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Hum1 ritual-f11-online

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Hum1 ritual-f11-online

  1. 1. When Does a Child Become an Adult?: Rites of Passage Around the World
  2. 2. Group Activity  Explore how “rites of passage” are experienced by youth around the world  Analyze “rites of passage” as a dynamic process of personal and social change OBJECTIVES
  3. 3. Rituals a series of repeated actions or behaviors that are regularly followed by an individual or group
  4. 4. Rituals often agreed-upon, formalized patterns of movements carried out in particular contexts
  5. 5. Rituals employ powerful symbols and engage the body through multiple senses
  6. 6. Rites of Passage transitional periods that culturally mark a change from one stage of life to another
  7. 7. Rites of Passage life-cycle rituals: birth, childhood, coming-of-age, marriage, death
  8. 8. Rites of Passage (Examples) <ul><li>Religious rituals (formal and codified) : </li></ul><ul><li>bar/bat mitvah (Judaism), reconciliation, communion, confirmation (Catholicism), oral recitation of the Koran (Islam), monkhood (Buddhism), circumcision, samskaras (Hinduism), marriage, pilgrimage, festivals, carnivals, etc. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Rites of Passage (Examples) <ul><li>Secular rituals (informal and flexible) : </li></ul><ul><li>birthdays, anniversaries, getting a driver’s license, turning 16, 18, or 21 years old, dating, having sex, experimenting with drugs, getting a first job, graduating from school, getting married, participating in a job interview, etc. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Rites of Passage (Examples) <ul><li>Underground rituals (secretive and mysterious) : </li></ul><ul><li>initiation into clubs, fraternities, sororities, </li></ul><ul><li>secret societies, house parties, drug use, </li></ul><ul><li>hazing, fighting, tattooing, forced drinking, etc. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Rites of Passage (Structure) <ul><ul><ul><li>He viewed world religions (and notions of the sacred ) not as absolute entities or qualities, but as relative or sequential processes that dynamically shift in different situations and different ritual stages . </li></ul></ul></ul>Arnold van Gennep, Les rites de passage , 1909
  12. 12. Graduation Ceremony (San Diego City College, 2008) What happens during graduation? Why?
  13. 13. Young monks in training (Burma) What are the ages and genders of these participants? How are they dressed? How are their bodies positioned?
  14. 14. Bat mitvah (Judaism)
  15. 15. Navjote Ceremony (Parsi community, India)
  16. 16. Fulbe boys (northern Cameroon)
  17. 17. Peyote Ritual (Huichol)
  18. 18. Quinceañera (Mexico)
  19. 19. Papua New Guinea (Sepik River)
  20. 20. Samoan Gangs (Long Beach, CA)
  21. 21. Samoan Gangs (Long Beach, CA)
  22. 22. U.S. Marine recruits (“jarheads”)
  23. 23. Crossing the Equator (U.S. Navy)
  24. 24. CASE STUDY: Apache Girls (Sunrise Ceremony) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5B3Abpv0ysM
  25. 25. Questions <ul><li>How is the Apache ritual (Sunrise Ceremony) a rite of passage ? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the ritual behavior and symbolism of this rite of passage (using van Gennep or Lincoln’s model). </li></ul><ul><li>Describe at least three dimensions of religion expressed during this event. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Rites of Passage (Structure) <ul><ul><ul><li>I. Separation : leaving, stripping “old” identity, bodily marking, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transition : moving to a new space, subjecting initiates to physical challenges, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>III. Reincorporation : welcoming individuals into a new status, giving a new name or symbolic insignia, participating in a communal meal, etc . </li></ul></ul></ul>Arnold van Gennep, Les rites de passage , 1909
  27. 27. Rites of Passage (Structure) <ul><ul><ul><li>Enclosure : purification, safety, containment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Metamorphosis : gradual change and evolution, role-reversal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emergence : given new name, identity, recognition by community </li></ul></ul></ul>Bruce Lincoln, Emerging from the Chrysalis: Rituals of Women’s Initiations ,1991
  28. 28. Rites of Passage (Analysis) <ul><ul><ul><li>Collective Effervescence : energy generated by gathering in groups; “ god and society are one of the same…the god of the clan…can be none other than the clan itself, but the clan transfigured and imagined in the physical form of a plant or animal that serves as a totem” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sacred and Profane </li></ul></ul></ul>Emile Durkheim, Elementary Forms of Religious Life, 1912
  29. 29. Rites of Passage (Analysis) <ul><ul><ul><li>Liminality : an ambiguous state of being; “betwixt and between” normal states or conduct; in other words, rituals often allow for normal “rules” to be suspended or subverted </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communitas : feeling of tight solidarity and group unity </li></ul></ul></ul>Victor Turner, The Ritual Process ,1969
  30. 30. THINK Rumspringa ( Amish for “running around” ) highlights the cultural tension between joining a long-standing religious tradition based on family, community, work, and worship of God, and participating in the “English” world of sexuality, drugs, dating, and consumption.
  31. 31. WONDER How does this ritual follow van Gennep’s (or Lincoln’s) model of life-cycle rituals?
  32. 32. INQUIRE How does the ritual of Rumspringa express the confused and ambiguous states of mind and body that are often found in different adolescent rites of passage throughout the world?
  33. 33. DISCOVER What are the advantages and disadvantages of belonging to the “Amish” or “English” community?
  34. 34. CASE STUDY: Amish teens in Indiana ( Rumspringa ) VIDEO CLIP of Devil’s Playground (2002)
  35. 35. Rites of Passage (Further Questions) <ul><ul><ul><li>1.. What “rites of passage” do you recall as being most pivotal or “life-changing” to you? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. What were these experiences like? Describe in detail. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. How do these rites of passage fit either van Gennep’s or Lincoln’s model? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do we “need” rites of passage? Why or why not </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In what ways do rites of passage reinforce forms of religious belief? </li></ul></ul></ul>

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