religious “realities” or experiences emerge from (or are a response to) the attitudes one takes on during everyday life activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Argument: The converse also holds: Everyday life, or ordinary events, when repeated in a meaningful manner, can resemble or become “religious” expressions of human experience. </li></ul>
  94. 94. Jerome Bruner <ul><li>Model of Human Development : </li></ul>
  95. 95. Three Modes of Representation <ul><li>Enactive : 0-18 months old </li></ul><ul><li>Iconic : 18 months - 6 years old </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic : 6-18 years old </li></ul>
  96. 96. Jerome Bruner <ul><li>Enactive : action-based representations </li></ul><ul><li>Iconic : image-based representations </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic : language-based representations </li></ul>
  97. 97. Thought Processes <ul><li>Enactive : learning by doing, motor skills, physical actions (e.g., tying a knot) </li></ul><ul><li>Iconic : thinking is based on mental images (iconic) based on different senses (e.g., creating shapes, images, patterns) </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic : information is stored through language and other objects of representation (e.g., music, mathematics, poetics, art) </li></ul>
  98. 98. Religious Analogues <ul><li>Argument: Religious experiences are forms of symbolic representation that attempt to meet the needs of individuals and groups during their psychosocial development. </li></ul><ul><li>In other words, religious experiences address the critical changes and transitions that occur during the human life-cycle through various forms of representation (body/ritual, image/art, story/order). </li></ul>
  99. 99. Mental/Bodily Processes <ul><li>Enactive : body/ritual </li></ul><ul><li>Iconic : art/image/play </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic : story/order </li></ul>
  100. 100. Religious Analogues <ul><li>Enactive : ritual, liturgy, sequential movement (kneeling, sitting, standing, spinning, meditating (e.g., lotus posture), prostration, dancing, rhythmic movement, eating, drinking, fasting), “unitive” experiences (self-other merging) </li></ul>
  101. 101. Religious Analogues <ul><li>Iconic : centered design, patterns, mandalas, ordered coherence, images; </li></ul><ul><li>self-other differentiation </li></ul>
  102. 102. Religious Analogues <ul><li>3. Symbolic : language, writing, music, mathematics, architecture, poetry, oratory, theology, law, moral codes, narrative, beliefs and values; self-development, integration with religious community, and differentiating self at the same time </li></ul>
  103. 103. Abraham Maslow <ul><li>Deficiency-cognition : food, water, security, sex, sleep, etc. (a “deficiency” of these basic needs leads to the urge to eliminate them) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Being-cognition : wholeness, perfection, completion, justice, aliveness, richness, simplicity, beauty, goodness, uniqueness, effortlessness, playfulness, truth, self-sufficiency (the state of “being” whole: the need to experience life “more fully” with purpose and meaning) </li></ul>
  104. 104. MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
  105. 105. World Religions <ul><li>Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>Hinduism </li></ul><ul><li>Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>Judaism </li></ul><ul><li>Size and influence on society </li></ul>
  106. 106. Seven Dimensions of the Sacred (Ninian Smart)
  107. 107. sacred: regarded with great respect or reverence by an individual or group
  108. 108. sacred: induces experiences of awe and wonder
  109. 109. wonder: a feeling of surprise mingled with admiration, caused by something beautiful, unexpected, unfamiliar, or inexplicable
  110. 110. <ul><li>SEVEN DIMENSION OF THE SACRED </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Ritual or Practical </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Doctrinal or Philosophical </li></ul><ul><li>(3) Mythic or Narrative </li></ul><ul><li>(4) Experiential or Emotional </li></ul><ul><li>(5) Ethical or Legal </li></ul><ul><li>(6) Organizational or Social </li></ul><ul><li>(7) Artistic or Material </li></ul>
  111. 111. <ul><li>Ritual or Practical </li></ul>Worship, meditation, pilgrimage, sacrifice rites, healing
  112. 112. <ul><li>Doctrinal or Philosophical </li></ul>fundamental beliefs and practices: e.g., impermanence, sin, nirvana, heaven, hell, etc.
  113. 113. <ul><li>belief: </li></ul><ul><li>a conviction or feeling that something is real or true </li></ul><ul><li>(2) intellectual assent to an idea </li></ul><ul><li>(3) mental acceptance of a proposition, statement, or fact as true, on the grounds of authority or evidence </li></ul>
  114. 114. <ul><li>Mythic or Narrative </li></ul>Stories, histories, traditions, “founding” myths, life, death, and resurrection, heroes and villains
  115. 115. <ul><li>Experiential or Emotional </li></ul>Enlightenment, redemption, visions, healing, holiness, health, conversion, redemption, quest
  116. 116. <ul><li>Ethical or Legal </li></ul>Legal codes, ethics, morals, virtues, taboos
  117. 117. <ul><li>Organizational or Social </li></ul>Religious specialists or authorities: gurus, lawyers, shamans, doctors, pastors, rabbis, imam, teachers, therapists, politicians, coaches, etc.
  118. 118. <ul><li>Artistic or Material </li></ul>Religious Sites: Churches, Chapels, Monasteries, Temples, etc.
  119. 119. Seven Dimensions of the Sacred: Examples
  120. 120. <ul><li>CHRISITIANITY (Orthodox/Classical after Constantine) </li></ul><ul><li>Ritual or Practical : Mass, Liturgy, Eucharist; ineffability of the Divine Being through re-enactment </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Doctrinal or Philosophical : fused together motifs from Jewish tradition and neo-Platonism (Plotinus and followers in the 3 rd and 4 th centuries B.C.); </li></ul><ul><li>(3) Mythic or Narrative : Egyptian mythology, Old and New Testament, Genesis, The Flood, The Last Supper </li></ul><ul><li>(4) Experiential or Emotional : Monasticism; devotional ritual, chanting </li></ul><ul><li>(5) Ethical or Legal : Ten Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>(6) Organizational or Social : priests, pastors </li></ul><ul><li>(7) Artistic or Material : monasteries, icons, churches </li></ul>
  121. 121. <ul><li>AMERICAN NATIONALISM </li></ul><ul><li>Ritual or Practical: Union, rebellion against British </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Doctrinal or Philosophical: democracy </li></ul><ul><li>(3) Mythic or Narrative: flag, wars, ceremonies, sports </li></ul><ul><li>(4) Experiential or Emotional: patriotism </li></ul><ul><li>(5) Ethical or Legal: Puritan ideals, values, legal system, Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>(6) Organizational or Social: military </li></ul><ul><li>(7) Artistic or Material: monuments, memorials </li></ul>

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